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mm 


iilli^ 


TRANSACTIONS 


OF  THE 


AMERICAN 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


;^2i^ 


VOLUME  XLI 


Hall  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia 

LOGAN  square 

1915 


:^3AZ^^ 


LIST   OF   PAPERS 


BOWDITCH    (F.    C.) 

Notes  on  Some  South  American  Halticidae  .  .  487 

(Issued  October  16,  1915.) 

Fall  (H.  C.) 

A  Revision  of  the  North  American  Species  of  Pachy- 
brachys  ........   291 

(Issued  September  27,  1915.) 

Hebard  (Morgan) 

See  Rehn  and  Hebard. 

Merrill  (J.  H.) 

On  Some  Genera  of  the  Pimpline  Ichneumonidae  .    109 

(Issued  May  24,  1915.) 

Rehn  (James  A.  G.)  and  Hebard  (Morgan) 

Studies  in  American  Tettigoniidae  (Orthoptera).     IV. 

A  Synopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Orchelimum         .      11 

(Issued  April  12,  1915.) 

Studies  in  American  Tettigoniidae  (Orthoptera).  V. 
A  Synopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus 
found  in  North  America  North  of  Mexico  .  .    155 

(Issued  June  19,  1915.) 

Studies  in  American  Tettigoniidae  (Orthoptera).     VI. 
A  Synopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Conocephahis 
found  in  America  South  of  the  Southern  Border  of 
the  United  States  ......   225 

(Issued  July  14,  1915.) 
SCHAUS    (W.) 

New  Species  of  Heterocera  from  Tropical  America         .        1 
(Issued  February  20,  1915.) 

Wilson  (H.  F.) 

Miscellaneous  Aphid  Notes  Chiefly  from  Oregon    .  85 

(Issued  May  3,  1915.) 


INDEX 


The  names  of  new  genera  and  of  new  species  are  followed  by  the  name  of 
the  author. 


PAGE 

Abdominalis  (Pachybrachys) 

313,  353 

aberrans  (Xiphidium) 235 

acronyctoides  (Pucialia)  Schaus     4 
aeneipennis    (Metriotes)    Bow- 
ditch  506 

Afrida  polyglotta  Schaus 1 

sceletozona  Schaus 1 

agile  (Orchelimum) 24,  27,  29 

agilis  (Locusta) 15,  29 

aigialus  (Conocephalus)  Rehn 

and  Hebard 164,  202 

alacris  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  314,  366 

alaskensis  (Rhyssa) 142 

albiapicata  (Titya)  Schaus.  ...        6 

albomaculata  (Rhyssa) 142 

allardi  (Conocephalus) ....  161,  169 

allardi  (Xiphidion) 169 

alticola    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

321,442 
amabilis  (Chlorhoda)  Schaus .  .        3 
Amphorophora  subterrans  Wil- 
son        99 

analis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  309,  331 
Anarthropus  Rehn  and  Hebard 

159,165,216,226 
angustifrons   (Conocephalus) 

231,260 

angustifrons  (Xiphidium) 260 

Anisoptcra 155 

Apechoncura    (key    to    North 

American  species) 148 

carinifrons 149 

nigritarsis 1 42 

Aphauropus  Rehn  and   Hebard 

226, 234,  286 

Aphis  art emesicola 88,  95 

chrysothamni  Wilson 101 

frigichie 88,  95 


PAGE 

Aphis  hermistonii  Wilson ....  88,  93 

lithospermii  Wilson 100 

oregonensis  Wilson 88,  92 

reticulata  Wilson 88,  92 

trident  at  ae  Wilson 88,  94 

aphrodite  (Dii-phia)  Schaus. ...       9 
apicaHs     (Tetragonotes)    Bow- 
ditch  492 

apicatus     (Cerichrestis)     Bow- 
ditch  504 

aquilonis   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

315,  375,  480 
arizonensis  (Pachybrachys)  311,  344 

Aq:)ema  ScJiaus 5 

megalopia  Schaus 5 

arpi  (Repnoa)  Schaus 9 

artemesiae  (Chaitophorus) ....  90 
artemesiae  (Microsiphum) ...  88,  90 
artemesiae  (Nectarophora). .  .  .     97 

art  emesicola  (Aphis) 88,  95 

artemesicola  (Macrosiphum)  89,  96 
atomarius  (Pachybrachys) 

319,325,413,480 

atrata  (Ichneumon) 128 

atrata  (Megarhyssa) .  .  125, 126, 128 

attenuatum  (Xiphidium) 207 

attenuatus  (Conocephalus)  165,  207 
autolycus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

322, 458 

Radius  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  318,  404 
bajulus  (Pachybrachys)  .  .  .318,  408 

barbara  (Pharga)  Schaus 5 

bituberculatum  (Xiphidium).  .  13 
bivit  t a1  us  (Pachybrachys) 

322, 447,  480 
blerura  (Misogada)  Schaus.  ...  6 
bolivianus  (HomotjTshus)  Bou- 

ditch 496 


VI 


INDEX 


bolivianus  (Loxoprosopus)  Boic- 

ditch 499 

borelli  (Conocephalus). .  .  .233,  278 

borelli  (Xiphidium) 278 

brachypterum  (Xiphidium) .  .  .   269 
bradleyi     (Orchelinium)     Rehn 

and  Hebard 26, 73 

brevicoUis  (Pachybrachys)  .317,  393 
brevicornis    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 320,380 

brevipenne  (Xiphidion) 212 

brevipenne  (Xiphidium) .  .  .  177,  216 
brevipemiis  (Conocephalus) 

162, 182,  202 
brevipennis  (Xiphidium). .  .  182,  212 
brachii  (Rhinotmetus)  Bowditch  490 

bruneri  (Orchclimum) 72 

brunneus  (Pachybrachys) ..  309,  335 
bullatum    (Orchelimum)    Rehn 

and  Hehard 25,27,50 

bullatus    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

313,  361,  480 
bumehae  (Prociphilus) 85 

Caelatus  (Pachybrachys) 

313,  317,  392 

caizanum  (Xiphidium) 235 

calcaratum  (Orchelimiun)  Rehn 

and  Hehard 24,27,46 

calcaratus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

316, 389 
calidus   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

315,  379,  480 
californicus   (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 316,325,437 

campestre  (OrcheUmum) 60 

camurum  (Xiphidium) 191 

canadensis  (Cryptosiphum) ...  90 
canadensis  (Microsiphum) .  .  .88,  90 
canadensis  (Megarhyssa) 

125, 126, 129 

canadensis  (Rhyssa) 129 

carbonarius  (Pachybrachys) 

325,  461,  480 

carinifrons  (Apechoneura) 149 

carinifrons  (Rhyssa) 149 

carinipcnnis  (Tctragonotes) 

Bowditch 493 


carolinensis  (Pachybrachys)  319,  425 

caudatum  (Xiphidium) 191 

cephalicus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

319, 418 
Cerichrestis  apicatus  Bowditch .  504 

curvilinea  Bowditch 505 

jacobyi  Bowditch 505 

chacoensis     (Metriotes)    Bow- 
ditch    507 

Chaitophorus  artemesiae 90 

tridentatae  Wilson 88,  89 

chaoticus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

314, 367 
characteristicus  (Pachybrachys) 

315,375 
Chlorhoda  amabilis  Schaus. ...  3 
chrysothamni  (Aphis)  Wilson..  101 
cinereus  (Conocephalus) .  .  .  230,  243 
circumcmctus    (Pachybrachys) 

322, 449 
Claphe  semif  unebris  Schaus ...        7 
clarkii     (Loxoprosopus)     Bow- 
ditch     500 

clavator  (Ichneumon) 125 

clavatus  (Megarhyssa) 125 

coloradensis    (Pachybrachys) 

312, 350 
concinnum  (OrcheUmum) .  25,  27,  60 
confederatus     (Pachybrachj's) 

Fall 316,387 

conformis  (Pachybrachys).  .319,  427 
confusus    (Pachybrachys) 

316, 325,  468, 480 
connexus   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

309, 328 
Conocephalus ....  155, 159,  225, 226 

(key  to  subgenera) 226 

(key  to    North  American 

subgenera) 158 

(key  to   North   American 

species) 161 

(key  to  species  of  South 

and  Central  America) .  .  229 
aigiakis  Rehn  and  Hebard 

164, 202 

allardi 161,169 

angustifrons 231, 260 

attenuatus 165, 207 


INDEX 


Vll 


Conocephalus  borelli 233,278 

brevipennis 162, 182, 202 

cinereus 230, 243 

conocephalus 155 

ensiferus 199 

equatorialis 232,  266 

fasciatus 162, 170, 230,  248 

graciUimus 162, 180 

hemipterus 155 

hygrophilus  Rehn  and  Heb- 

ard 164, 197 

ictus 231,250 

insularis 231,  256 

iriodes  Rehn  and    Hebard 

231,  258 
leptopterus  Rehn  and  Heb- 
ard   234,287 

longipes 229,240 

nemoralis 163,  189 

nigropleuroides 165,  210 

nigropleurum 164,  205 

occidentalis 163,  191 

ochrotelus  Rehn  and  Heb- 
ard  233,283 

recticaudus 264 

resacensis  Rehn  and   Heb- 
ard   163,  188,  232 

saltans 165,  216 

saltator 232,269 

spartinae 165,  212 

spinosus 162,  180,  230,  254 

stictomenis  Reh7i  and  Heb- 
ard   164, 199 

strictoides 233,285 

strictus 163, 193,  231 

truncatus 233,280 

unicolor 232,264 

versicolor 233,281 

vicinus 162, 177, 230 

vitticolUs 229,242 

conocephalus  (Conocephahis) . .  155 

conocephalus  (Locusta) 155 

consiniilis  (Pachybrachys)  F(dl 

322, 450 
conspirator       (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,321,445 

contract  if  rons    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,365 


convictus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

311,  315,  344 

coweni  (Nectarophora) 97 

crassus      (IIomotjT)hus)     Bow- 
ditch  496 

crassus  (Pachybrachys). .  .  .311,  358 

crevieri  (Epu'hyssa) 142 

croftus  (Pachybrachys)..  .  .320,433 
cruentus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  324,  475 

cruscukmi  (Orchelinium) 68 

Crj'ptocentrum  lineolat  um ....    142 

Ciyptocephakis 300 

Cryptosiphum  canadensis 90 

curtipenne  (Xiphidium) 189 

ciu*vilinea    (Corichrestis)   Bow- 
ditch  505 

cuticulare  (Orchelimum) 

12,  16,  19,  34, 58 

cuticulare  (Xiphidium) 46 

cyanipennis        (Loxoprosopus) 

Bowditch 500 

cyanipennis    (Zeteticus)    Bow- 
ditch  501 

cylindricus  (Pachybrachys)  316,  390 

Delicatum  (Orchelimum) 60 

delumbis    (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

318,407 
densus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  .  .311,  339 
desertus    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

309, 332 
Dicellura  Relm  and    Hebard 

158, 161, 169,  226 
difficilis     (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

323,324,459 
dilatatus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  324,  475 

Dirphia  aphrodite  Schaus 9 

discoideus  (Pachybrachys)  .324,  473 
diversus    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

313,355 
dixianus    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

319,419 
donneri  (Pachybrachys)  .  .  .310,  334 

doryphonnn  (Xiphidion) 235 

dubiosus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  323,  452 
duryi  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  .316.  385 

Ensifer  (Xiphidium) 182,  193 


Vlll 


INDEX 


ensiferum  (Xiphidium)177,  180,  182 

ensiferus  (Conocephalus) 199 

ephippium   (Phylacticus)  Boio- 

ditch 494 

Epirhyssa 140 

crevieri 142 

mexicana 131 

equatoriale  (Xiphidium)   266 

equatorialis  (Conocephalus) 

232, 266 
erythrocephalum(Orchelimum)  34 
eubleptica  (Pseudocraspedia) 

Schaus 3 

Eutelia  inconstrictrLx  Schaus.  .  4 
exitiosum  (Xiphidium) 235 

Fasciata  (Locusta) 170,  248 

fascial um  (Xiphidium) 177 

fasciatus     (Conocephalus) 

162, 170, 230, 248 
femoratus  (Pachybrachys) 

315,  374,  480 

festae  (Xiphidium) 281 

festivus     (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

315, 470 
fidicinium  (Orchehmum)   25,  27,  68 
flaveola    (Loxoprosopus)    Bow- 
ditch  499 

flavicomis  (Pachybrachys) ....  440 
fortis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  315,  373 
foveolatus  (Ptinomorpha)  Bow- 
ditch  509 

fractus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  320,  430 
fratemum  (Orchelimum)  Rehn 

and  Hebard 26,79 

fraxini-dipetalae  (Prociphilus) .  85 
friburga  (Malocampa)  Schaus .  6 
friburgensis     (Micrattacus) 

Schaus 8 

frigidae  (Aphis) 88,95 

frigidae  (Macrosiphum) 89 

frigidae  (Siphonaphora) 97 

fuscipes    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

318,  410 

Gagates  (Pachybrachys)  Fall .  .  438 
gagatinus  (Pachybrachys) ....  325 
glaberimum  (Orchelimum) ...  12,  19 


glaberrimum  (Orchelimum) 

16,  24,  27,  34,  76 
gladiator  (OrcheUmum). .  .24, 26, 44 

glaucum  (Orchelimum) 16,  29 

gorgas  (Ocha)  Schaus 7 

gossypii  (Xiphidium) 182 

gracile  (Orchelunum) .  ...  15,  60, 170 
gracilipes  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

316, 386 

gracillimum  (Xiphidium) 180 

graciUimus  (Conocephalus)  162,  180 

gracilinum  (Xiphidium) 60 

grandirena     (Hemicephalis) 

Schaus 4 

greenei  (Megarhyssa) 126, 136 

Griburius 300 

Haematodes  (Pachybrachys) 

309, 326 
Hapolotrius  parvulus  Bowditch  504 

plagiatus  Bowditch 503 

roseiihergii  Bowditch 504 

haroldi     (Tetragonotes)     Bow- 
ditch    492 

HemicephaUs  grandirena  Schaus  4 
hemipterus  (Conocephalus) .  .  .  155 
hepaticus  (Pachybrachys).  .326,  476 
herbaceum  (Orchelimum) ....  16,  68 
hermistonii  (Aphis)  Wilson.  .  .88,  93 
heteroderus    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 478 

histrio  (Thalessa) 152 

homogramma     (Lycaugesia) 

Schaus 3 

Homotyphus 487 

bolivianus  Bowditch 496 

crassus  Bowditch 496 

uidipennis  Bowditch 495 

rosenbergii  Bowditch 495 

spinipemiis  Bowditch 497 

humida  (Megarhyssa) 125, 126 

humida  (Pimpla) 126 

humida  (Rhyssa) 126 

hybridus  (Pachybrachys) 

324, 472, 480 
hygrophilus    (Conocephalus) 

Rehn  and  Hebard. .  .  164,  197 
Ilylcsia  multii)lex  Schaus ....         8 


INDEX 


IX 


Ichneumon  atrata 128 

clavator 125 

lunator 133 

persuasorius 140,  142 

ictum  (Xiphidium) 250 

ictus  (Conocephalus) 231,  250 

iUectus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall  314, 370 
immaculatus  (Pachybrachys) 

311,  339 
i  m  p  e  r f e ctus    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 323,454 

impurus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  .  315,  377 
mcoastrictrLx  (Eutelia)  Schaus .       4 

indiancnsc  (OrcheUmum) 60 

inernie  (Orchelimum) 17 

inerme  (Xiphidium) 60 

insidiosus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

320,  340 
iustabilis    (Pachybrachys)   Fall 

321,324,471 
insularis  (Conocephalus)..  .231,  256 
integratus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

309, 327 
iridipennis  (Homotyphus)  Bow- 
ditch  495 

iriodes     (Conocephalus)     Rehn 

and  Hebard 231 

Jacobyi  (Cerichrestis)  Bowditch  505 
jacobyi    (Loxoprosopus)    Bow- 
ditch  498 

jacobyi  (Pachybrachys). .  .  .311,  337 
jacobyi     (Rhinotmetus)     Bow- 
ditch  489 

janus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall ....   462 

Lachnus  laricifoliae  Wilson.  .  .    102 

orcgonensis  Wihoii 103 

parvus  Wilson 104 

rul)icundus  Wilsoji 104 

lachrymosus    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 325,417 

laevis  (Pachybrachys) 321,  443 

lanceolatum  (Xiphidium) 207 

laricifoliae  (Lachnus)  Wilson.  .    102 
lateralis  (Metriotes)  Bowditch .   507 
lateralis     (Octogonotus)    Bow- 
ditch     502 


laticauda   (Orchelimum) 

17,  18,  25,  27,  53 

laticauda  (Xiphidium) 53 

laticollis  (Pachybrachys). .  .316,  384 
leptopterus    (Conocephalus) 

Rehn  and  Hebard 287 

Uebecki     (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

311,447 
lineolatum  (Cryptocentrum) .  .    142 

Lissonotini 124 

lithospermii  (Aphis)  Wilson .  .  .  100 
litigiosus  (Pachybrachys).  .322,  450 
livens  (Pachybrachys)  312,  347,  480 

Locusta  agilis 15,  29 

conocephalus 155 

fasciata 170,  248 

vitticollis 242 

lodingi  (Pachybrachys) .  .  .  ,311,  345 
longimacula     (Robinsonia) 

Schaus 2 

longipenne  (Orchelimum) 50 

longipennis  (Orchelimum) 60 

longipes  (Conocephalus) .  .  .229,  240 

longipes  (Xi])hidium) 240 

longus  (Pachybrachys) 260,  312 

Loxoprosopus  bolivianus  Bow- 
ditch    499 

clarkii  Bowditch 500 

cyanipennisi?o«Y7z7c/; 500 

flaveola  Bowditch 499 

jacobyi  BowdUch 498 

luctuosus  (Pachybrachys). 319,  425 
ludovicianae  (Macrosiphum)  .89,  98 

lunator  (Ichneumon) 133 

lunator  (Megarhyssa) 126,  133 

luridus  (Pachybrachys) 

325,  469,  480 
lustrans  (Pachybrachys) 

321,  325,  436,  4S0 
Lycaugesia     homogramnui 

Scha  us 3 

Macro.si])hum  artemesicola.  .  .89,  96 

frigidae 89 

ludovicianae 89,  98 

mentzeliac  Wilson 99 

pteridis  Wilson 101 

Malocampa  friburga  Schaus ...       6 


INDEX 


manitobense    (Orchelimum) . .  . .     44 
marginatus      (Metriotes)    Boxo- 

ditch 508 

marginatus   (Pachybrachys) 

324,  474 
marginatus     (Rhinotmetus) 

Bowditch 489 

marginipennis    (Pachybrachys) 

311,341 
marmoratus  (Pachybrachys) 

309, 333 
megalopia  (Arpema)  Schaus ...       5 

Megarhyssa 125 

(table  to  North  American 

species) 125 

atrata 125,126,128 

canadensis 125, 126,  129 

clavatus 125 

greenei 126,  136 

humida 125,126 

lunator 126,133 

mexicana 125,  131 

nitida 126,137 

nortonii 12G,  131 

superbus 125 

melanostictus     (Pachybrachys) 

317, 397,  480 
mellitus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  .310,  336 
mentzeUae  (Macrosiphum)  Wil- 
son       99 

mercurialis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

311,312,347 
meridionale  (Xiphidium)..  .269,285 
Metarhoptrum  Rehn  and  Heb- 

ard 19,  21 

Metriotes  aeneipennisJ5owdi<c/i.  508 

chacoensis  Bowditch 507 

laterahs  Bowditch 507 

marginatus  Bowditch 508 

sericeus  Bowditch 508 

mexicana  (Epirhyssa) 131 

mexicana  (Megarhyssa) .  .  .  125,  131 

mexicanum  (Xiphidium) 250 

M  icrattacus  f  riburgensis  Schaus      8 
microps    (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

326,  478 

Microsiphum  artemesiae 88,  90 

canadensis 88,  90 


Microsiphum  oregonensis  Wil- 
son  88,91 

mihtare  (Orchehmimi). .  .  .25,  26,  70 
minerva  (Pseudahs)  Schaus. . .         2 

minor  (Orchehmum) 25,  27,  58 

minor  (Pachybrachys) 312,  351 

Misogada  blerura  Schaus 6 

mitis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall. 312,  349 
m-nignim  (Pachybrachys) 

319,  465,  480 
mobiUs  (Pachybrachys)  FoZZ  318,  406 

molossum  (Orchehmum) 29 

multiplex  (Hylesia)  Schaus ....       8 

Nectarophora  artemesiae 97 

coweni 97 

nemorale  (Xiphidion) 189,  212 

nemoralis  (Conocephalus)  .  163,  189 

Neoxiphidion 170 

nero  (Pachybrachys) 312,  352 

nigranalis  (Prumala)  Schaus. .  .       2 

nigrinus  (Pachybrachys) 470 

nigricornis  (Pachybrachys)  324,  460 
nigripes  (Orchelimum). .  .  .25,  27,  56 

nigritarsis  (Apechoneura) 142 

nigritarsis    (Rhyssa) 142 

nigropleura  (Xiphidium) 205 

nigropleuroides  (Conocephalus) 

165,210 
nigropleuroides  (Xiphidium) .  .  210 
nigropleurum  (Conocephalus) 

164,  205 
nigropleurum  (Xiphidion) .  202,  210 
nigropleurum  (Xiphidium) ....  205 

nitida  (Megarhyssa) 126,  137 

nitida  (Rhyssa) 137 

nitidum  (Orchelimmn) 17,  18 

nitidum  (Xiphidium) 29 

nobilis    (Pachybrachj's)  Fall 

318,  409,  480 
nogalicus   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

320, 432 

nortonii  (Megarhyssa) 126, 131 

nortonii(  Rhyssa) 131 

nortonii  (Thalessa) 131 

notatus  (Pachybrach3^s) .  .  .317,391 
nubigenus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

317, 394 


INDEX 


XI 


nubilus   (Pachybrachys) 

312,  316,  444 
nunenmacheri    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,372 

Obfuscatus  (Pachybrachj^s)  Fall 

319,416 
obsoletus    (Pachybrachys) 

320, 440,  480 

occidentale  (Xiphidmm) 191 

occidentaHs  (Conocephalus)163,  191 

Ocha  gorgas  Schaus 7 

ochreata  (Trochuda)  Schaus. .  .       7 

ochrida  (Prumala)  Schaus 2 

ochrotelus  (Conocephalus)  Rehn 

and  Hebard 233,283 

Octogonotus  later alis  Bo  wditch .    502 

plagiatus  Bowditch 501 

similis  Bowditch 502 

Omototus 487 

Opeastyliis  Rchn  and  Hebard 

226, 229,  239 

OrcheUmiim 12 

(key  to  species) 24 

agile 24,27,29 

bradleyi  Rchn  and  Hebard 

20,  73 

bruneri 72 

bullatum  Rehn  and  Hebard 

25,  27,  50 
calcaratum  Rehn  and  Heb- 
ard  24,27,46 

campestre 60 

concinnum 25,  27,  60 

crusculum 68 

cuticulare 12,  16,  19,  34,  58 

dehcatum 60 

erj'throcephakim 34 

fidicinium 25,  27,  08 

fratemum  Rehn  and   Heb- 
ard   2(),  79 

glabcMTimum 

12,  16,  19,  24,  27,  34,  76 

glaucum 16,  29 

gladiator 24,  26,  44 

gracile 15,  60,  170 

herbaceum 16,  68 

indiancnse 60 


Orchelimum  inerme 17 

laticauda 17,  18,  25,  27,  53 

longipennis 60 

longipenne 50 

manitobense 44 

militare 25,  26,  70 

minor 25,  27,  58 

molossum 29 

nigripes 25,  27,  56 

nitidum 17,  18 

ortoni 243 

pulchellum 53 

robustum 17 

senegalensc 13 

silvaticum 29 

spinulosum 17,  18 

superbum  Rehn  and   Heb- 
ard  25,26,76 

unispina 25,  81 

vahdum 17 

volantum 19,26,72,73 

vulgare 24,27,38 

oregonensis  (Aphis)  Wilson ...  88,  92 
oregonensis  (Lachnus)  Wilson.   103 
oregonensis  (Microsiphuni)  Wil- 
son   88,  91 

ortoni  (OrcheUmum) 243 

osceola  (Pachybrachys)  Fam\<d,  428 
othonus  (Pachybrach3^s) 

322, 456,  480 

Pachj'brachys 300 

(key  to   North   American 

species) 308 

abdominahs 313,  353 

alacrisFoW 314,366 

2i\iico\a.  Fall 321,442 

analisFa/Z 309,331 

aqiiilonisFaM. .  .  .315,  375,  480 

arizonensis 311,  344 

atomarius 319,  325,  413,  480 

autolycus  T^aH 322,  458 

badiusfV/« 318,404 

bajulus 318,408 

bivittatus 322,  447,  480 

brevicoUis 317,  393 

brevicornis  Fall 320,  380 

brunneus 309,  335 


xu 


INDEX 


Pachybrachys  buUatus  Fall 

313,  361,  480 

calcaTRtus  Fall 316,  389 

calidus  Fall 315,  379,  480 

caXiiormcus  Fall.  .Sm,  325,  437 

carbonarius 325,  461,  480 

carolinensis 319,  425 

caelatus 313,317,392 

cephalicus /^aH 319,  418 

chaoticus  Fall 314,  367 

characteristicus 315,  375 

circumcinctus 322,  449 

coloradensis 312,  350 

confederatus  Fa« 316,  387 

conformis 319,  427 

confusus 316,  325,  468,  480 

connexus  Fall 309,328 

consimilis /^rtM 322,  45C 

conspirator  Fa«. .  .312,  321,  445 
contractifrons  FoH .  .  .  .314,365 

convictus  Fall 311,  315,  344 

crassus 311,  358 

cruentus 324,  475 

croftus 320,433 

cylindricus 316,  390 

delumbisFflH 318,407 

densus 311,  339 

desertus  Fall 309,332 

difficilis  Fall 323,  324,  459 

dilatatus 324,475 

discoideus 324,473 

diversus  Fall 313,  355 

dixianusFaH 319,419 

donneri 310,334 

dubiosus 323,452 

duryiFall 316,385 

femoratus 315,  374,  480 

iestivus  Fall 315,470 

flavicornis 440 

iortis  Fall 315,373 

fractus  Fall 320,  430 

iuscipes  Fall 318,410 

gagates  Fall 438 

■  gagatiniis 325 

gracilipos /^'aZZ 316,  386 

hacmat odes 309,  326 

hejmt  icus 326,  476 

hetcrodcrus  Fall 478 


Pachybrachys  hybridus324, 472 

illectus  fViZZ 314 

immaculatiis 311 

imperfect  us  Fall 323 

impurus 315 

insidiosus  f'oZZ 320 

instabiUs  F«ZZ 321,324 

integratus  Fall 309 

jacobyi 311 

janus  Fall 

lachrymosus  i^aZZ 325 

laevis 321 

laticollis 316 

liebecki  FaZZ 311 

litigiosus 322 

hvens 312,347 

lodingi 311 

longus 312 

kictuosus 319 

luridus 325,469 

lustrans 321,325,436 

marginatus 324 

marginipemiis 311 

marmoratus 309 

melanostictus .  .  .  .317,  397 

mellitus 310 

mercurialis  FoZZ. .  .311,  31 

microps  Fall 326 

mitis  FaZZ 312 

mobilis /'>;ZZ 318 

minor 312 

m-nigrum 319,  465 

noro 312 

nigricornis 324 

nigrinus 

nobihs  FaZZ 318,409 

nogalicus  Fall 320 

notatus 317 

nubigenus  f  aZZ 317 

nubilus 312,316 

nunenmacheri  FrtZZ .  .  .  .314 

obf  uscatus  FffZZ 319 

obsoletus 320,440 

osceola  FaZZ 319 

ot  lionus 322,  456 

l)allidiponnis 310 

parvinot  at  us  FaZZ 312 

parvus  F<ill 319 


INDEX 


Xlll 


Pachybrachys  pawnee  Fall .  322,  453 

peccans 317,398,480 

pectoralis 314,  363 

peltatusFaH 314,367 

peninsularis  Fall 314,  368 

petronius  Fall 312,  352 

picturatus 323,  4G3 

pinguescons  Fall .  .  317,  325,  438 

placidus  Fall 311,  346 

pluripunctatusFaZL .  .  .318,408 

post fasciat  VIS  Fa« 317,402 

praeclarus 324,  457 

precarius  Fall 320,  431,  480 

prosopis/^aM 315,  381,  480 

proximus 314,  371 

pubescens 309,  326 

pulviiiatus 323,  467 

punctatus 311,  315,  342 

punicusFaZ; 317,396 

purgatus  Fall 318,  411,  480 

\)m\xsFall 310,336 

pusillus 313,  357 

quadratus /^«ZZ 318,  405 

quadri-oculatus  Fall .  .  .320,  429 

relictusFflH 319,424 

rohovi^  Fall 319,  420,  480 

sanguineus  Fall 324,  474 

sanrita 318,412 

Shasta 311,315,342 

signatifrons 317,  325,  400 

signatus 318,401 

snowi 316,  383 

sobrinus 314,  364,  480 

sonorensis 320,  434 

spumarius 319,  422 

subfasciatus 324,  376,  480 

sublimatusFflZZ.  .  .311,  322,  449 

subvittatus 321,  446 

stygicus  Fall 325,  416 

imiiVLsFall 321,353 

te.xanus 314,  362,  481 

thoracicus  Fall 309,  330 

tridens 320,439,481 

trinotatus 323,  466,  481 

truncatus 320,  321,  430 

turbidus 316,383 

turgi(licollisF«/Z 314,  369 

tybeensis  Fall 316,  388 


Pachybrachys  umbraculatus 

323,  454 

umbrosus  Fall 325,  379 

uncinatus /^a7Z 314,  363 

uteanus  Fall 310,  335 

vacillatus  Fall 317,  403 

varians 319,426 

varicolor.  .  .  .321,  324,  435,  481 

vau  Fall 322,  453 

vestigialis  Fall 319,  325,  415 

viduatus 322,464 

\ig\\sinsFall 309,  329 

vii-gatus 323,451 

vulnerosus  Fall 324,  471 

wahsatchensis  FoZZ  323, 324,  459 

wenzeliFaW 315,  325,  382 

wickliami  Fall 309,  330 

xanti 309,333 

xantliias 311,  378 

xantholucens  i^oZZ 312,  337 

pallidipennis    (Pachybrachj^s) 

310,  455 

Palotta 155,  158,  226 

Panchi-estus  prasinusJSo  wr/iZc/i .    498 

Pararhyssa 140 

partalba  (Trochuda)  Schmis.  .  .  8 
parvinotatus   (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,348 

parvuhis     (Hapolotrius)    Bow- 
ditch  504 

parvus  (Lachnus)  Wilson 104 

parvus  (Pachybrachys)  FaW  319,  419 
pawnee  (Pachybrachys)  FaW  322,  452 
peccans  (Pachybrachys) 

317, 398,  480 
pectoraHs      (Pachybrachys) 

314, 363 
peltatus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

314,  367 
peninsularis    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,368 

Perissacanthus  Refin  and  Heh- 

ard 226,  233,  284 

persuasorius  (Ichneumon)..  140, 142 

persuasoria  (Rhyssa) 141, 142 

petronius   (Pachybrachj'-s)  Fall 

312, 352 
Pharga  barbara  Schaus 5 


XIV 


INDEX 


Phylacticus     ephippium    Boiv- 

ditch 494 

Physimerus  spinosus  Bowditch .  493 
picturatus  (Pachybrachys) .  323,  463 
pinguescens    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 317,325,438 

Pimpla  humida 126 

Pimplinae  (key  to  tribes) 124 

Pimphni 123 

(key  to  certain  genera) .  .  .    124 
placidus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

311,346 
plagiatus  (Hapolotrius)fiotydite/i  503 
plagiatus    (Octogonotus)  Bow- 
ditch  501 

pluripunctatus  (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 318,408 

polyglotta  (Afrida)  Schaus ....  1 
postfasciatus   (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 317,402 

praeclarus  (Pachybrachys) 

324,  457, 480 
prasinus     (Panchrestus)    Bow- 
ditch  498 

precarius   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

320, 431 

Prociphikis  bumeHae 85 

fraxini-dipetalae 85 

venafuscus 85 

productum  (Xiphidium) 177 

propinquum  (Xiphidium) 269 

prosopis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

315,381,480 
proximus  (Pachybrachys).. 314,  371 
Prumala  nigranahs  Schaus.  ...       2 

ochrida  Schaus 2 

PseudaUsminerva*Sc/?«M,s 2 

Pseudocraspedia     eubleptica 

Schaus 3 

Pseudorhyssa  Wilson. .  124,  125,  150 

stemata  Wilson 150 

pteridis  (Macrosiphum)  Wilson  101 
Ptinomorpha  foveolatus  Bow- 
ditch  509 

pubescens  (Pachybrachys)  309,  326 
Pucialia  acronyct  oidcs  Schaus. .  4 
pulclielluni  (Orchehiiiuni) ....      53 


purgatus    (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

318,  411, 480 

pulvinatus  (Pachybrachys). 323,  467 

pnnctatus  (Pachybrachys) 

311,  315,  342 

punicus     (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

317, 396 

purus  (Pachybrachys) FaH.. 3 10,  336 

pusillus  (Pachybrachys).  .  .313,357 

Quadratus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

318,  405 
quadri-oculatus  (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 320,  429 

quebecensis  (Thalessa) 131 

Recticaudus  (Conocephalus) .  .    264 
reUctus     (Pachybrachys)    Fall 

319,  424 

Repnoa  arpi  Schaus 9 

resacensis  (Conocephahis)  Rehn 

and  Hebard...im,  188,  232 

resinum  (Xiphidium) 235 

reticulata  (Aphis)  Wilson ....  88,  92 
Rhinotmetus  bruchii  Bowditch  .   490 

jacobyi  Bowditch 489 

marginatus  Bowditch 489 

simihs  Bowditch 488 

trifasciata  Bowditch 488 

Rhyssa 125,140 

(key  to  species) 141 

alaskensis 142 

albomaculata 142 

canadensis 129 

carinifrons 149 

humida 126 

nigritarsis 142 

nitida 137 

nortonii 131 

persuasoria 141,  142 

skinneri 141 

terminalis 148 

Robinsonia  longimacula  Schaus      2 
roboris   (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

319,  420,  480 

robustum  (OrchoHinuni) 17 

robustum  (Xiphidium) 56 


INDEX 


XV 


rosenbergii  (Tetragonotes)  Bow- 
ditch  490 

rosenbergii  (Hapolotrius)  Boiv- 

ditch 504 

rosenbergii  (Homotyphus)5ou;- 

dilch 495 

rubicundus  (Lachnus)  Wilson..   104 

Saltans  (Conocephalus). .  .  .165,216 

saltans  (Xipliidium) 216 

saltator  (Conocephalus). .  .  .232,  269 

saltator  (Xiphidium) 269 

sanguineus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

324, 474 
sani'ita  (Pachybrachys) .  .  .  .318,  412 
sceletozona  (Afrida)  Schaus.  .  .        1 

scudderi  (Xiphidium) 207 

semifunebris  (Claphe)  Schaus.  7 
senegalense  (Orchelimum) ....  13 
senegalense  (Thyi-idorhoptrum)  13 
sericeus  (Metriotes)Bo»'c/i7c/i.  .  508 
sericeus  (Tetragonotes)  Bow- 
ditch  491 

Shasta  (Pachybrachys)  311,  315,  343 
signatifrons    (Pachybrachys) 

317,  325,  400 
signatus  (Pachybrachys)..  .318,401 
similis  (Octogonotus)  Boivditch  502 
similis  (Rhinotmetus)  Bowditch  488 
similissima  (Vespola)  Schaus. . .       3 

Siphonaphora  frigidae 97 

silvaticum  (Orchelimum) 29 

skinneri  (Rhyssa) 141 

snowi  (Pachybrachys) 316,  383 

sobrinus  (Pachybrachys) 

314,  364,  480 
sonorensis  (Pachybrachys) .  320,  434 
spartinae  (Conocephalus) .  .  165,  212 

spartinae  (Xiphidium) 212 

spinipennis  (Homotyphus)  Bow- 

dilch 497 

spinosus  (Conocephalus) 

162, 180,  230,  254 

spinosus  (Xiphidium) 254 

spinulosum  (Orchelimum). ...  17,  18 

spinulosum  (Xiphidium) 29 

spinosus  (Physimerus)  Bowditch  493 
spinosus  (Xiphidium) 180 


spumarius  (Pachybrachys)  .319,  422 
Stenorhoptrum  Rehn  and  Heb- 

ard 19,  21 

sternata  (Pseudorhyssa)  Wilson  150 
stictomerus     (Conocephalus) 

Rehn  and  Hebard. .  .  164,  199 
strictoidcs  (Conocephalus) .  233,  285 

strictoides  (Xiphidium) 285 

strictus  (Conocephalus)  163, 193, 231 

strictum  (Xiphidium) 193 

stygicus     (Pachybrach3^s)    Fall 

325,  416 
subfasciatus  (Pachybrachys) 

324,  376,  480 
sublimatus    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 311,322,449 

subterrans     (Amphorophora) 

Wilson 99 

subvittatus  (Pachybrachys)  321,  446 
superbum   (Orchelimum)   Rehn 

and  Hebard 25,  26,  76 

superbus  (Megarhyssa) 125 

Tacitus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

312, 353 

terminalis  (Rhyssa) 148 

Tetragonotes  SLpicalis Boivditch .   492 

csLvimpenms  Bowditch 493 

haroldi  Bowditch 492 

rosenbergii  Bowditch 490 

sericeus  Bowditch 491 

truncatipennisi?0M;di7c/i. .  .  493 
texanus  (Pachybrachys) . 

314,  362,  481 

Thalessa  histrio 125,  152 

nortonii 131 

quebecensis 131 

Thecoxiphidion 170 

thoracicus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

309,  330 
Thyridorhoptrum     Rehn     snd 

Hebard 13 

senegalense 13 

Titya  albiapicata  (Sc/i«ws 6 

tridcns  (Pachybrachys)  320,  439,  481 
tridentatae  (Aphis)  Wilson ...  88,  94 
tridentatae     (Chaitophorus) 

Wilson 88,89 


XVI 


INDEX 


trifasciata  (Rhinotmetus)  Bow- 

diich 488 

trinotatus  (Pachybrachys) 

323,  466,  481 
Trochuda  ochrcata  Schaus ....       7 

partalba  Schaus 8 

truncatipennis     (Tetragonotes) 

Boivditch 493 

truncatum  (Xiphidium) 280 

truncatus  (Conocephalus) .  .233,  280 
truncatus    (Pachybrachys) 

320,321,430 
turbidus  (Pachybrachys)  .  .316,383 
turgidicoUis    (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 314,369 

tybeensis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

316,    388 

Umbraculatus    (Pachybrachys) 

323,  454 
umbrosus  (Pacliybrachys)  Fall 

325, 379 
uncinatus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

314, 363 
unicolor  (Conocephalus) .  .  .  232,  264 

unispina  (Orchehmum) 26,  81 

unispina  (Xiphidium) 19,  81 

uteanus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

310, 335 

Vacillatus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

317, 403 

validum  (Orchelimum) 17 

validum  (Xiphidium) 56 

varians  (Pachybrachys)..  .  .319,  426 
varicolor  (Pachybrachys) 

321,  324,  435,  481 
vau  (Pachybrachys)  i^oM.  .  .322,  453 

venafuscus  (Prociphikis) 85 

vestigialis  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

319, 325,  415 
versicolor  (Conoccphahis) .  .233,  2S1 

versicolor  (Xiphidium) 281 

Vespola  simiUssima  Sc/kh/s  .  ...        3 

vicinum  (Xiphidium) 177 

vicinus  (Conocephalus)  162,  177,  230 
viduatus  (Pachybrachys) .  .  322,  464 


vigilans  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

309, 329 
virgatus  (Pachybrachys)..  .323,451 
viridipennis     (Zeteticus)    Bow- 
ditch  501 

vitticoUis  (Conocephalus) .  .229,  242 

vitticoUis  (Locusta) 242 

volantum  (Orchelimum) 

19,  26,  72,  73 
vulgare  (Orchelimum) ....  24,  27,  38 
vulnerosus  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

324, 471 

Wahsatchensis  (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 323,324,459 

wenzeli  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

315,  325,  382 
wickhami  (Pachybrachys)  Fall 

309,  330 

Xanthias  (Pachybrachys) .  .311,  378 
xantholucens  (Pachybrachys) 

Fall 312,337 

xanti  (Pachybrachys) 309,  333 

Xiphidion 155,  158,  161 

170, 226,  229,  243 

allardi 169 

brevipenne 212 

doryphorum 235 

nemorale 212 

nigropleui-um 202,  210 

Xiphidium 12,  155 

aberrans 235 

angustifrons 260 

attenuatum 207 

bituberculatum 13 

boreUi 278 

brachypterum 269 

brevipenne 177,  216 

brevipennis 182,  212 

caizanum 235 

camurum 191 

caudatum 191 

curtipenne 189 

cuticulare 46 

ensifer 182,193 

ensiferum 177,  180,  182 


INDEX 


XVll 


Xiphidiutn  equatoriale 266 

exitiosum 235 

fasciatum 177 

festae 281 

gossypii 182 

gracilinum 60 

gracillimum 180 

ictum 250 

inerme 60 

insularis 256 

lanceolatum 207 

laticauda 53 

longipes 240 

meridionale 269, 285 

mexicanum 250 

nemorale 189 

nitidum 29 

nigropleura 205 

nigropleuroides 210 

nigropleurum 205 

occidentale 191 


Xiphidium  productum 177 

propinqumn 269 

resinum 235 

robustum 56 

saltans 216 

saltator 269 

scudderi 207 

spartinae 212 

spinosus 180,  254 

spinulosum 29 

strictoides 285 

strictum 193 

tnmcatum 280 

validum 56 

versicolor 281 

vicinum 177 

unispina 19,  81 

Xoridini 124 

Zeteticus  cyanipennis  Bowdilch  501 

viridipennis  Bowditch 501 


VOLUME  XLI  NUMBER  1 

MARCH  1915 


TRANSACTIONS 


OF  THE 


AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


PUBLISHED  BY  THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  AT  THE 
ACADEMY  OF  NATURAL  SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 
SUBSCRIPTION  PRICE  FOUR  DOLLARS  PER  VOLUME 


TRANSACTIONS 

OF  THE 

AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 

VOLUME  XLI 


NEW  SPECIES  OF  HETEROCERA  FROM  TROPICAL 
AMERICA 

BY    W.    SCHAUS 

All  my  types  up  to  date  are  in  the  United  States  National 
Museum,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Arctiidae 
Afrida  sceletozona  sp.  n. 

cf .  Fore  wings  white ;  base  of  costa  and  a  subbasal  half  Hne  black,  the  latter 
angled;  a  dentate  line  of  dark  scales  across  middle  of  wing,  followed  by  a  curved 
mark  in  the  cell,  and  a  similar  outer  Une  outangled  below  subcostal  and  fol- 
lowed by  a  small  dot  on  discocellular;  a  dot  on  upper  third  of  termen;  some 
dark  scales  at  apex,  and  on  fringe.  Hind  wings  whitish  shaded  with  pale  gray 
on  veins  and  margin;  a  round  discal  dot;  a  curved  postmedial  line.  Expanse, 
13  mm. 

Habitat:  Juan  Vinas,  Costa  Rica. 

Afrida  polyglotta  sp.  n. 

9  .  Fore  wings  silvery  white;  costa  with  three  black  dashes,  the  outer  two 
convergent,  with  a  yellow  shade  between,  and  an  arc  before  apex;  a  large 
purple  gray  patch  on  outer  margin,  covering  tornus  and  projecting  roundedly 
inward,  edged  above  by  an  irregular  black  hne,  broken  central!}^  by  a  vertical 
dash;  above  the  end  of  the  purple  patch  a  black  dot  sends  a  hne  outward  and 
downward,  dentate  and  broken  below,  leaving  a  dot  on  inner  margin;  a  dentate 
double  hne  on  basal  third  of  inner  margin  forming  a  closed  loop  above;  a  black 
dash  beyond  it  below  the  second  costal  dash.  Hind  wings  gray,  the  apex  and 
discal  dot  a  little  darker.     Expanse,  15  mm. 

Habitat:  .Juan  \'ifias,  (^)sta  Rica. 

TRAXS.     \\l.     K\T.    SOC.    XLI.  (1) 


2  TROPICAL   AMERICAN    HETEROCERA 

Robinsonia  longimacula  sp.  n. 

cf.  Palpi  brown  spotted  with  white.  Head  white  with  two  transverse 
black  hnes.  Thorax  white  with  a  dorsal  yellow  streak;  patagiae  and  tegula 
white  edged  with  bro^\'n.  Abdomen  above  black;  a  dorsal  yellow  line;  a 
lateral  white  hne;  abdomen  below  whitish.  Fore  wings  olive  brown,  the  veins 
paler;  a  series  of  elongated  white  spots  from  apex  to  submedian  fold,  the  spot 
below  cell  extending  from  base  to  termen,  the  others  from  cell  not  reaching 
termen;  the  spots  above  veins  6  and  7  shorter.  Hind  wings  white;  some 
fuscous  shading  from  anal  angle  upwards,  and  terminally  at  vein  2.  Expanse, 
42  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 

Prumala  ochrida  sp.  n. 

cf.  Head,  collar,  and  thorax  orange  brown.  Abdomen  above  roseate, 
underneath  yellowish.  Fore  wings  yellowish,  the  markings  brown;  the  veins 
from  cell  orange  brown;  basal  third  suffused  with  brown  leaving  a  yellow  streak 
above  subcostal,  a  spot  at  base  of  cell,  a  streak  below  cell,  and  a  spot  on  sub- 
median,  also  an  antemedial  spot  on  fold  yellow,  all  partly  edged  with  red; 
some  brown  suffusions  at  end  of  cell;  some  postmedial  spots  on  interspaces;  a 
broad  outer  band,  narrowest  from  vein  5  to  vein  2,  suffusing  below  vein  2 
and  cell  with  dark  basal  space,  leaving  only  a  large  yellow  spot  medially  on 
inner  margin,  and  a  smaller  spot  above  it;  a  subterminal  row  of  broken  spots; 
spots  at  ends  of  veins;  cilia  whitish  with  black  spots  at  veins.  Hind  wings 
yellow  suffused  with  roseate.     Expanse,  36  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 

Prumala  nigranalis  sp.  n. 

9  .  Head,  collar,  thorax  and  fore  wings  Ulacine  brown.  Abdomen  yellow, 
the  last  three  segments  steel  black  above,  steel  gray  below;  a  lateral  gray 
streak.     Hind  wings  yellow.     Expanse,  32  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 
Very  close  to  P.  jalapa  Druce. 

Pseudalus  minerva  sp.  n. 

(f.  Antennae  and  body  rose  red;  abdomen  white  underneath.  Fore  wings 
red;  a  gray  streak  on  costa;  some  grayish  irrorations  antemedially  and  post- 
medially  with  traces  of  darker  rod  lines;  a  large  semihyaline  yellowish  space 
postmedially  from  al:»ove  subcostal  to  termen  at  vein  2;  an  apical  square  red 
patch  from  vein  5  to  costa;  a  white  point  at  base.  Hind  wings  yellowish 
white;  some  roseate  hairs  close  to  inner  margin  and  terminal  red  irrorations. 
Expanse,  35  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 


W.    SCHAUS  6 

Chlorhoda  amabilis  sp.  n. 

cf .  Head,  collar,  thorax  above,  front  of  fore  legs,  and  fore  wings  bright 
green;  patagiae  edged  with  crimson.  Abdomen  above,  thorax  below,  and 
legs  crimson;  abdomen  below  yellowish  roseate.  Fore  wings:  the  costal 
edge  yellowish;  small  black  linear  spots  antemedially,  postmedially  at  sub- 
costal vein  and  on  inner  margin.  Hind  wings  roseate,  the  termen  shaded 
with  pale  green.  Wings  below  duller  and  paler;  the  costal  margins  shaded 
with  roseate,  also  the  inner  margin  of  hind  wings.     Expanse,  32  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 


NOCTUIDAE 

Vespola  similissima  sp.  n. 

cf .  Differs  from  V.  plumipes  Schs.  in  the  absence  of  the  long  fringe  on  hind 
tibiae;  also  very  similar  to  V.  caeruiifera  Wlk.,  but  larger  and  darker,  and  with- 
out any  traces  of  white  on  the  abdomen  below.     Expanse,  36  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Pseudocraspedia  eubleptica  sp.  n. 

Fore  wing  tinged  with  yellow  along  costa  and  apex,  the  rest  of  the  wing 
blackish  gray;  a  very  oblique  black  line  from  inner  margin  near  base  directed 
toward  the  upper  sinus  of  outer  margin  but  stopping  before  it;  an  obhque 
white  Une  from  middle  of  inner  margin  running  up  toward  apex.  Hind  wing 
with  a  broad  white  band  in  the  middle,  straight  within,  cm-ved  without;  base 
dark  gray  with  a  black  band  outwardly;  margin  rather  broadly  gray.  Ex-panse, 
12  to  14  mm. 

Habitat:  Cache,  Tuis,  Juan  Viiias,  Costa  Rica. 

Allied  to  P.  leucozona  Hampson. 

Lycaugesia  homogramma  sp.  n. 

P'ore  wing  pointed  at  apex,  outer  margin  oblique;  brownish  straw-color 
irrorated  with  purple  and  reddish  scales;  a  row  of  three  dark  dots  for  the  ante- 
medial  line;  reniform  large,  rounded,  purplish  gray;  outer  margin  shaded 
with  purplish  forming  an  oblique  streak  from  apex  toward  reniform.  Hind 
wing  crossed  by  straight,  transverse  bands;  a  double  middle  one,  with  its 
outer  edge  more  distinct  than  its  inner,  a  median  reddish  shaded  one  and  a 
brown  one  close  to  the  margin.  Terminal  black  dots  on  both  wings.  Expanse, 
15  mm. 

Habitat:  Juan  Vinas,  Costa  Rica. 

Allied  to  L.  semiclara  Dj^ar.  The  wings  are  without  the  black- 
ish transverse  bands  on  the  under  side  shown  in  L.  hypozonata 
Hampson,  the  fore  wing  having  only  a  longitudinal  shading  in 
the  cell. 

TRANS.    .\M.    KXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


4  TROPICAL    AMERICAN    HETEROCERA 

Euteiia  inconstrictrix  sp.  n. 

Dark  chocolate  brown,  with  little  or  no  red  shading,  sometimes  a  small  patch 
beyond  the  brown  discal  mark.  Inner  line  slender,  white,  strongly  outcurved 
centrally;  postmedial  line  similar,  obsolete  on  costa,  running  below  median 
vein  near  to  inner  line;  reniform  narrow,  not  constricted,  straight  without., 
convex  within,  pale-lined,  filled  by  the  ground  color,  followed  by  a  large 
dark  brown  patch  which  is  pointed  at  its  upper  angle;  two  slender  white  lines 
from  costa  subapically  joining  on  termen  and  enclosing  a  dark  browm  cunei- 
form mark;  traces  only  of  sub  terminal  Une  below;  an  obhque  brown  patch 
above  the  angle  in  the  termen;  a  terminal  row  of  dark  dots,  obsolete  below. 
Hind  wing  l)lacker,  the  base  on  inner  margin  white  to  below  discal  spot.  Ex- 
panse, 27  to  29  mm. 

Habitat:  Juan  Vinas,  Tuis,  Costa  Rica. 

Allied  to  E.  auratrix  Walker,  but  darker  and  the  reniform  not 
constricted. 

Pucialia  acronyctoides  sp.  n. 

cf.  Palpi  ocher  white,  laterally  streaked  with  black  at  base.  Body  v/hit- 
ish  gray  streaked  with  black,  the  vertex  and  collar  medially  shaded  with  black. 
Fore  wings  whitish  gray,  somewhat  silvery  beyond  basal  space;  base  irrorated 
with  black;  antemedial  line  fine,  black,  wavy,  slightly  outcurved,  followed  by  a 
straight  heavier  black  line,  oblique  and  not  reaching  iimer  margin,  this  line 
is  followed  by  a  short  black  streak  above  subcostal  vein,  a  small  spot  in  cell, 
and  one  below  cell,  also  a  slate  gray  shade  above  median  to  just  beyond  cell; 
an  irregular  black  mark  across  discoceUular  intoothed  in  front;  postmedial 
hne  black,  outcurved  around  cell,  very  wavy  from  vein  3  to  inner  margin, 
followed  by  a  grayish  browTi  shade  from  vein  3  to  vein  7,  where  it  extends  more 
obliquely  to  costa;  a  subterminal  irregular  white  line  followed  by  black  mot- 
tling on  costa;  marginal  black  points  on  interspaces;  ciha  with  darker  shading 
opposite  marginal  points.  Hind  wings  semihyaline  white,  the  costa  faintly 
tinged  with  luteous.  Fore  wings  below  dark  gray,  the  inner  margin  broadly 
whitish.     Expanse,  43  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Hemicephalis  grandirena  sp.  n. 

9  .  Head,  collar,  thorax  and  forewings  brownish  lilacine.  Abdomen  above 
dull  brownish  gray.  Fore  wings:  the  base  darker  shaded;  a  fine  whitish 
vertical  subbasal  line;  antemedial  line  fine,  dark  olive  green,  slightly  incurved 
across  median,  followed  in  cell  by  a  large  white  orbicular  spot,  suffusing  with 
a  white  shade  on  costa;  reniform  very  large,  dark  olive  green  consisting  of 
two  round  superimposed  spots  finely  edged  with  white,  the  spots  .suffusing  on 
inner  edge,  and  also  in  front  with  a  green  shade  on  costa;  postmedial  out- 
curved,  very  fine,  geminate;  an  olive  green  triangular  spot  on  costa  before 
apex,  finely  edged  with  white;  traces  of  a  whitish  dentate  subterminal  line; 
a  dark  olive  brown  tenninal  line.     Hind  wings  white,  the  veins  brown;   termen 


W.    SCHAUS  ;) 

very  broadly  black;  cilia  white.  Wings  below  whitish,  the  terminal  third 
tinged  with  lilacine  browTi;  on  fore  wings  a  large  black  postmedial  shade,  not 
reaching  costa,  or  inner  margin;   apex  white.     Expanse,  37  mm. 

Habitat:  St.  Jean,  Maroni  River,  French  Guiana. 

Pharga  barbara  sp.  n. 

cT'.  Palpi  fuscous  bro^\Ti  fringed  above  with  ocher.  Head,  collar,  thorax, 
basal  and  anal  hairs  of  abdomen,  and  fore  wings  yellowish  ocher.  Abdomen 
and  hind  wings  dull  fuscous  brown.  Fore  wings  irrorated  with  brown;  the 
inner  margin  shaded  with  brown  from  base  to  beyond  middle;  a  black  discal 
point;  a  postmedial  outciu'ved  i:)rownish  shade,  somewhat  macular,  followed 
by  similar  lunular-dentate  lines  except  between  veins  4  and  6;  the  veins  de- 
fined by  darker  irrorations  on  either  side.  Marginal  l)lack  points  on  inter- 
spaces. Hind  wings:  cilia  yellowish  ochor.  Fore  wings  below  shaded  with 
fuscous  except  on  margins.  Hind  wings  below  yellowish  ocher  irrorated  with 
brown  on  costal  and  outer  margins;  a  dark  round  discal  spot  and  faint  post- 
medial  shade.     E.xpanse,  4.5  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

XOTODONTIDAE 
ARPEMA  gen.  nov. 

cT.  Palpi  uptiu-ned,  short,  not  reaching  vertex;  second  joint  heavily  fringed; 
third  joint  very  small,  roughly  scaled.  Head  without  prominent  tufts.  An- 
tennae bipectinated  for  two-thirds  of  their  length.  Abdomen  long.  Fore 
wings:  outer  margin  oblique;  vein  2  well  beyond  middle  of  cell;  vein  3  before 
lower  angle;  4  from  lower  angle;  .5  just  above  middle  of  discocehular;  areole 
long  and  narrow;  vein  6  before  middle  of  areole;  7,  8  and  9,  10  from  end  of 
areole;  11  free.  Hind  wings  triangular;  costal  margin  convex  at  base;  veins 
3  and  4  from  lower  angle;  5  above  middle  of  discocellular;  6  and  7  from  upper 
angle;   8  connected  with  7  before  middle  of  cell  by  a  bar. 

Type  of  genus,  Arpema  megaJopia  Schaus. 

Arpema  megalopia  sp.  n. 

d".  Va\]i'i  fuscous  brown.  Head  yellow  brown.  Collar  fuscous  brown 
Thorax  light  bro\\ii,  the  patagiae  lilacine  irrorated  with  dark  browii.  Abdo- 
men orange  brown.  Fore  wings:  base  narrowly  mottled  steel  gray  and  white, 
limited  by  an  inbent,  irregular  whiter  line,  the  costal  edge  orange  bro\\-n;  an- 
temedial  space  brown,  the  scales  broad,  each  scale  ti[)ped  with  fuscor.s  brown, 
vaguely  limited  by  a  fine,  iiTegular,  outcurved  line;  space  beyond  gray  irro- 
rated with  brown,  hmited  by  a  fine  dark  line,  angled  on  costa,  and  faintly 
incurved,  so  the  gray  space  is  widest  on  costa  and  inner  margin;  this  line  is 
followed  by  a  white  line  which  is  outbent  on  costa,  is  outwardly  shatled  with 
orange  brown  and  then  followed  by  a  broad  dark  brown  shade  extending  to 
costa  and  tormis,  the  scales  forniing  it  smaller  than  on  antoniodial  sj)ace;   and 

TKAXS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC.,    XLI. 


6  TROPICAL    AMERICAN    HETEROCERA 

also  tipped  with  fuscous  brown;  terminal  space  broadly  lilacine,  the  subter- 
minal  indicated  by  darker  lilacine  shading;  brown  marginal  lunules,  and  nar- 
rower terminal  lunules  partly  on  cilia.  Hind  wings  orange  brown,  paler  shaded 
postmedially,  and  crossed  by  a  dark  brown  Une.  Wings  below  creamy  white, 
the  costal  and  apical  spaces  of  fore  wings  shaded  with  brown,  only  narrowly 
so  on  hind  wings.     Expanse,  58  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 

Misogada  blerura  sp.  n. 

cf .  Head,  collar  and  thorax  mottled  dark  olive  green  and  white.  Abdo- 
men purplish  brown  above,  whitish  laterally  and  underneath.  Fore  wings 
whitish  irrorated  with  olive  green;  a  black  basal  point  below  median;  a  broad 
antemedial  dark  olive  green  fascia  from  costa  to  submedian  edged  by  black 
lines,  both  inbent  on  submedian,  the  inner  edge  deeply  curved,  the  outer  oblique, 
closely  followed  by  a  fine  olive  green  Une,  which  suffuses  on  inner  margin  with 
a  similar  outcurved  postmedial  line;  two  black  points  on  discocellular;  the 
postmedial  followed  by  a  black  line  from  inner  margin  to  vein  2,  by  black 
points  on  veins  3-5,  by  a  black  shade  between  6  and  8,  and  an  oUve  green  shade 
on  casta;  ciha  shaded  with  olive  green  and  with  some  dark  spots. 

Hind  wings  whitish,  shaded  with  fuscous  gray  terminally.  Cilia  olive  green 
tipped  with  white.     Expanse,  30  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Malocampa  friburga  sp.  v. 

cf .  Head,  collar,  and  thorax  streaked  whitish  and  dark  brown.  Abdomen 
brownish  gray,  the  anal  segment  whitish  gray  with  dark  brown  irrorations; 
base  of  abdomen  dorsally  tinged  with  orange.  Fore  wings  pale  brown,  the 
inner  margin  broadly  whitish,  the  whole  irrorated  with  fuscous;  a  fine  dark 
antemedial  hue,  vertical,  lunular,  inangled  close  below  subcostal;  two  small 
black  spots  on  discocellular;  a  fine  brown  postmedial  line  incurved  to  inner 
margin  near  antemedial,  followed  by  geminate  black  points  on  veins  with 
white  streaks  between  them;  a  faint  subterminal  narrow  darker  shade;  ter- 
minal black  spots  on  interspaces;  black  spots  on  cilia  at  veins.  Hind  wings 
whitish  suffused  with  pale  brown,  the  costal  margin  and  veins  darkest;  a  faint 
postmedial  line  with  a  black  spot  close  to  inner  margin,  and  a  similar  spot 
below  it  at  anal  angle.  Fore  wings  below  suffused  with  dull  brown;  ciha  with 
dark  spots.     Hind  wings  below  dull  white.     Expanse,  49  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Lasiocampidae 

Titya  albiapicata  s)^  n. 

cf .  Head,  collar,  and  thorax  light  brown.  Abdomen  darker  brown.  Fore 
wings  brownish  gray  suffused  with  fuscous,  the  inner  margin  narrowly,  and 
termen  more  broadly  light  brown;  the  veins  pale;  lines  very  indistinct;  an 
outcurved  fuscous  antemedial  line;    two  medial  lines,  the  outer  one  suffusing 


W.    SCHAUS  7 

on  inner  margin  with  first  postmedial  line;  thi'ee  postmedial  lines,  somewhat 
lunular,  the  middle  one  barely  traceable;  a  whitish  subterminal  line;  the 
apex  fuscous  crossed  by  a  small  white  spot.  Hind  wings  semihyahne,  fuscous 
brown;  the  inner  margin  and  ciUa  hght  brovra.     Expanse,  28  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Claphe  semifunebris  sp.  n. 

o"".  Body  mottled  whitish,  brown,  and  black.  Fore  wings:  Vjase  to  near 
middle  black,  limited  by  a  fine  velvety  black  hne  having  a  few  whitish  scales 
on  its  inner  side,  finely  wavy,  vertical,  inangled  below  submedian  fold;  outer 
space  white  with  brownish  irro rations,  more  thickly  terminally;  a  small  black 
spot  on  discocellular;  a  fine  black  postmedial  Une,  outbent  on  costa,  then 
shghtly  incurved  and  vertical  below  vein  4;  an  irregular  subterminal  macular 
black  shade,  outcurved  from  costa,  incurved  opposite  cell  and  near  inner  mar- 
gin. Hind  wings:  basal  space  fuscous  brown  limited  by  a  vertical  broad 
black  hne  from  costa  to  inner  margin  near  angle;  terminal  space  as  on  fore- 
wings,  but  shaded  with  brown  from  below  vein  5  to  mner  margin;  very  faint 
traces  of  a  black  subterminal  line.  Wings  below  whitish  tinged  with  brown 
and  gray.  Fore  wings :  postmedial  line  whitish  defined  by  shadings,  straighter 
below  costal  cm-ve;  subterminal  better  defined.  Hind  wings:  a  fuscous  brown 
vertical  outer  hne.     Expanse,  35  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Ocha  gorgas  sp.  n. 

d^.  Body  pale  lilacine  brown.  Fore  wings  above  median  and  vein  4  gray- 
ish, below  them  light  brown;  two  fuscous  points  on  discocellular;  traces  of 
fine  darker,  antemedial,  and  medial  fines;  the  postmedial  outcurved,  better 
defined,  followed  by  a  pale  outer  line  incmwed  opposite  cell,  the  interspaces 
between  them  from  vein  4  to  \ein  8  darker  gray;  a  subterminal  lunular  white 
line,  preceded  by  an  orange  browTi  shade  between  veins  4  and  5,  and  dark  gray 
shades  between  5  and  6,  and  7  and  9;  a  terminal  whitish  line;  the  cilia  dark 
brovni  on  interspaces.  Hind  wings  yellowish,  with  darker  shading  on  costa 
and  short  hues  at  apex.     Wings  below  bro^\Tiish  yellow.     Expanse,  25  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 

Lymantriidae 
Trochuda  ochreata  sp.  n. 

(^.  Body  and  wings  pale  ochreous  brown,  the  inner  margin  of  fore  wings, 
and  costal  margin  of  hind  wings  tinged  with  white.  Fore  wings:  a  fine  whit- 
ish hne  on  discocellular  preceded  and  followed  by  a  fuscous  brown  shade,  and 
similar  shading  close  to  cell  between  veins  3  and  5.  On  abdomen  dorsally  at 
end  some  pm-ple  red  shading.  Wings  below  whitish,  the  costal  half  of  fore 
wings  shaded  with  l)rown,  very  dark  along  costal  edge.     Expanse,  33  mm. 

Habitat:  Southern  Brazil. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


8  TROPICAL    AMERICAN    HETEROCERA 

Trochuda  partalba  sp.  n. 

cf .  Body  white,  the  palj)!  outwardly  brown;  some  fauit  brownish  shading 
dorsally  on  abdomen.  Fore  wings  pale  ochreous  brown;  base  and  inner  mar- 
gin tinged  with  white;  a  white  spot  edged  with  darker  brown  on  discocellular, 
outbent  behind  between  veins  4  and  5.  Hind  wings  white,  very  faintly  tinged 
with  brown  towards  apex.  Wings  below  white,  the  costal  halt'  of  fore  wings 
tinged  with  oclu'aceous  brown  extending  along  termen  to  near  tornus;  eilia 
on  both  wings  tinged  with  brown.     Expanse,  32  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Trochuda  roseidorsum  sp.  n. 

cf.  Palpi  dark  brown.  Head  white.  Collar,  thorax,  and  wings  whitish 
ocher.  Abdomen  white  at  base,  then  dorsally  brilliant  roseate.  Fore  wings: 
a  white  line  on  discocellular,  preceded  by  a  narrow  black  shade,  and  followed 
b}^  diffuse  black  shadings  on  interspaces  from  below  vein  3  to  vein  7.  Hind 
wings  slightly  paler  than  fore  wings.  Wings  below  white;  costa  of  fore  wings 
shaded  with  fuscous  brown,  the  apex  with  whitish  ocher.     Expanse,  33  mm. 

Habitat:  Joinville,  southeastern  Brazil. 

These  three  species  are  congeneric  with  stilpnotia  Walker. 

Saturniidae 

Micrattacus  friburgensis  sp.  n- 

cT.  Head,  collar,  and  thorax  gray.  Abdomen  light  reddish  brown.  Fore 
wings  gray  irrorated  with  black  hairlike  scales;  costal  space  above  median 
and  vein  4  shaded  with  hght  reddish  brown;  lines  straight,  ocher  white,  out- 
wardly dark  shaded;  the  basal  line  very  oblique  from  costa  near  base;  ante- 
medial  Une  very  slightly  outbent;  postmedial  line  slightly  inbent;  a  fuscous 
gray  streak  on  discocellular  edged  with  ocher  white;  a  zigzag  subterminal 
pale  line  from  vein  4  to  tornus;  the  costal  edge  grayish.  Hind  wings  light 
reddish  brown;  a  fine  fuscous  shade  on  discocellular;  a  fine  outer  black  line 
followed  by  an  irregular  fuscous  shade;  cilia  tipped  with  white.  Fore  wings 
below  yellow,  the  costa  shaded  with  reddish  brown;  a  dark  streak  on  discocel- 
lular, and  a  fine  postmedial  line.  Hind  wings  below  shaded  with  reddish 
brown;  a  fuscous  line  on  discocellular;  a  fine  outer  Une  from  costa  near  apex 
to  inner  margin  at  two-thu-ds  from  base.     Expanse,  39  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 

Hylesia  multiplex  sp.  n. 

Rosy  brown,  head,  thorax,  and  abdomen  alike  with  dense  rosy  brown  hairs; 
antennae  browni,  not  yellow.  Fore  wings  scarcely  falcate,  rosy  brown  with 
darker  lines;  basal  space  nearly  solidly  filled;  outer  hne  broad,  incurved  below, 
toufhing  ths  discal  spot  at  bass  of  vein  3;  submarginal  line  scalloped,  lightly 
shaded;  terminal  half-band  darker.  Hind  wing  with  narrow  clouded  discal 
mark,  th?  two  narrow  curved  outer  lines  alike  in  tone,  dark.  Expan.se,  4S 
mm. 


W.    SCHAUS  9 

Type. — cf,  Sixola  River,  Costa  Rica.  September.  Xo.  14,989, 
U.  S.  National  Museum. 

Dirphia  aphrodite  sp.  n. 

cf .  Head,  collar,  and  front  of  thorax  fuscous  brown;  thorax  behind  dark 
reddish  browii.  Abdomen  above  black  with  fine  orange  brown  segmental 
lines;  base  clothed  with  dark  reddish  hairs;  sublateral  whitish  streaks.  Fore 
wings  rosy  hlacine  brown  before  antemedial  and  beyond  postmedial  lines; 
basal  space  limited  by  the  antemedial  line,  outbent  across  cell  and  shghtly 
curved  to  inner  margin;  medial  space  dark  chestnut  brown,  paler  from  vein 
2  to  inner  margin;  a  sinuous,  white  spot  containing  some  brown  scaling  on 
discocellular,  its  hind  edge  straight,  toothed  to  base  of  vein  .3,  and  outwardly 
across  postmedial  hne;  postmedial  line  straight,  fine,  lilacine,  parallel  with 
termen;  a  subterminal  fuscous  gray  shade  expanding  towards  costa.  Hind 
wings  grayish  brown;  the  inner  margin  with  roseate  hairs;  a  postmedial 
darker  brown  curved  shade;  an  irregular  and  indistinct  subterminal  shade. 
Wings  below  whitish  bro\\-n;  the  browni  postmedial  Hne  straight  on  both  wings; 
the  cell  and  costal  margin  of  fore  wings  and  termen  of  hind  wings  shaded  with 
brown.     Expanse,  48  mm. 

Habitat:  Curitiba,  .southeastern  Brazil. 

Megalopygidae 
Repnoa  arpi  sp.  n. 

c/'.  Body  black;  abdomen  with  segmental  whitish  Unes.  Fore  wings  black 
to  end  of  cell,  terminating  obhquely  from  costa  to  vein  5,  with  a  small  black 
spot  between  5  and  4,  a  shghtly  larger  spot  between  4  and  3,  an  incurve  be- 
tween 3  and  2,  a  slight  projection  below  2,  and  above  submedian.  then  inset 
and  abrupt  on  inner  margin;  terminal  space  pale  brownish  ocher,  with  slightly 
darker  subterminal  patches  on  interspaces;  an  outer  small  black  spot  between 
veins  6  and  7.  Hind  wings:  basal  third  black,  otherwise  whitish  ocher  brown. 
Wings  below  with  the  terminal  space  white.     Expanse,  28  mm. 

Habitat:  Nova  Friburgo,  Brazil. 


TRANS.    .\M.    EiVT.    SOC,    XLI. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  H 


STUDIES  IN  AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 

(ORTHOPTERA) 

IV 

BY  JAMES  A.  G.  REHN  AND  MORGAN  HEBARD 

A  SYNOPSIS  OF  THE  SPECIES   OF  THE   GENUS 
ORCHELIMUM 

For  a  number  of  years  the  species  of  the  present  genus  have 
been  greatly  in  need  of  study,  the  litei-ature  covering  the  same 
shomng  a  considerable  number  of  specific  names  the  exact  rela- 
tionship of  which  was  not  known  at  all  or  only  very  indefinitely 
understood.  The  keys  to  the  species  which  we  possess  'd,  i.  e., 
those  of  Redtenbacher,  McNeill,  Blatchley,  and  Karny,  were 
based  largely  on  characters  the  value  of  which  our  own  studies 
show  to  be  nil  or  but  relative.  The  attempts  made  b}-  many 
workers,  ourselves  among  them,  to  use  the  previous  keys  have 
resulted  in  a  great  mass  of  misidentifications,  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  tables  used,  almost  "without  exception,  emphasized 
valueless  or  but  secondary  characters  and  entirely  ignored  those  of 
greatest  value.  Another  factor,  which  has  contributed  its  share 
to  the  confusion  in  the  past,  has  been  the  difficult}'  of  positively 
locating  some  of  the  older  names;  a  matter  which  has  caused 
error  on  the  part  of  everyone  who  has  published  at  all  on  the 
genus. 

The  examination  or  possession  of  types  and  paratypes  of  the 
majority  of  the  species  has  enabled  us  to  straighten  out  the 
tangles  and  present  a  clear  idea  of  the  relationship  of  the  forms, 
while  much  study  and  correspondence  has  permitted  us  to  place 
to  our  own  satisfaction  practically  all  of  the  older  names  which 
caused  trouble  in  the  past.  The  present  situation  in  Europe  has 
precluded  our  securing  certain  desirable  information  concerning 
these  older  types,  but  we  feel  that  anj^thing  further  would  be 
merely  confirmatory  and  that  we  have  carefully  weighed  and 
considered  everj^  possible  source  of  information  in  the  literature. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT,    SOC,    XLI. 


12  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

The  characters  used  by  us  to  differentiate  the  species  are 
easily  comprehended,  and  we  feel  that  the  student  will  have  little 
difficulty  in  securing  from  the  text,  with  the  aid  of  the  figures, 
an  understanding  of  the  species  of  the  genus. 

ORCHELIMUM   ServiUe 

1839.     Orchelinium  Serville,  Hist.  Nat.  Ins.,  Orthopt.,  p.  522. 

1891.     Xiphidium   Redtenbacher,    Verhandl.  k.-k.   zool.-botan.   Gesellschaft 

Wien,  xli,  p.  493.     (In  part;  not  restricted  Xiphidion  Serville,  1831.) 
1907.     Orchelinium  Karny,    Abh.    k.-k.    zool.-botan.    Gesellschaft   Wien,   iv, 

heft  3,  p.  82. 

Genotype.  —  Orchelimum  cuticulare  ^erviWe  =  glaberrimmn 
(Burmeister)  (by  designation  of  Kirby,  1906  0. 

Differential  Generic  Characters.— When  compared  with  the 
related  genus  Conocephalus  {Xiphidium  of  authors)  the  genus 
Orchelimum  is  found  to  differ  not  in  one  or  several  invariable 
characters,  but  instead  can  be  distinguished  by  combinations  of 
characters  and  a  general  complex  not  found  in  the  other  genus. 
In  Orchelimum  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina  is  larger, 
broader  and  in  general  more  extensive,  with  the  lateral  section 
more  strongly  produced  and  occasionally  almost  overhanging 
(in  subgenus  Stenorhoptrum  less  indicated  and  in  Metarhoptrum 
little  different  from  that  found  in  Conocephalus).  The  male 
cerci  are  never  strongly  and  sharply  deplanate  distad,  instead  of 
generally  so  as  in  Conocephalus;  the  dorsum  of  the  same  is 
occasionally  carinate  and  almost  invariably  more  or  less  excavate 
at  or  near  the  base  of  the  median  tooth  (this  never  found  in 
Conocephalus),  while  the  cerci  are  also  always  unidentate  instead 
of  untoothed,  unidentate  or  bidentate  as  in  Conocephalus.  The 
male  subgenital  plate  has  the  distal  margin  almost  always  more 
or  less  V  or  U-emarginate,  while  in  Conocephalus  this  portion  is 
generally  more  or  less  truncate.  The  ovipositor  has  the  ventral 
margin  always  arcuate  in  the  distal  half  except  in  militare,  while 
in  Conocephalus  the  rule  is  to  have  the  margins  straight.  In  all 
the  species  the  prostcrnum  is  bispinose  instead  of  unarmed  as  is 
occasional  in  Conocephalus,  while  the  distal  tibial  spurs  always 
number  three  pairs,  instead  of  less  as  is  found  in  several  subgenera 
of  Conocephalus. 

iSynon.  Catal.  Orthopt.,  ii,  p.  271,(1906). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  13 

The  features  separating  Orchelimum  from  Teratura,  Para- 
xiphidium,  Odontoxiphidium ,  XiphiUinutn  and  Karniella  are  very 
decided  and  have  been  previously  emphasized,  so  it  seems  unnec- 
essary to  discuss  them  at  the  present  time. 

Erroneously  Referred  Species. — Aside  from  the  American  species 
here  treated,  and  to  which  we  restrict  Orchelirninn,  the  genus  lias 
been  considered  by  some  authors  to  include  two  Old  World 
species.  The  first  of  these,  senegalense  Krauss,  is  certainly 
distinct  generically  and  we  here  separate  it  as  a  related  but  well 
characterized  genus  ^.  Karn}'^  has  placed  the  species  Xiphidiuvi 
bituberculatum  Redtenbacher,  from  Australia,  in  the  genus 
Orchelimum.  This  is  undoubtedh'  not  an  Orchelimum,  as  the 
untoothed  cercus  shows.  Just  what  its  relationship  to  Con- 
cephalus  {Xiphidium  of  authors)  is,  we  cannot  say,  but  that  the 
species  has  no  place  in  Orchelimum  is  certain. 

Generic  Distribution. — From  southern  Maine,  southern  Ontario 
and  southern  Manitoba  (Ashdown)  south  to  southern  Florida 
(Homestead),  the  Gulf  Coast  and  southern  Texas  (Bi-ownsville), 
and  in  Mexico  as  far  as  Orizaba  in  the  eastern  part  and  the  state 
of  Jalisco  in  the  west,  in  the  United  States  west  to  northern 
California  (Sisson).  The  genus  is  apparently  absent  from  the 
whole  desert  region  of  the  southwestern  United  States  and  also 

2  THYRIDORHOPTRUM  new  genus  {Ovpis  window,  powrpov  tambourine). 
1877.     Orchelimum   Krauss  (not  of  Serville),  Sitzungsberichte  k.  Akad.  Wis- 
sensch.  Wien,  Math. -Nat.  CI.  Ixxvi,  p.  60. 
Genotype. — Orchelimum  senegalense  Krauss. 

Related  to  Orchelimum  but  differing  in  the  more  abbreviate  dorsum  of  the 
pronotum,  which  in  the  male  sex  has  the  caudal  width  subequal  to  the  greatest 
length,  in  the  very  narrow  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  these  in  the  male 
sex  being  distinctly  deeper  than  the  greatest  length  of  same,  in  the  extremely 
large  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina,  which  has  the  speculum  of  great 
size  and  in  width  at  least  two-thirds  that  of  the  whole  stridulating  field,  in  the 
more  ample  tegmina  of  the  male,  the  bidentate  male  cerci,  the  non-spinose 
character  of  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  cephalic  and  median  femora  and  in  the 
broad  fluting  of  the  lateral  faces  of  the  ovipositor  abruptly  terminating  shortly 
proximad  of  the  apex. 

Only  species: 
Thyridorhoptrum  senegalense  (Kjauss) 

1877.     Orchelimum   senegalense  Krauss,   Ibid.,   pi.   I,   figs.   12,   12a.     [Bakel, 
Senegal.] 

We  have  before  us  specimens  representing  both  sexes  of  this  interesting 
genus. 

^  Genera  Insectorum,  fasc.  135,  Conocephalinae,  p.  7,  (1912). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


14         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

from  the  Great  Basin  region,  no  specimens  having  been  examined 
from  southern  Cahfornia,  Nevada,  Utah,  southern  Idaho,  western 
Wyoming  and  Colorado,  or  Arizona  and  New  Mexico  west  of  the 
Rio  Grande. 

The  center  of  distribution  of  the  genus  is  in  the  Middle  Atlantic 
states,  the  greatest  percentage  of  the  forms  occurring  in  the 
region  comprising  the  states  of  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey,  Dela- 
ware, Maryland  and  Virginia,  where  in  the  northern  end  of  the 
Coastal  Plain  no  less  than  ten  of  the  species  of  the  genus  occur. 
To  the  southward  the  number  of  forms  decreases  slightly  and  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley  region  there  is  a  still  further  diminution, 
until  but  three  forms  are  known  to  reach  the  region  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains  and  of  these  but  one  is  known  to  occur  west  of  that 
uplift.  In  coastal  and  southern  Texas  the  number  of  species  is 
lower  than  in  the  Middle  West  and  from  the  whole  of  Mexico  we 
at  present  know  of  but  two  forms. 

Variation. — An  examination  of  certain  characters  which  have 
been  used  by  previous  authors  for  differentiating  the  species  of 
this  genus  shows  that  they  are  either  entirely  unreliable  or  only 
of  occasional  application.  The  first  and  most  important  of 
these  is  the  number  of  spines  on  the  ventro-external  margins  of 
the  caudal  femora.  This  character  has  been  given  a  position  of 
prime  importance;  as  a  matter  of  fact,  as  in  Conocephalus  {Xiphid- 
ium  of  authors),  quite  a  few  species  show  considerable  individual 
variation  in  the  presence  or  absence  of  these  spines,  while  prac- 
tically all  the  forms  show  great  individual  variation  in  the  number 
of  the  same  when  they  are  present.  In  consequence  we  have 
not  utilized  the  spination  of  the  limbs  as  a  major  character  in 
making  our  key,  but  under  each  species  will  be  found  a  sum- 
mary of  the  amount  of  variation  in  this  feature. 

The  proportionate  length  of  the  tegmina  and  wings  is  another 
feature  which  is,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  of  no  diagnostic  value. 
This  genus,  with  many  other  Orthopterous  genera,  exhibits  con- 
siderable individual  variation  in  the  length  of  these  appendages, 
individuals  taken  at  the  same  place  and  at  the  same  time  showing 
marked  diversity  in  this  respect.  In  over  half  the  species  of  the 
genus  we  find  a  mesopterous  type  {i.  e.  with  tegmina  and  wings 
little  or  not  at  all  surpassing  the  apices  of  the  caudal  femora)  and 
a  macropterous  type  (with  same  very  considerably  surpassing 
the  femoral  apices).     The  extremes  of  these  conditions  often 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  15 

look  very  different  but  a  careful  examination,  particularly  of  the 
genitalia,  will  show  them  to  be  identical.  "We  have  given  data 
on  these  features  under  the  specific  treatments.  The  width  of 
the  fastigium  is  occasionally  variable  within  specific  limits,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  very  plastic  concinnum.  This,  however,  is  quite 
exceptional,  as  the  fastigial  width  is  generally  a  constant  character. 
In  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina  we  find  some  varia- 
tion in  the  exact  form  of  the  speculum,  the  bounding  veins  vary- 
ing somewhat  in  their  exact  curve  or  in  their  degree  of  divergence 
from  the  body  axis  when  straight,  but  these  differences  are  of 
secondary  importance  and  the  relative  proportions  of  the  specu- 
lum and  direction  of  the  stridulating  vein  remain  the  same. 
The  peculiarly  elongate  form  of  the  speculum  in  volantwn  and 
hradleyi  is  Cjuite  distinctive  and  in  no  way  approached  in  the  other 
species  of  the  genus.  The  exact  curve  and  relative  length  of  the 
ovipositor  show  little  individual  variation  except  in  the  very  plas- 
tic conci7i7ium,  where  we  have  certain  female  individuals  in 
certain  localities  and  all  the  female  individuals  in  other  localities 
developing  a  much  longer  and  relatively  straighter  ovipositor 
than  usual.  Between  the  two  extremes  of  ovipositor  form  in  this 
remarkable  species  we  find  numerous  intermediates  and  Ave  have 
gone  into  this  question  of  ovipositor  form  quite  fully  under  the 
specific  treatment. 

Synonymic  Notes. — Two  species  have  been  referred  to,  or 
described  under,  this  genus  which  have  caused  much  difference 
of  opinion.  These  are  Locusta  agilis  DeGeer  from  Pennsylvania^ 
and  Orchelimum  gracile  Harris  from  Massachusetts.^  The 
identity  of  the  first  as  a  species  of  the  genus  Orchelimum  is  uni- 
versally admitted,  but  it  has  been  variously  considered  the  same 
as  Harris'  vulgare,  Redtenbacher's  laticcmda  and  Scudder's  con- 
cinnum. Several  times  DeGeer's  species  was  correctlj^  identified 
but  it  was  never  associated  with  the  Redtenbacherian  species, 
two  of  which  (spinulosum  and  nitidum)  are  sj^nonj'ms  of  it. 
Harris'  gracile  we  are  certain  was  correctly  referred  by  Scudder 
when  he  synonj^mized  it  under  Conocephalus  fasciatus  (DeGeer). 
The  description  fits  that  species,  but  unfortunately  the  figure 

*  M6m.  Hist.  Ins.,  iii,  p.  4.57,  pi.  40,  fi^.  3,(1773). 
s  Treat.  Ins.  New  Eng.  Inj.  Veget.,  p.  131,(1841). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


16         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (ORTHOPTERA) 

given  in  the  Flint  edition  of  Harris®  shows  an  individual  with  a 
curved  ovipositor  {%.  e.  a  true  Orchelimum  and  probably  0.  con- 
cinnum).  The  figures  in  this  edition  were  drawn  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Agassiz,  so  the  preface  informs  us,  and  the  ovipositor 
character  of  the  figure  is  belied  by  the  text  on  the  same  page,  this 
being  a  reprint  of  that  of  the  original  edition.  It  is  quite  evident 
that  the  specimen  drawn  was  not  the  one  described  by  Harris. 
The  name  gracile  certainly  does  not  properly  apply  to  any  form 
of  Orchelimum.  It  has  been  considered  to  represent  the  pale- 
faced  phase  of  concinnum,  by  a  few  authors,  but  that  it  has  no 
right  to  be  so  considered  is  very  evident. 

There  has  been  so  much  irregularity  in  the  use  of  the  name 
agile  that  the  records  quoted  under  it  are  almost  valueless  in 
mapping  the  distribution  of  the  species.  In  the  majority  of 
cases  it  is  quite  impossible  to  say  which  species  the  author  who 
recorded  "agile"  had  before  him,  and  unless  the  material  on 
which  such  records  were  based  is  definitely  recognizable  in  the 
the  series  examined  by  us,  we  have  felt  compelled  to  ignore  the 
indefinite  records  in  our  mapping  work. 

The  other  names,  the  apphcation  of  which  has  given  difficulty 
in  the  past  or  has  given  trouble  to  the  present  authors,  are  best 
discussed  here.  Burmeister's  glaherrimum  has  been  frequently 
recorded,  but  generally  the  specimens  proved  to  be  long-winged 
individuals  of  vulgare.  We  have  carefully  studied  the  very  brief 
description,  have  studied  the  movements  of  Zimmermann  who 
collected  the  specimens,  eliminated  the  other  forms  occurring 
in  the  teritory  where  he  collected  at  that  time,  and  there  is  no 
doubt  in  our  minds  that  we  have  properly  located  the  form.  An 
effort  to  locate  the  original  specimen  has  met  with  no  success 
other  than  the  proof  that  it  does  not  exist  in  the  Halle  collection. 
Serville  described  three  species  of  the  genus  when  he  originally 
founded  the  same,  i.  e.,  cuticulare,  glaucum  and  herbaceum.  The 
first  of  these  undoubtedly  equals  Burmeister's  glaherrimum,  as  a 
careful  analysis  of  the  description  and  comparison  with  all  the 
known  species  shows.  The  second  species,  glaucum,  just  as 
certaily  equals  agile  (DeGeer)  when  examined  in  the  same  fashion. 
The  last  name,  herbaceum,  has  been  generally  placed  as  the  same 
as  concinnum  Scudder,  chiefly  because  Serville  says  it  has  a  black 

«  Ibid.,  Flint  Edit.,  p.  163,(1862). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  17 

area  on  its  face  above  the  clypeus.  Unfortunately  Serville  says 
this  is  transverse,  which  is  never  true  of  concinnum,  but  frequently 
in  drying  out,  individuals  of  a  number  of  the  species  show  black 
areas  below  the  eyes  and  to  a  similar  feature  we  feel  he  must 
refer.  The  other  characters  given  for  herbaceum  are  few  and 
generally  non-diagnostic,  except  that  the  ovipositor  is  twelve 
lines  long  and  lightly  concave  dorsad,  a  condition  occurring  in 
but  a  few  species.  Of  these  fidicinium  alone  would  at  all  answer 
the  other  points  of  the  description  and  of  the  identity  of  the  two 
we  are  not  at  all  convinced,  J:»ut  we  are  placing  the  older  name 
with  a  query  under  the  more  recent  name,  waiting  for  future 
examination  of  the  original  material,  if  such  still  exists,  to  deter- 
mine the  matter. 

The  description  of  Walker's  validum  we  have  examined  very 
carefully,  and  have  also  had  through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  A.  N. 
Caudell  the  notes  made  by  the  latter  on  the  type  of  the  species, 
which  Kirby  considered  to  be  the  same  as  nigripes.  The  original 
description  is  very  insufficient  and  Mr.  Caudell  comments  as 
follows  on  the  specimen;  "  Last  year  I  saw  also  his  type  of  validum, 
but  without  material  for  comparison  I  could  not  definitely  deter- 
mine what  it  is.  I  am  very  sure  it  is  not  the  same  as  our  nigripes. 
The  type  is  a  unique  female  and  the  following  note  was  hurriedly 
made  regarding  it  while  I  was  in  London."  We  are  unable  to 
definitely  say  what  the  insect  is,  but  it  appears  to  l)e  nearer 
nigripes  than  anything  else.  However,  it  seem^;  best  to  await 
more  complete  study  of  the  original  material  and  we  have  pro- 
visionally placed  the  name  with  a  query  under  nigripes. 

Of  the  new  species  described  by  Redtenl)acher  in  his  paper  on 
the  subfamily,  i.  e.,  rohustum,  inerme,  nitidum,  spinulosum  and 
laticauda,  we  are  able  to  easily  dispose  of  three,  these  being 
inerme,  nitidum  and  spinulosum.  The  first  of  these  was  admit- 
tedly proposed  to  replace  longipennis  Scudder,  which  equals 
concinnum.  Regarding  nitidum  and  spinulosurn  we  had  formed 
definite  conclusions,  when  through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  W.  T. 
Davis  we  were  placed  in  possession  of  copies  of  correspondence 
which  passed  between  that  gentleman,  Mr.  Caudell  and  Doctors 
Karny  and  Holdhaus  relative  to  this  subject.  A  portion  of  a 
series  of  specimens  used  by  the  latter  gentlemen  for  comparison 
has  also  been  placed  in  our  hands  so  that  we  are  thus  al)le  to 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 
2 


18         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

judge  what  nitidum  and  spinulosuni  are.  Doctor  Holdhaus 
states  that,  "0.  nitidum  and  s-pinulosum  differ  externally  only 
by  the  characters  stated  by  Redtenbacher  and  may  possibly 
prove  forms  of  the  same  species."  This  is  quite  true,  and  the 
characters  given  by  Redtenbacher  are  valueless  in  this  genus 
while  the  size  differences  are  due  to  locality  as  we  show  beyond. 
Both  of  these  names  equal  the  much  older  agile  (DeGeer).  The 
great  difficulty  encountered  with  the  Redtenbacherian  species 
concerns  the  other  species,  robustum  and  laticauda,  the  first  of 
which,  as  discussed  beyond,  in  all  probability  equals  nigripes 
with  abnormal  or  unassociated  leg  or  legs.  It  is  based  on  a 
unique  female  which  in  every  feature  of  the  description  but  the 
caudal  limbs  is  typical  nigripes.  The  other  species,  laticauda, 
appears  to  us  to  be  the  same  as  Davis's  pulchellimi,  the  author  of 
which  has  gone  over  the  description  with  us  and  agrees  that  it 
probably  represents  the  same  form.  It  was  our  intention  to 
have  material  carefully  compared  in  Vienna,  particularly  with 
regard  to  the  important  genital  characters,  but  the  unfortunate 
conflict  now  raging  has  made  this  impossible. 

The  present  authors  at  one  time  very  doubtfully  determined  as 
0.  cuticulare  Serville^  a  single  male  from  Thomasville,  Georgia. 
The  specimen  is  not  cuticulare  as  we  now  know  it  {  =  glaberrimum) , 
but  instead  is  an  aberrant  individual  of  0.  minor. 

Relation  of  the  Genus. — Redtenbacher  ^  considered  Orchelimum 
but  a  subgenus  of  "Xiphidiu7n,"  as  the  supposedly  diagnostic 
features  given  by  previous  authors,  i.  e.  the  spined  prosternum 
and  the  curved  ovipositor  were  found  by  him  to  be  present  in 
"Xiphidium."  Karny  in  his  several  papers  on  the  group  has  al- 
lowed Orchelimum  to  retain  generic  rank  and  divided  Conoce- 
phalus  {Xiphidium  of  authors)  into  a  number  of  subgenera.  The 
latter  author's  position  seems  to  us  the  most  logical,  but  the  char- 
acters separating  the  two  genera  are  largely  ones  of  degree  and  in 
consequence  hard  to  express.  It  is  necessary,  as  well,  to  divide 
Orchelimum  into  three  subgenera,  this  being  done  below.  As  we 
will  show  in  a  future  treatment  of  the  genus  Conocephalus,  the 
characters  separating  the  subgenera  of  that  genus  are  as  impor- 
tant as  the  characters  separating  Orchelimum  s.  s.  from  several  of 
the  subgenera  of  Conocephalus,  but  we  find  other  groups  which 

'  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1904,  p.  796,  (1905). 

8  Verb.  k.-k.  zool.-botan.  Gesell.  Wien,  xli,  p.  494,  (1891). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  19 

are  more  related  to  Orchelimum  than  to  Conocephalus  occupj'ing 
a  more  or  less  intermediate  position,  yet  in  themselves  clearly- 
cut  divisions  of  equal  rank  to  certain  other  aggregations  of  the 
subfamily  Conocephalinae.  We  have  been  forced  to  realize  that 
we  have  more  groups  in  the  Orchelimum-Conocephalus  complex 
than  have  previously  been  recognized  bj^  name  and  the  only 
solution  appears  to  be  to  designate  those  divisions  which  are 
found  to  be  distinguished  by  characters  of  comparative  impor- 
tance, and  assemble  them  as  subgenera  under  the  two  generic 
names  Orchelimum  and  Conocephalus  according  to  the  extent  of 
agreement  or  degree  of  development  of  certain  features. 

Subgenera  and  Specific  Groups. — The  three  subgenera  of  Orche- 
limum which  we  here  recognize  can  be  distinguished  as  follows : 

Stridulating  field  of  male  tegmina  relatively  large  and  broad, 
as  large  in  area  as  dorsum  of  pronotum,  speculum  not  elongate. 
Humeral  sinus  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  more  or  less  distinctly 
indicated,  rarely  {gladiator)  obsolete.  Genicular  lobes  of  caudal 
femora  bispinose.  Ovipositor  with  ventral  margin  regularly 
arcuate  (except  in  militare).  Orchelimum  s.  s. 

(Type — 0.  cuticulare  SeryiWe  =  glaherrimum  Burmeister.) 

Stridulating  field  of  male  tegmina  relatively  large,  about  as 
large  in  area  as  dorsum  of  pronotum,  speculum  decidedly  elon- 
gate, narrow.  Humeral  sinus  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  well 
indicated,  arcuato-emarginate.  Genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora 
bispinose.     Ovipositor  with  ventral  margin  gently   arcuate  or 

straight  proximad,  arcuate  distad.  o^        ?      j         o  u 

^      ^  '  Stenorhoptrum  ^  new  subgenus 

(Type— 0.  volantum  McNeill.) 
Stridulating  field  of  male  tegmina  relatively  small,  not  as  large 
in  area  as  dorsum  of  pronotum,  speculum  of  normal  shape  but 
small  (except  in  superhum)  and  Conocephalus-Y\^&  in  form.  Hu- 
meral sinus  of  lateral  lobes  not  at  all  or  but  weakly  indicated. 
Genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora  unispinose.  Ovipositor  ?  (fe- 
male unknown)  ir  .     7      j         m  i 

Metarhoptrum  1°  new  subgenus 

(Type — Xiphidium  unispina  Saussurc  and  Pictet.) 

'  Srews  narrow,  poirrpov  tambourine. 

^^  Ultra  between,  poirrpov  tambourine.  In  allusion  to  the  intorniodiate  char- 
acter of  the  male  speculum. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


20         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

The  species  of  this  genus  fall. into  nine  groups,  which  appear  to 
be  natural  in  character.  One  of  these  groups  forms  the  new  sub- 
genus Stenorhoptrum,  two  constitute  the  other  new  subgenus 
Metarhoptrum  and  the  remainder  can  be  assembled  under  the 
restricted  subgenus  Orchelimum.  The  chief  criteria  which  we 
have  used  in  delimiting  these  groups  are  the  number  of  caudal 
genicular  spines  and  the  general  form  of  the  male  cercus,  but  we 
have  also  taken  into  consideration  other  features,  as  the  form  of 
the  ovipositor  of  the  female,  form  and  general  character  of  the 
stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina,  the  form  of  the  lateral 
lobes  of  the  pronotum  and  the  general  build. 

This  group  arrangement  is  as  follows: 

Orchelimum  s.  s. 


Group  A.     (agile) 
Cerci  with  simple,     Ovipositor  falcate.     Stridulating    field 
rect-divergeiit  me-  of    male    tegmen 

dian  tooth.  normal. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
deeply  and  broad- 
ly indicated  hu- 
meral sinus. 


Group  B.     (glaberrimum,  vulgare,  gladiator,  calcaralum) 


Cerci  with  simple 
to  produced  rect- 
divergent  or  sub- 
falcate  (distad) 
median  tooth. 


Ovipositor  falcate 
or  with  nearly 
straight  dorsal 
outline,  occasion- 
ally very  deep. 


Stridulating  field 
normal,  but  large 
proportionately. 


Lateral  lobes 
broad,  with  well 
indicated  and 
broad  to  but  little 
indicated  humeral 
sinus. 


Cerci  heavy,  cari- 
nate  dorsad,  with 
median  tooth  di- 
rected more  or  less 
strongly  p  r  o  x  i- 
mad. 


Group  C.     {hidlatum,  lalicauda,  nigripes) 
Ovipositor  strong-     Stridulating    field 
ly  falcate,  broader    normal  but  broad, 
mesad  than  proxi- 
mad. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
humeral  sinus 
hardly  indicated, 
ventrad  of  same 
caudal  margin  is 
httle  arcuate. 


Group  D.     (minor) 

Cerci  much  as  in    Ovipositor  falcate,     Stridulating    field  Lateral     lobes 

group  C  but  more    long,    broad    and    normal  but  broad,  broad  with  well  in- 

incrassate  and  less    heavy.  dicated  and  broad 

carinate.  humeral  sinus. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD 


21 


C  e  r  c  i  elongate, 
thickened,  taper- 
ing, tooth  proxi- 
mad  and  directed 
distinctly  pro.xi- 
mad. 


Cerci  very  elong- 
ate, incrassate, 
tapering,  apex 
slightly  incurved, 
tooth  decidedly 
proximad  and  di- 
rected distinctly 
proximad. 


Cerci  elongate, 
thickened,  taper- 
ing, tooth  proxi- 
mad and  directed 
nearly  at  a  right 
angle  or  decidedly 
curved  and  ex- 
tending proximad 
in  dii-ection. 


Cerci  much  as  in 
bradleyi  of  Group 
G  but  with  distal 
portion  heavier 
and  thicker. 


Cerci  with  distal 
extremity  taper- 
ing, tooth  nearly 
median,  not 
heavy,  directed 
weakly  proximad. 


Group  E.     (concinnum,  fidicinium) 
Ovipositor  moder-    Stridulating    field 
ately    falcate,    of    normal, 
variable      length. 


Group  F.  {militare) 

Ovipositor  Stridulating    field 

straight,  subequal  normal, 
in  depth,  elongate. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
humeral  sinus  in- 
dicated quite  dis- 
tinctly and  rather 
broadly. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
h  u  m  e  r  a  1  sinus 
very  shallowly  in- 
dicated. 


Stenorhoptrum  new  subgenus 
Group  G.     {volantum,   bradleyi) 


Ovipositor  with 
ventral  margin 
straight  proximad 
or  gently  arcuate, 
dorsal  margin 
straight. 


Stridulating  field 
of  male  tegmen 
narrow 
speculum 
elongate. 


,      with 
greatlv 


Metarhoptrum  new  subgenus 


Group  H. 
Ovipositor  ? 

Genicular  lobes 
of  caudal  femora 
unispinose. 


{superbum) 
Stridulating    field 
of    male    tegmen 
narrow  but  of  nor- 
mal character. 


Group  L     {fraternum,  unispina) 


Ovipositor  ? 

Genicular  lobes 
of  caudal  femora 
unispinose. 


Stridulating  field 
small,  stridulating 
vein  vcrv  weak. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
humeral  sinus 
moderately  indi- 
cated, and  broad 
but  shallow. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
no  humeral  sinus. 


Lateral  lobes  with 
at  most  only  a 
very  shallow  hu- 
meral sinus. 


TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


22         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


The  probable  relationship  of  these  groups  can  be  best  expressed 
diagrammatically  as  shown  herewith. 

Group  C 

bullatum 
laticaiida 
nigripes 

Group  D 

{minor) 


Group  A 
(agile) 


Group  B 

glaberrimum 
vulgare 
gladiator 
calcaratum 


Group  E 

concinnum  1 
fidicinium  J 


Group  F 

{militare) 


(Stenorhoptrum)- 


( Metarhoptrum) • 


Group  G 

J  volantum 
\  bradleyi 

Group  H 

{superbum) 


I       Group  I 

1^  j  fraternum 
\  unispina 

Group  A  is  probably  the  most  primitive  member  of  the  genus, 
as  it  certainly  is  the  simplest  type.  Group  B  is  less  homogeneous 
than  most  of  the  other  groups  but  its  specific  units  are  unques- 
tionably of  a  common  origin.  While  gladiator  and  calcaratum 
show  a  somewhat  analogous  development  of  the  tooth  of  the 
male  cercus  and  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  it  is  also 
very  evident  that  gladiator  is  in  certain  respects  closer  to  vulgare, 
i.  €.,  in  the  presence  of  the  peculiar  node  on  the  dorsal  face  of  the 
male  cercus  and  in  the  general  character  of  the  tegmina,  while 
the  ovipositor  of  gladiator  in  general  type  suggests  more  relation- 
ship to  glaberrimum,  which,  however,  has  many  features  of  dif- 
ference. Taken  as  a  whole  the  four  members  of  the  group  are 
closely  related  in  sum  total  of  characters  but  specifically  diver- 
gent in  certain  single  characters.  Group  C  is  somewhat  similar 
in  complexion  to  group  B  but  the  relationship  of  bullatum  and 
laticauda  is  close  and  nigripes  is  a  divergent  type,  the  peculiar 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  23 

adpressed  character  of  the  cereal  tooth  giving  it  a  rather  unique 
position,  although  in  general  its  relationship  to  the  other  two 
species  is  readily  perceived.  This  group  (C)  is  quite  divergent 
from  group  B,  its  probable  ancestral  type.  Group  D  is  probably 
a  link  connecting  groups  B  and  E,  but  distinct  enough  in  char- 
acter from  either  of  these  to  be  given  an  independent  position. 
In  Groups  E  and  F  the  elongation  of  the  cercus  is  progressively 
pronounced,  much  resembling  that  found  in  one  species  of  Group 
G  and  one  of  Group  I,  which,  however,  are  members  of  other 
phyla  of  the  genus.  The  ovipositor  in  these  groups  shows  the 
extreme  development  of  the  elongate  arcuate  type.  Group  F 
was  apparently  derived  from  a  Group  E-like  ancestor,  and  in  it 
we  find  the  extreme  development  of  the  cercus  in  elongation 
(equalled  in  unispina  of  Group  I),  this  also  being  gently  inbowed 
distad,  the  tooth  proximal  and  distinctly  directed  proximad, 
while  the  ovipositor  is  straight  and  elongate.  Group  G  is  very 
distinct  in  character,  being  sharply  defined  by  the  pecuUarity 
of  the  speculum  of  the  male  tegmina,  and  the  straight  dorsal 
margin  of  the  ovipositor  (this  in  volantum  resembling  that  of 
gladiator  of  Group  B,  but  this  is  probably  due  to  convergence 
caused  by  the  use  of  similar  oviposition  sites).  In  this  group  (G) 
the  cercus  is  elongated,  the  tooth  is  distinctly  proximal,  although 
the  direction  of  the  tooth  is  different  in  the  two  included  species. 
Group  H  occupies  a  peculiar  position,  showing  a  number  of  fea- 
tures of  relationship  to  Group  I  and  some  apparently  superficial 
resemblance  to  Group  G,  but  the  greater  affinity  is  with  Group  I. 
Group  I  shows  a  decided  tendency  toward  Conocephalus,  but  in 
general  it  is  distinctly  a  member  of  the  genus  Orchelimum.  The 
unispinose  caudal  genicular  lobes  of  the  species  of  Groups  H  and 
I  readily  separate  them  from  those  of  the  other  groups.  Group 
I  has  its  extreme  condition  in  unispina  with  its  obsolete  humeral 
sinus. 

Key  to  the  Syecies 

The  following  key  is  largely  artificial,  particularly  in  the  female 
sex,  but  it  will  be  found  to  separate  the  majority  of  the  species 
with  little  difficulty.  Some  few  forms  which  are  easily  distin- 
guishable in  the  male  are  difficult  to  separate  in  the  opposite  sex 
and  vice  versa.     In  case  any  difficulty  is  encountered  in  forming 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


24  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

a  clear  idea  of  the  differential  features  of  a  certain  form  or  forms, 
we  would  suggest  that  the  figures  given  in  this  paper  for  the 
species  involved  be  examined.  With  the  aid  of  the  figures  we 
feel  that  proper  identification  can  readily  be  made. 

MALES 
A.  Cercus  of  average  length,  portion  distad  of  insertion  of  median  tooth  not 
markedly  longer  than  that  proximad  of  same.     General  form  relatively  more 
robust. 

B.  Tooth  of  cercus  distinctly  longer  than  distal  portion  of  cereal  shaft 
and  greatly  produced,  decidedly  aciculate.  (Humeral  sinus. hardly  indi- 
cated; ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  armed.) 

calcaratum  new  species 
BB.  Tooth  of  cercus  not  longer  than  distal  portion  of  cereal  shaft,  not 
decidedly  aciculate. 

C.  Dorsal  surface  of  shaft  of  cercus  without  a  very  decided  sinuate 
carination. 

D.  Cercus  distinctly  depressed,  tooth  particularly  so.  (Tooth 
of  cercus  directed  at  a  right  angle  to  general  axis  of  cereal  shaft, 
also  moderately  uncinate  at  apex.  Humeral  sinus  well  indi- 
cated.) agUe  (DeGeer) 
DD.  Cercus  not  distinctly  depressed,  tooth  more  or  less  thick- 
ened in  its  proximal  half. 

E.  Dorsal  surface  of  cereal  shaft  without  a  decided  elevated 
"boss"  or  node  between  insertion  of  tooth  and  apex  of  shaft. 
Speculum  of  stridulating  field  more  decidedly  longitudinal. 
(Head  more  or  less  reddish.)  glaberrimum  (Burmeister) 
EE.  Dorsal  surface  of  cereal  shaft  with  a  decided  elevated 
"boss"  or  node  between  insertion  of  tooth  and  apex  of  shaft. 
Speculum  of  stridulating  field  subquadrate. 

F.  Tooth  of  cercus  as  long  as  distal  half  of  shaft  of 
same,  apex  of  shaft  blunt  acute.  Humeral  sinus  hardly 
indicated,  ventro-caudal  angle  of  lateral  lobes  rectangu- 
late.  gladiator  Bruner 

FF.  Tooth  of  cercus  not  as  long  as  distal  half  of  shaft 
of  same,  apex  of  shaft  bluntly  rounded.  Humeral  sinus 
well  indicated,  ventro-caudal  angle  of  lateral  lobes 
obtusely  rounded.  vulgare  Harris 

CC.  Dorsal  sui-face  of  shaft  of  cercus  with  a  very  decided  sinuate 
carination. 

D.  Tooth  of  cercus  not  strongly  adpressed  against  proximal 
portion  of  sinuate  carina.  Caudal  margin  of  lateral  lobes  of 
pronotum  with  humeral  sinus  appreciably  indicated  and  re- 
mainder of  margin  weakly  arcuate.     Tibiae  not  blackish. 

E.  Fastigrium  relatively  broader.  Metazona  occupying  but 
little  less  than  half  of  dorsal  length  of  pronotum.  Lateral 
lobes  of  pronotum  relatively  shorter,  ventro-caudal  angle 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  25 

acute.  (Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  generally 
unarmed.)  bullatum  new  species 

EE.  Fastigium  relatively  narrower.  Metazona  occupying 
distinctly  less  than  half  of  dorsal  length  of  pronotum. 
Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  relatively  broader,  ventro- 
caudal  ang'e  less  acute.  (Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal 
femora  with  from  two  to  eight  spines.) 

laticauda  Rcdtenbacher 

D.  Tooth  of  cercus  strongly  adpressed  against  proximal  portion 

of  sinuate  carina.     Caudal  margin  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum 

wdth  httle  indication  of  humeral  sinus  and  remainder  of  margin 

distinctly  sinuate.     All  tibiae  blackish.     (Ventro-external  margin 

of  caudal  femora  armed.)  nigripes  Scudder 

AA.  Cercus  moderately  elongate  or  very  elongate,  portion  distad  of  insertion 

of  median  tooth  markedly  longer  than  that  proximad  of  same.     General  form 

relatively  more  slender. 

B.  Apex  of  cercus  not  decidedly  acuminate.  Tooth  of  cercus  in  position 
usual  in  genus,  not  dorsad  or  distinctly  ventro-mesad  in  insertion  or  not 
strongly  proximad  in  trend  (except  in  superbum,  which  has  the  tooth  dis- 
tinctly ventro-mesad  in  insertion). 

C.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with  no  humeral  sinus.     Genicular 
lobes  of  caudal  femora,  unispinose.  superbum  new  species 

CC.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotmn  with  more  or  less  decided  himaeral 
sinus.     Genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora  bispinose. 

D.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  broad,  slightly  broader  than  deep. 

Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  always  armed.     General 

coloration  variegated.     (Size  small.)  minor  Bruner 

DD.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  narrower,  not  quite  as  broad  as 

deep.     Ventro-external   margin   of  caudal   femora  verj'^  rarely 

armed.     General  coloration,  except  face,  more  uniform.     (Size 

small  to  large.)  concinnum  Scudder 

BB.  Apex  of  cercus  decidedly  acuminate  (except  in  superbum).    Tooth  of 

cercus  inserted  on  level  with  dorsal  plane  of  cercus  (volantum),  diverging 

from  ventro-internal  face  {bradleyi  and  unispina)  or  directed  strongly 

proximad  {fidicinium,  militare  and  fraiernum) . 

C.  Speculum   of  stridulating  field   less   elongate   and   narrow,    but 
slightly  longitudinal. 

D.  Stridulating  area  of  tegmina  of  type  usual  in  genus.  Dorsal 
line  of  pronotum  appreciably  ascending  dorso-caudad  on  jneta- 
zona.     Genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora  bispinose. 

E.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  distinctly  deeper  than  broad. 
Cercus  relatively  more  slender.     Fastigium  broader. 

militare  Rehn  and  Hebard 
EE.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  as  broad  as  deep.  Cercus 
relatively  more  robust.     Fastigium  narrower. 

fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


26        STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

DD.  Stridulating  area  of  tegmina  of  type  more  characteristic  of 
Conocephalus,  relatively  smaller  (except  in  superbum).  Dorsal 
line  of  pronotum  not  appreciably  ascending  dorso-caudad  on 
metazona.     Genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora  unispinose. 

E.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  relatively  narrower,  without 
a  distinct  humeral  sinus. 

F.  Cercus  very  attenuate  and  not  flattened  distad. 
Speculum  of  stridulating  field  short,  rather  broad. 
(Size  small.)  unispina  (Saussm-e  and  Zehntner) 

FF.  Cercus  not  attenuate  but  thick  and  somewhat 
flattened  distad.  Speculum  of  stridulating  field  rather 
narrow,  elongate  (not  as  extreme  as  in  bradleyi  and  vol- 
antum).  superbum  new  species 

EE.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  relatively  broader,  with  a 
distinct   though  shallow  humeral  sinus. 

fraternum  new  species 
CC.  Speculum  of  stridulating  field  decidedly  elongate,  very  narrow, 
strongly  longitudinal. 

D.  Tooth  of  cercus  diverging  on  a  plane  with  dorsum  of  cereal 
shaft,  straight,  tapering,  slightly  proximad  in  trend;  distal  por- 
tion of  cereal  shaft  regularly  tapering,  quite  acute,  not  strongly 
depressed  when  seen  from  lateral  aspect.  Tolantum  McNeiU 
DD.  Tooth  of  cercus  diverging  from  ventro-internal  face,  pro- 
jecting distinctly  proximad;  distal  portion  of  cereal  shaft  sub- 
arcuate,  moderately  acute,  strongly  depressed  when  seen  from 
lateral  aspect.  bradleyi  new  species 

FEMALES 
Females  of  superbum,  unispina  and  fraternum  are  unknown. 
A.  Dorsal  outline  of  ovipositor  wholly  or  in  greater  portion  straight.    (Length 
of  ovipositor  always  more  than  one-half  that  of  caudal  femur.) 

B.  Ovipositor  not  equal  to  two-thirds  of  length  of  caudal  femur. 

C.  Ventral  margin  of  ovipositor  regularly  arcuate,  greatest  depth 
approximately  mesad.  Ventro-caudal  angle  of  lateral  lobes  more 
rounded.  volantum  McNeill 

CC.  Ventral  margin  of  ovipositor  straight  for  over  half  its  length, 
proximal  half  of  ovipositor  subequal  in  depth,  narrowing  on  distal 
half.     Ventro-caudal  angle  of  lateral  lobes  more  acute. 

bradleyi  new  species 
BB.  Ovipositor  equal  to  two-thirds  or  more  of  length  of  caudal  femur. 
C.  Ovipositor  very  heavy,  ensiform,  ventral  margin  arcuate,  greatest 
depth  mesad.     Humeral  sinus  not  strongly  indicated. 

gladiator  Bruner 

CC.  Ovipositor  narrow,  elongate,  subequal  in  depth,  both  margins 

straight  for  greater  portion  of  their  length.     Humeral  sinus  strongly 

indicated.  militare  Rehn  and  Ilebard 

AA.  Dorsal  outline  of  ovipositor  always  regularly,  but  more  or  less  decidedly, 

arcuate. 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  27 

B.  Ovipositor  less  than  half  as  long  as  the  caudal  femur. 

C.  Ovipositor  not  deeper  at  some  point  distad  of  base  than  at  base. 
(Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  narrow.)  agile  (DeGeer) 

CC.  Ovipositor  deeper  at  some  point  distad  of  base  than  at  base. 
D.  Ovipositor  with  general  form  less  arcuate. 

E.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  broader,  ventral  portion  of 
caudal  margin  of  same  consideral:)ly  arcuate,  convex  cal- 
losity very  broad.  glaberrimum  (Burmeister) 
EE.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  naiTower,  ventral  portion  of 
caudal  margin  of  same  little  arcuate,  convex  callosity  com- 
paratively narrower.  concinnum  Scudder  (Part) 
DD.  Ovipositor  with  general  form  more  arcuate. 

E.  Fastigium  more  robust.  Caudal  margin  of  lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  with  deeply  impressed  humeral  sinus.  Ventro- 
external  margin  of  caudal  femora  generally  unspined. 

vulgare  Harris 
EE.  Fastigium  less  robust.  Caudal  margin  of  lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  with  but  sUght  indication  of  humeral  sinus. 
Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  always  spined. 

calcaratum  new  species 
BB.  Ovipositor  more  than  half  as  long  as  the  caudal  femur. 
C.  Ovipositor  strongly  falcate. 

D.  Caudal  margin  of  latetal  lobes  of  pronotum  sinuate  or  sub- 
sinuate  ventrad  of  humeral  sinus. 

E.  Ventro-cephaUc  angle  of  lateral  lobes  little  indicated. 

Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  generally  uiLspined. 

Tibiae  not  blackish.  bullatum  new  species 

EE.  Ventro-cephalic  angle  of  lateral  lobes  more  pronounced. 

Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal  femora  spined.     Tibiae 

blackish.  nigripes  Scudder 

DD.  Caudal  margin  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  gently  arcuate 

ventrad  of  humeral  sinus.      (Ventro-external  margin  of  caudal 

femora  with  2  to  8  spines.)  laticauda  Rcdtenbacher 

C.  Ovipositor  gently  arcuate,  never  falcate  in  degi-ee  of  curvature. 

D.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  deeper  than  greatest  breadth. 

Humeral  sinus  moderately  indicated. 

concmniun  Scudder  (Part) 
DD.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  broader  than  deep.  Humeral 
sinus  of  average  (minor)  or  decided  {fidicinium)  indication. 

E.  Ovipositor  proportionately  deeper,  dorsal  line  straighter. 
Tegmen  more  coriaceous.    (Coloration  variegated.) 

minor  Bruner 
EE.  Ovipositor  proportionately  shallower,  dorsal  line  more 
arcuate.  Tegmen  more  vitreous.  (Coloration  more  uni- 
form.) fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard 


TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


28         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens  Examined. — ^The  total  number  of  specimens  listed 
in  the  present  paper  is  2590,  of  which  almost  one-half  were  col- 
lected by  one  or  both  of  the  present  authors.  In  addition  to  the 
specimens  listed  in  the  present  paper  some  hundreds  of  individ- 
uals which  had  been  previously  recorded  by  us  were  re-examined 
and  used  in  forming  the  conclusions  here  reached  by  us.  These, 
however,  have  not  been  treated  in  detail  but  will  be  found  indi- 
cated by  localities  at  the  end  of  the  individual  summaries  of 
material  under  the  species. 

The  abbreviations  used  in  tabulating  specimens  will,  we  feel, 
be  perfectly  clear  to  anyone  using  the  paper,  as  they  are  of  the 
general  type  which  we  have  been  uniformly  using  for  some  time. 
The  present  authors  are  indicated  by  their  respective  initials  and 
the  institutions  by  the  initial  letters  of  their  names.  In  the  case 
of  other  individuals  the  name  is  given  in  full.  Specimens  col- 
lected by  the  authors  which  are  not  indicated  as  in  the  collection 
of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia  or  the  Hebard 
Collection  are  to  be  understood  as  jointly  the  property  of  these 
two  collections,  between  which  they  are  to  be  divided. 

The  types  of  the  following  forms  have  been  examined  in  the 
preparation  of  the  present  study. 

0.  molossum  Rehn  and  Hebard  =  agile  (DeGeer) 

0.  erythrocephalum  Dsivis  —  glaherrimu7n  (Burmeister) 

0.  gladiator  Bruner 

0.  calcaratum  new  species 

0.  hullatum  new  species 

0.  pulchellum  Davis  =  laticauda  Redtenbacher 

0.  nigripes  Scudder 

0.  minor  Bruner 

0.  concinnum  Scudder 

0.  longipennis  Scudder  =  concww/m  Scudder 

0.  gracile  Bruner  {deUcatum  Bruner)  =  concinnum  Scudder 

0.  fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard 

0.  crusculum  T>&y\^=  fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard 

0.  militare  Rehn  and  Hebard 

0.  bradleyi  new  species 

0.  superbum  new  species 

0.  fraternu7>i  new  species 
In  addition  to  these  wc  have  examined  authentic  material, 
labelled  by  the  author,  of  Orchelimum  indianense,  campestre  and 
volantum  Blatchley. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  29 

Acknowledgments. — We  wish  to  tender  our  thanks  to  Dr.  Sam- 
uel Henshaw  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Mr.  A.  N. 
Caudell  of  the  United  States  National  Museum,  Mr.  W.  T.  Davis 
of  New  Brighton,  New  York,  and  Prof.  A.  P.  Morse  of  Wellesley, 
Massachusetts,  for  their  courtesy  in  placing  at  our  disposal  the 
material  of  the  genus  in  the  collections  under  their  charge  or  in 
their  possession.  To  Mr.  Davis,  especially,  we  are  under  great 
obligation  for  not  only  material  but  numerous  suggestions,  as 
well  as  copies  of  important  correspondence  relative  to  the  identity 
of  certain  species  of  the  genus.  Any  call  we  have  made  on  him 
has  been  cheerfully  answered  to  the  fullest  extent  of  his  ability. 

Orchelimum  agUe  (DeGeer)     (Figs.  6,  18,  35,  36  and  69.) 

1773.  Locusia  agilis  DeGeer,  Mem.  Hist.  Ins.,  iii,  p.  457,  pi.  40,  fig.  3.  [Penn- 
sylvania.] 

1839.  Orchelimum  glaucum  Serville,  Hist.  Nat.  Ins.,  Orth.,  p.  524.  [North 
America.] 

1891.  Orchelimum  silvalicum  McNeill,  Fsyche,  vi,  p.  2Q.  (February.)  [Rock 
Island,  Illinois.] 

1891.  Xiphidium  {Orchelimum)  nitidum  Redtenbacher,  Verb.  k.-k.  zool.- 
botan.  Gesellschaft  Wien,  xli,  pp.  494,  503.    (July.)     [Georgia.] 

1891.  Xiphidium  {Orchelimum)  spimdosum  Redtenbacher,  Ibid.,  pp.  495,  503. 
(July.)     [North  Carohna.] 

1907.  Orchelimum  molossum  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1907,  p.  307,  figs.  4  to  6.    [Pablo  Beach,  Florida.] 

While  previously  of  the  opinion  that  agilis  of  DeGeer  was  the 
same  as  Harris'  vulgare,^^  we  now  feel  that  this  view  is  erroneous 
and  that  the  name  properly  belongs  to  the  present  species.  Ana- 
lyzing DeGeer's  description  and  comparing  it  with  females  of  the 
present  species  and  imlgare,  we  find  that  in  size  {%.  e.,  of  Pennsyl- 
vania material),  in  the  relative  length  of  the  ovipositor,  which 
Stal  in  discussing  DeGeer's  type  says  is  ''femoribus  posticis  plus 
dimidio  breviore,"  in  the  several  spines  on  the  caudal  femora 
and  in  the  greenish  costal  edging  of  the  tegmina  the  present  species 
is  in  agreement  with  the  description,  while  in  the  same  features 
vulgare  shows  differences.  The  relative  proportions  of  the  head, 
pronotum  and  caudal  limbs  in  the  original  figure  are  also  those 
of  the  present  species. 

The  remainder  of  the  above  synonymy  has  been  established 
only  after  a  careful  study  of  the  literature  involved,  typical  mate- 

11  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1910,  p.  640,  (1911). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


30         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

rial  of  molossum  and  the  extensive  representation  of  this  species 
now  in  our  hands.  The  description  of  silvaticum  is  brief  and 
unsatisfactory,  only  non-essential  characters  being  mentioned, 
but  there  is  sufficient  in  the  way  of  proportions  and  remarks  on 
the  relationship,  supplemented  later  by  McNeill's  key,  to  enable 
us  to  place  the  name  with  some  degree  of  certainty.  In  the 
synonymizing  of  molossum  and  nitidum  we  are  compelled  to  re- 
verse our  previous  definition  of  the  latter^-,  which  name  we  for- 
merly considered  to  belong  to  the  species  later  named  pulchellum 
by  Davis,  and  for  which  we  here  use  Redtenbacher's  name  lati'- 
cauda.  This  reversal  we  feel  is  warranted,  as  we  are  now  able 
to  state  that  the  species  to  which  we  tl^en  applied  the  name  niti- 
dum was  before  Redtenbacher  when  he  described  the  latter  and 
formed  the  basis  of  his  laticauda.  By  changing  our  views  we 
must  place  molossum  in  the  synonymy.  The  name  spinulosum 
was  based  on  small,  shorter  winged  individuals  of  nitidum,  which 
had  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum  infuscate  or  possessed  paired 
pronotal  bars,  while  the  typical  material  of  nitidum  was  uni- 
colorous  on  the  pronotum.  This  more  or  less  varied  infuscation 
of  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum  with  additional  dark  bars  means 
nothing  of  diagnostic  value  in  this  or  several  other  species  of  the 
genus,  while  our  series  shows  greater  range  in  general  size  and 
tegminal  proportions  than  given  in  the  descriptions  of  nitidum  and 
spinulosum  by  Redtenbacher. 

In  size  we  find  a  general,  or  rather  average,  increase  southward. 
In  using  the  word  "southward"  it  should  here  be  qualified  in 
meaning  to  designate  the  Austroriparian  element  which  extends 
northward  along  the  low  coastal  region,  instead  of  mere  southern 
latitude.  However,  this  average  southern  increase  is  not  in- 
variable, as  in  numerous  series,  such  as  those  from  Tinicum,  Lake 
Waccamaw,  Tybee  Island,  Jacksonville,  Ortega  and  Atlantic 
Beach,  we  find  very  considerable  individual  variation.  In  addi- 
tion, local,  probably  environmental,  factors  seem  to  influence 
size,  as  the  Atlantic  Beach  series  averages  appreciably  smaller 
than  the  Jacksonville  representation,  while  the  Wrightsville  and 
Tybee  Island  salt  marsh  specimens  are  as  a  whole  decidedly 
smaller  than  specimens  from  the  comparatively  close  localities 
of  Winter  Park  and  Cumberland  Island  respectively. 

12  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1907,  p.  306,  (1907). 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  31 

Individuals  with  greatly  produced  tegmina  and  wings  crop  out 
unexpectedly  in  several  of  the  series,  there  being  one  from  Phila- 
delphia, one  from  Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  several  from  Washing- 
ton, a  number  from  Virginia,  one  from  Raleigh,  one  from  Wil- 
mington, North  Carolina,  several  from  Winter  Park,  North 
Carolina,  one  from  Albany,  Georgia,  and  one  from  Live  Oak, 
Florida. 

The  number  of  spines  on  the  distal  portion  of  the  ventro- 
external  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  was  found  on  the  examina- 
tion of  thirt}^  indiscriminately  selected  individuals  in  the  largest 
series,  i.  e.  that  from  Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  to  vary  from  0  to 
5.     The  exact  figures  are  as  follows:  0  and  3  spines,  1  specimen; 

1  and  3  spines,  2  specimens;  2  and  2  spines,  3  specimens;  2  and 
3  spines,  7  specimens;  3  and  3  spines,  10  specimens;  3  and  4 
spines,  3  specimens;  3  and  5  spines,  1  specimen;  4  and  4  spines, 

2  specimens;  4  and  5  spines,  1  specimen. 

From  this  it  is  seen  that  in  half  the  total  the  number  of  spines 
on  the  same  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  agrees,  while  in  an 
equal  number  there  is  a  more  or  less  marked  discrepancy.  Very 
marked  discrepancy  is,  apparently,  not  as  frequent  as  a  discrep- 
ancy of  a  single  spine. 

In  the  coloration  of  the  dorsal  surface  of  the  head  and  pronotum 
w^e  find  every  conceivable  transition  between  one  with  that  sur- 
face of  the  clear  glass  greenish  of  the  lateral  aspects  and  of  the 
tegmina,  to  the  other  extreme  with  paired  diverging  dark  brown- 
ish lines  extending  caudad  at  least  to  the  principal  transverse 
sulcus,  between  which  lines  the  dorsum  is  more  or  less  infuscate, 
occasionally  so  much  so  that  these  bordering  lines  are  distin- 
guished with  difficult}-. 

Distribution. — Coastal  Plain  and  adjacent  portion  of  the  Pied- 
mont Region  of  the  eastern  states  from  as  far  north  as  south- 
eastern Pennsylvania  (CoUegeville,  Cornwells,  Chestnut  Hill, 
Philadelphia  and  Tinicum)  and  southern  New  Jersey  (north  as 
far  as  Westvillc  and  Ventnor)  south  to  southern  Floritla,  west 
as  far  as  south-central  Kansas  (Wichita;  Isely),  Arkansas  and  the 
Mississip])i  Valley  section  of  Louisiana  (Buras  and  Milnelnirg), 
and  north  in  the  Mississippi  Valley  at  least  as  far  as  northern 
Illinois  (Rock  Island;  McNeill)  and  west  central  Indiana  (Vigo 
County;  Blatchley). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


■32  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens  Examined:   519;  280  &,  231  9 ,  2  juv.  cf,  6  juv.   9  . 

Collegeville,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  21  and  22,  1909,  (H.  Fox;  meadow),  3  cf , 
:8  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  X,  1906,  (R.  &  H.;  in  meadow  land),  1  cf,  1  9  ; 
IX,  7,  1914,  (H.;  in  vegetation  along  river  and  in  marsh),  17  c?',  16  9 . 

Chestnut  Hill,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  18,  1903,  (H.),  4  0=^,  4  9  . 

Addingham,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  8,  1914,  (D.  E.  Culver),  1  cf ,  1  9,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 

Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  (Westcott),  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Gibson's  Pomt,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  11,  1910,  VIII,  19,  1911, 
(H.  Fox),  13  o^,  3  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  13,  1911,  IX,  29,  1903  and  1913,  IX,  9,  1904, 
(R.  &  H.;  in  meadow  land),  71  cT,  53  9  • 

WestviUe,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  31,  1899,  (G.  M.  Greene),  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Jericho,  New  Jersey,  IX,  6,  1910,  (H.  Fox;  in  marsh),  1  cf ,  2  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  17  and  26,  1914,  (H.;  grasses  and  marshy  spots 
as  well  as  grassy  clumps  on  the  higher  areas),  27  cf ,  20  9,2  juv.  cf ,  6  juv.  9  . 

Canton,  New  Jersey,  IX,  7,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  1   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Dorchester,  New  Jersey,  IX,  4,  1910,  (H.  Fox;  marsh),  3  d",  3  9,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14  and  26,  1914,  (H.;  common  in  fresh 
marsh  grasses  and  rushes  along  river),  19  cf',  20  9  • 

Ocean  View,  New  Jersey,  IX,  4  and  6,  1909,  (H.  Fox;  upland  meadow  bor- 
dering salt  marsh),  6  cf  5  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Sea  Isle  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  15, 1910,  (H.  Fox;  in  tall  grasses  and  Cyperis), 
11  c^,2  9,[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Goshen,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  22,  1910,  VIII,  27,  1912,  (H.  Fox),  4  d^,  3  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Avalon,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12  and  20,  1910,  VIII,  12,  1911,  (H.  Fox;  in  sedge 
in  dune  depression),  6  cf,  8  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Anglesea,  New  Jersey,  IX,  6,  (W.  T.  Davis)  1  c?,  1   9,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Near  Town  Bank,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  15,  1912,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d",  [U.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

Erma,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  19,  1912,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Cape  May,  New  Jersey,  IX,  24,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  2  c^,  4  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Newcastle,  Delaware,  VIII,  6,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  1  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Montgomery  Co.,  Maryland,  IX,  23,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  Id',!  9,  [Davis 
Chi.]. 

Chestertown,  Maryland,  VIII,  25,  1899,  (E.  G.  Vanatta),  1  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cedar  Point,  Morgantown,  Maryland,  VIII,  24,  1913,  (W.  L.  McAtee),  1  d, 
1  9,[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

HyattsviUe,  Maryland,  IX,  17,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Wasliington,  D.  C,  IX,  1883,  1  c^,  3  9,  [Hebard  Cln.];  IX,  3  to  11,  (A.  N. 
Caudell),  5  cf,  3  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.];  VII  and  VIII,  1904  and  1909,  (H.  A. 
AUard),  3  cr,3  9,  [U.S.N.  M.]. 

Virginia,  VIII,  14,  X,  1,  1883,  3  c^,  9  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Rosslyn,  Virginia,  IX,  X,  20,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  4  cf ,  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  33 

Addison,  Virginia,  X,  6,  1912,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  1  c?,  1    9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Appomattox,  Virginia,  IX,  6,  1903,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  6  9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Virginia  Beach,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  Id',!  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Hamlet,  North  Carolina,  X,  1906,  (F.  Sherman),  1  9  ,  [X.  C.  Dept.  of  Agric.]. 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  high  weeds  near 
lake  shore),  9  cf ,  10  9. 

Wilmington,  North  Carohna,  VII,  23,  1905,  (J.  P.  Spoon),  1  o^  [X.  C.  Dept. 
of  Agi-ic.]. 

Winter  Park,  North  CaroUna,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  grasses  in  field),  2  c?. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  weeds  on  barrier 
beach),  1   cf. 

Yemassee,  South  Carohna,  IX,  4,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  grasses),  1  cf ,  3  9  . 

Thompson's  Mills,  Georgia,  1908,  X,  1909,  (H.  A.  AUard),  2  c?,  1  9,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

Stone  Mountain,  Georgia,  IX,  12,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  d,  [Ga.  State 
Cln.]. 

Albany,  Georgia,  VIII,  1,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  attracted  to  light  at  night),  1  9  . 

IlebardviUe,  Georgia,  VIII,  28,  1911,  (H.)  1  d. 

Jesup,  Georgia,  IX,  1,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  swamp  in  pine  woods),  1  d^,  1   9  . 

Cumberland  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  31,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  weeds  on  beach), 
3  cf,  1   9. 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  IX,  2,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  scarce  in  marsh  grass),  3cf , 
29. 

Savamiah,  Georgia,  VIII,  13  to  14,  1903,  (Morse),  11  cf ,  8  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Live  Oak,  Florida,  VIII,  26,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d. 

Jacksonville,  Florida,  (Priddey),  3  d;  VIII,  1885,  (Ashmead),  2  d^,  2  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 

South  Jacksonville,  Florida,  IX,  28,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1   9 ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Ortega,  Florida,  IX,  6,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  cf ,  3  9 ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Pablo  Beach,  Florida,  IX,  27,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d,  [Davis  Chi.]. 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII,  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  fairly  common  on  high 
weeds  in  hammock  jungle),  5  cf ,  2   9  . 

Hastings,  Florida,  VIII,  7  to  X.  15,  (A.  J.  Brown),  2  c?,  4  9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Sanford,  Florida,  (G.  B.  Frazer),  2  d,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Carrabelle,  Florida,  VIII,  9,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Marianna,  Florida,  VIII,  6,  1903,  (Morse)  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Quincy,  Florida,  X,  27,  1905,  (W.  A.  Hooker),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Alabama,  1  d,  [Hebard  Cln.];  1  d,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chattanooga,  Tennessee,  VIII,  24,  1903,  (Mor.se),  3  cf ,  4  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Lafayette,  Indiana,  X,  14,  1914,  (H.  Fox),  1   9,  [Fox  Cln.]. 

Southern  Illinois,  1   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Arkansas,  1  9,  [U.S.  N.  M.]. 

Milneburg,  Louisiana,  VII,  22,  1905,  (Morse),  7  cf,  9  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Buras,  Louisiana,  VII,  23,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

We  have  also  recorded  this  species  from  Thomasville,  Georgia,  as  nilidum; 
from  Pablo  Beach,  Gainesville,  Lakeland  and  Everglade,  Florida,  Edenton, 
Newbern  and  Raleigh,  North  Carolina  and  Rosslyn,  \irginia,  as  molossum 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


34  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

and  from  Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  and  Chestnut  Hill  and  Tinicum,  Penn- 
sylvania as  spinulosum. 

Orchelimum  glaberrimum  (Burmeister)     (Figs.  7,  19,  37,  38  and  70.) 

1838.  X[iphidium]  (jlaberrimum  Burmeister,  Handb.  der  Entom.,  ii,  abth.  ii, 
pt.  1,  p.  707.     [Georgetown,  South  Carolina.] 

1839.  Orchelimum  cuticulare  Serville,  Hist.  Nat.  Ins.  Orth.,  p.  523.      [No 
locality.] 

1905.     Orchelimum  erythrocephalum  Davis,   Canad.  Entom.,  xxxvii,  p.  288. 
[Lakehurst,  Toms  River  and  "Ocean  Co.,"  New  Jersey.] 

'We  have  traced  out  the  movements  of  Zimmermann,  who 
collected  the  material  on  which  Burmeister  founded  the  species, 
and  find  that  Georgetown,  South  Carolina,  is  the  only  locality 
which  he  had  visited  in  "South  Carolina"  up  to  the  time  Bur- 
meister's  work  appeared.  Accordingly  we  have  selected  that 
place  as  the  type  locality.  An  effort  to  locate  the  original  mate- 
rial has  been  unsuccessful,  the  only  thing  positive  being  the 
assurance  from  Prof.  0.  Taschenberg  that  it  does  not  exist  in  the 
Halle  collections. 

Regarding  the  synonymy  of  cuticulare  with  the  present  species, 
a  careful  study  of  the  description  of  Serville's  species  shows  con- 
clusively that  they  are  the  same.  The  name  cuticulare  has  been 
erroneously  used  by  Redtenbacher  for  a  species  which  we  are 
here  naming  calcaratum.  The  lack  of  appreciation  by  some 
European  workers  of  American  geography  and  the  settlement  of 
the  country  is  evidenced  by  the  reference  of  a  form  described  as 
long  ago  as  1839,  to  a  species  found  only  in  a  region  which  up  to 
that  time  was  largely  the  proverbial  howling  wilderness,  trav- 
ersed only  by  pioneers  and  strong  government  detachments. 

Mr.  Davis  has  been  kind  enough  to  place  in  our  hands  an  exten- 
sive series  of  New  Jersey,  North  Carohna  and  Florida  specimens 
of  this  species,  those  from  the  first  mentioned  state  being  typical 
of  his  erythrocephalum.  These  confirm  the  previously  expressed 
opinion  of  the  authors  regarding  the  synonymy  of  the  two  forms. 
The  smaller  size  of  the  New  Jersey  specimens  is  explained  when 
a  series  representing  localities  extending  from  that  state  to  Florida 
is  laid  out,  as  the  increase  in  size  southward  is  in  general  regular, 
with,  however,  the  usual  amount  and  percentage  of  individual 
variation  found  in  forms  of  this  genus.  Environment  also  is 
without  doubt  an  influencing  factor  in  regard  to  size.     In  no 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  35 

case,  however,  is  a  New  Jersey  specimen  as  large  as  the  average 
North  Carohna  individual. 

As  an  index  to  the  average  amount  of  this  geographic  size 
variation  we  here  present  the  proportions  (in  millimeters)  of 
representative  pairs  of  average  dimensions  for  the  series  from 
that  locality. 

Lakehurst,         Fayetteville,  Florence, 

New  Jersey      North  Carolina  South  Carolina 

d'         9         d'  9  d"         9 

Length  of  body 20.2  22. Tj  25  2.3.2  25. .5  24.7 

Length  of  pronotum 5.9       5.9  6.5  6.5  6.8       7 

Length  of  caudal  femur 17.3  18  19.8  20.5  20  21 

Length  of  o\ipositor 9.2  ....  10.2  ....  10 

Billy's  Island,     South  Jackson- 
Georgia  ville,  Florida 

d'  ?  cf  9 

Length  of  body 22.5  27  24  23.2 

Length  of  pronotum 7  7.3       8  7.5 

Length  of  caudal  femiu- 21  21.8  23 . 3  22 

Length  of  ovipositor 10  ....  10 

The  body  length  is,  as  usual,  unreliable  on  account  of  the 
frequent  unnatural  compression  or  extension. 

The  length  of  the  tegmina  and  wings  is  as  variable  in  this 
species  as  in  vulgare,  the  caudate  type  of  tegmen  and  wing  appear- 
ing in  any  extensive  series.  We  have  before  us  specimens  with 
the  tegmina  and  wings  considerably  surpassing  the  apices  of  the 
caudal  femora  from  Lakehurst,  Chatsworth,  Jamesburg,  Park- 
dale  and  Atsion,  New  Jersey;  Bayville,  Virginia;  Fayetteville 
and  Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina;  Florence  and  Yemassee, 
South  Carolina;  Albany,  Groveland,  Thomasville,  Billy's  Island, 
Tybee  Island  and  Jesup,  Georgia,  and  Jacksonville,  South  Jack- 
sonville, Pablo  Beach,  La  Grange  and  Cedar  Keys,  Florida. 

An  examination  of  one  hundred  and  eleven  specimens  for  the 
presence  or  absence  of  spines  on  the  ventro-external  margin  of 
the  caudal  femora  gives  figures  which  support  our  former  con- 
tention ^'^  regarding  the  variability  of  this  feature.  We  are  able 
here  to  go  more  fully  into  this  matter  and  present  details  of  the 
spine  count.  Twenty-one  New  Jersey  specimens  bear  no  spines 
on  this  margin,  while  fifty-three  have  one  or  more  spines.  Of  this 
fiftj'-thrce,  the  combinations  of  spines  and  number  for  each  are 
given  below  with  the  figures  for  series  from  four  other  localities. 

isproc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1910,  p.  639,  (1911). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


36         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


Various  New 
Jersey  localities 

Raleigh, 
North  Carolina 

Florence,        Billy's  Island, 
South  Carolina       Georgia 

South  Jackson 
ville,  Florida 

0-0 

21 

1 

3 

2 

1 

0-1 

8 

2 

0 

2 

1 

0-2 

7' 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0-3 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1-1 

7 

0 

1 

2 

1 

1-2 

9 

0 

2 

1 

0 

1-3 

3 

0 

1 

1 

1 

2-2 

7 

0 

0 

1 

3 

2-3 

6 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2-4 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

3-3 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

3-4 

4 

0 

0 

0 

2 

3-5 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

3-6 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

4-4 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

In  forty-two  specimens  from  Lakehurst,  New  Jersey,  we  find 
thirty-two  with  the  external  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  with 
one  or  more  spines  and  ten  without  spines. 

.  The  red  or  reddish  coloration  of  the  head  is  almost  invariably 
well  marked  in  northern  (i.  e.,  New  Jersey)  specimens,  but  in 
material  from  the  southern  portion  of  the  range  of  the  species 
this  is  not  as  decidedly  indicated,  being  often  of  a  paler  shade, 
although  occasionally  individuals  are  just  as  highly,  or  rather 
deeply,  colored  as  New  Jersey  specimens. 

Distribution. — -As  shown  by  material  before  us,  the  range  of 
this  species  extends  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  Coastal  Plain 
of  the  eastern  United  States  from  north-central  New  Jersey 
(Old  Bridge,  Helmetta  and  Jamesburg)  south  to  southern  Florida, 
inland  at  least  as  far  as  the  western  edge  of  the  Pine  Barren 
region  in  New  Jersey,  in  North  Carolina  as  far  as  Raleigh  and  in 
Georgia  extending  at  least  as  far  inland  as  Macon.  Westward 
along  the  Gulf  Coast  we  know  the  species  ranges  at  least  as  far 
asj^southern  Mississippi.  Redtenbacher  has  also  recorded  it 
from  Tennessee,  Missouri,  Texas  and  "Rocky  Mountains,  Colo- 
rado," the  last  certainly  in  error  and  the  others  possibly  so. 
Ashmead  has  recorded  glaherrimum  from  Utica,  Mississippi  and 
Allard  credits  it  to  Thompsons  Mills,  Georgia,  but  in  the  former 
case  there  may  be  some  confusion  with  long-winged  vulgare,  and 
in  the  latter  we  find  from  the  material  this  to  be  the  case,  so  it 
seems  most  advisable  to  base  our  summary  of  the  geographic 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  37 

range  of  the  species  solely  on  the  specimens  examined  b}^  us. 
For  comments  on  other  records  of  glaberrimum  see  under  the 
distribution  of  vulgare. 

Specimens  Examined:   247,  191  cf,  48  9,4  juv.  cf ,  4  juv.   9  . 

Ocean  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  25,  1   9  ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Lakehm-st,  New  Jersey,  VII,  16  to  30,  VIII,  15  to  22,  IX,  4  to  24,  X,  18, 
(W.  T.  Davis),  40  cf ,  4  9,  [Davis  Cln.].  Paratypes  of  Orchelimum  eryUiro- 
cephalum  Davis. 

Jamesbiirg,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  11,  IX,  19  to  20,  (W.  T.  Davis),  10  d',  [Davis 
Cln.]. 

Old  Bridge,  New  Jersey,  X,  8,  1909,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  o",  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Cassville,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  1910,,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  cf ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

South  of  Cassville,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12,  1911,  (\V.  T.  Davis).  1  c?,  [Davis 
Cln.]. 

WhitesviUe,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  22,  1912,  (W.  T.  Davis),  3  cf ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Chatsworth,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14  to  21,  1912,  (W.  T.  Davis),  12  cf,  2  9, 
[Davis  Cln.]. 

High  Bridge,  Ocean  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis), 
1  &,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Toms  River,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  15,  1S85,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  d",  [Davis  Cln., 
and  Hebard  Cln.]. 

Brown's  Mills  Junction,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  4, 1905,  (E.  Daecke),  1  cf ,  [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Atsion,  New  Jersey,  VII,  3,  1911,  X,  8,  1903,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cf ,  1  9 ,  [Hebard 
Cln.];  VIII,  14,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  c^,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Parkdale,  New  Jensey,  VII,  30,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  2  c?,  1   9  • 

May's  Landing,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  26  and  29,  1914,  (H.;  moderately  com- 
mon in  marshy  area,  singing  loudly  in  afternoon,  scarcely  at  all  after  dark), 
15  &. 

Reega,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  20  and  29,  1914,  (H.;  in  high  grass  in  open  glade 
in  pine  woods,  immature  individuals  found  on  first  date),  4  d^,  1  9,1  juv.  9  • 

Between  Woodbine  and  Belleplain,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  21,  1912,  (H.  Fo.x), 
1  d^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Belleplain,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  21,  1912,  IX,  2,  1909,  (H.  Fox;  gi-assy  area 
in  pine  woods),  3  c?,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Great  Cedar  Swamp  near  Sea  Isle  Junction,  New  Jersey,  VII,  29,  1911,  VIII, 
27,  1910,  X,  15,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  15  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cedar  Swamp  Bog,  two  miles  east  of  North  Dennisville,  New  Jersey,  \'III, 
18,  1908,  (H.  Fox),  1  o^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Virginia  Beach,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1   9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Cape  Henry,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1  9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  X,  3  d",  7   9 ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Goldsboro,  North  Carohna,  VII,  25,  1913,  (R.  &  II.),  1  juv.  9  . 

FayetteviUe,  North  Carolina,  IX,  9,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  common  in  grasses  and 
weeds),  1  d^,  4  9. 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  2  d". 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.   SOC,    XLI. 


38         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  boggy  area  where 
Venus-fly-trap  (Dionca)  grew),  1  cf ,  1  9  ;  VIII,  1,  (G.  P.  Engelhardt) ,  1  cf , 
[Davis  Cln.]. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  oak  scrub),  1  cf . 

Smithville,  North  CaroHna,  XI,  22,  2  d",  [M.  C.  Z.J. 

Florence,  South  Carolina,  IX,  6,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  open  space  with  high 
grass),  5  cf ,  3  9  . 

Ashley  Junction,  South  CaroUna,  VIII,  15,  1913,  (R.;  in  wet  spots  in  pine 
woods),  1  juv.  9  . 

Yemassee,  South  CaroUna,  IX,  4,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  green  grasses  along 
railroad),  3  cf . 

Denmark,  South  Carohna,  VIII,  15,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d',  1  ?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Macon,  Georgia,  VII,  30  to  31,  1913,  (R.  &.  H),  3  juv.  cf ,  1  juv.  9  ■ 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  IX,  2,  1911,  (H. ;  in  high  grasses  along  edge  of  tidal 
marsh),  2  d^. 

Savannah,  Georgia,  VIII,  14,  1903,  (Morse),  4  d',  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Groveland,  Cannoche  River,  Georgia,  VIII,  28,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  cf , 
[Ga.  State  Cln.]. 

Jesup,  Georgia,  IX,  1,  1911,  (H.;  in  swamp  in  pine  woods),  2  cf ,  1   9 . 

BiUy's  Island,  Georgia,  IX,  1  to  5,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  10  cf ,  1  9  • 

HomerviUe,  Georgia,  VIII,  27,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d. 

Albany,  Georgia,  VIII,  1,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  in  tangles),  1  cf . 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII,  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  marshy  land  on  edge 
of  hammocks),  1  cf . 

Pablo  Beach,  Florida,  IX,  5,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  cf ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

South  Jacksonville,  Florida,  IX,  7  and  28,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  11  cf,  2  9, 
[Davis  Cln.]. 

Hastings,  Florida,  VIII,  7  to  X,  15,  (A.  J.  Brown),  16  cf ,  11  9 ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

La  Grange,  Florida,  IX,  9  &  X,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Alabama,  1  cf ,  1   9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Flomaton,  Alabama,  VIII,  2,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Nugent,  Mississippi,  VII,  20,  1905,  (Morse),  19,1  juv.  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Biloxi,  Mississippi,  VII,  19,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Gulfport,  Mississippi,  VII,  18,  1905,  (Morse)^  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

In  addition  to  these  records  Smith  has  reported  the  species  from  Tuckerton, 
New  Lisbon  and  Lahaway,  New  Jersey;  while  the  present  authors  have  re- 
corded specimens  from  Bayville,  Virginia;  Newbern  and  Winter  Park,  North 
CaroUna;  Thomasville  and  Waynesville,  Georgia,  and  San  Pablo,  Jacksonville. 
Gainesville,  Cedar  Keys  and  Everglade,  Florida.  The  present  authors'  record 
from  Edenton,  North  CaroUna,  refers  to  vulgare,  under  which  species  it  is  cor- 
rected. Fox  has  erroneously  recorded  this  species  from  Rockville,  Pennsyl- 
vania, the  material  being  vulgare,  and  from  between  Winslow  and  Folsom, 
New  Jersey,  the  latter  specimens  belonging  to  our  new  superhutn. 

Orchelimum  vulgare  Harris  (Figs.  8,  20,  39,  40  and  71.) 

1841.     Orchelimu7n  vulgare  Harris,  Ins.  Inj.  Veget.,  p.  130.    [Massachusetts.] 

Tliis  species  is  very  closely  related  to  0.  glaherrimiim  (Burmeis- 
ter),  but  wliile  the  present  form   ranges  over  the  Carolinian, 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  39 

Transition  and  portions  of  the  Canadian  life  zones,  glaberrimum 
is  chiefly  restricted  to  the  Austroriparian  zone.  The  ranges 
of  the  two  touch  and  possibly  to  a  slight  degree  overlap,  but 
there  is  no  definite  intergradation  of  the  material,  typical  indi- 
viduals of  each  occurring  side  by  side  at  certain  localities  on  the 
meeting  ground  of  the  two  species. 

The  great  difficulty  in  the  past  with  these  two  names  {i.  e., 
glaberrimum  and  vulgare)  has  been  due  to  the  failure  of  authors 
to  comprehend  the  real  characters  separating  them.  Large 
specimens  of  vulgare  and  individuals  of  the  same  with  caudate 
tegmina  and  wings  were  called  glaberrimum  regardless  of  the 
good  structural  characters  which  separate  the  two.  All  the 
glaberrimum  records  from  the  normal  range  of  vulgare  are  pro- 
bably these  long-winged  vulgare,  but  those  records  from  the  line 
where  the  species  meet  cannot  be  assigned  without  examination 
of  the  original  material. 

The  general  characters  separating  the  two  species  are;  the 
generally  larger,  frequently  much  larger,  size  of  glaberrimum,  the 
relatively  broader  and  shallower  fastigium  of  the  same  form,  the 
broader  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  of  vulgare,  the  generallj^more 
elongate  speculum  of  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina 
of  glaberrimum,  the  preapical  node  on  the  dorsal  surface  of  the 
male  cercus  in  vulgare,  this  being  absent  in  glaberriuium,  and  the 
straighter  and  less  falcate  ovipositor  of  the  female  of  glaberrimum. 

In  general  size  vulgare  holds  rather  small  northward,  material 
from  the  more  southern  localities  averaging  larger,  this  being 
quite  noticeable  in  specimens  from  North  Carolina,  Missouri, 
south-central  Kansas,  Oklahoma  and  Texas  localities.  However, 
like  the  other  forms  of  this  genus,  individual  variation  at  any 
one  place  is  very  considerable,  and  in  series  averaging  large  we 
will  find  small  or  medium  sized  individuals  and  vice  versa.  In 
no  case,  however,  does  this  species  reach  the  great  size  frequently 
attained  by  glaberrimum. 

Individuals  with  elongate  tegmina  and  wings,  i.  e.,  these  very 
considerably  exceeding  the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora,  occur  in 
the  material  before  us  from  all  over  the  range  of  the  species.  The 
localities  represented  by  this  phase  in  the  series  before  us  are: 
North  Saugus  and  Seekonk,  Massachusetts;  Port  Allegany  and 
Rockville,    Pennsylvania;    Delaware;    Chestertown,    Maryland; 

PEANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


40  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia;  Virginia;  Grant  County,  West 
Virginia;  Linville,  North  Carolina;  Thompsons  Mills,  Georgia; 
Indiana;  Illinois;  Clarksville, Tennessee;  St.  Louis,  Missouri;  Iowa 
City  and  Dallas  County,  Iowa;  West  Point,  Kearney,  Lincoln 
and  Neligh,  Nebraska;  Topeka,  Barber  County,  Hiawatha  and 
Belpre,  Kansas,  and  Dallas,  Texas. 

An  examination  of  the  series  before  us  shows  that  normally  the 
ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  unspined  in 
this  species,  only  occasional  specimens  having  one  or  two  spines. 
Forty-eight  specimens  from  five  representative  localities  show 
counts  as  follows: 


Saunderatown, 
Rhode  Island 

Tinicum, 
Pennsylvania 

Sulphur  Springs, 
North  Carolina 

St.  Louis, 
Missouri 

West  Point, 
Nebraska 

0-0       0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

2-2 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0          0-0 

0-0       0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-1 

0-0          0-0 

0-0       0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-1 

1-1          0-0 

0-0       0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0          0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0 

0-0          0-0 

Distribution^^. — Extending  from  southern  Maine  (Norway; 
Smith),  southern  Quebec  (Montreal;  Caulfield),  the  Muskoka 
region  of  Ontario  (Walker) ,  north  shore  of  Lake  Superior  (Caul- 
field)  and  Minnesota  (Lugger),  south  in  the  east  as  far  as  north- 
ern Georgia  (Thompsons  Mills;  Allard),  north  of  the  Carolinas 
extending  eastward  to  the  coast,  in  the  Carolinas  east  as  far  as 
Raleigh  (Brimley)  and  Edenton,  in  the  interior  south  to  at  least 
Tennessee,  northwest  Arkansas  (Fayette ville)  and  northeast 
Texas  (Dallas),  west  to  the  foot  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  Colo- 
rado (Manitou)  and  eastern  Wyoming  (Thomas).  Certainly  the 
majority  of  the  glaherrimum  records  from  this  region  refer  to 
long-winged  vulgare,  except  in  the  Pine  Barrens  of  New  Jersey 
where  glaherrimum  reaches  its  northern  limit,  while  it  is  possible 
some  of  the  interior  records  refer  to  gladiator  and  calcaratum. 
The  record  of  this  species  from  Chokoloskee,  Florida,  by  the  pres- 
ent authors  is  erroneous,  the  material  having  been  from  else- 
where. 

Specimens  Examined:  467;  248  cf;   195  9;   10  juv.  cT;  14  juv.  9. 
Montreal,  Quebec,  Canada,  (Lyman),  1   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.j. 
Windsor,  Ontario,  Canada,  IX,  1894,  3  cT,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

1*  Owing  to  the  great  confusion  previously  existing  between  the  present 
species  and  0.  glaherrimum,  we  are  here  considering  as  trustworthy  only  such 
records  as  our  material  gives  reason  to  believe  are  correct. 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  41 

Brunswick,  Maine,  IX,  2,  1913,  (Morse),  1  cf,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Norway,  Maine,  (S.  I.  Smith),  4  c?,  2  9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Vermont,  2  cf ,  1  9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Jaffrey,  New  Hampshire,  IX,  5  to  18,  1896,  (S.  Henshaw),  4  9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Seabrook,  New  Hampshire,  (A.  A.  Eaton),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Cape  Cod,  Massachusetts,  1  c^,  1   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Provincetown,  Massachusetts,  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Chatham,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  1904,  (Morse),  2  9,  [Morse  On.]. 

Seekonk,  Massachusetts,  (Mrs.  Brigham),  1  cT,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

North  Saugus,  Massachusetts,  IX,  6, 1906,  (C.  C.  Gowday),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.J. 

Truro,  Massachusetts,  IX,  4,  1904,  (Morse),  1  c?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Vicinity  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  (Scudder),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

WoUaston,  Massachusetts,  VII,  1896,  VIII,  1895,  (F.  H.  Sprague),  2  d^,  4  9  , 
[M.  C.  Z.]. 

Wellesley,  Massachusetts,  VII,  18,  1892,  (Mor.se),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Sharon,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  1,  1897,  (F.  H.  Sprague),  1  c?,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Marion,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  1905,  (H.),  3  c?,  1   9. 

Nantucket,  Massachusetts,  (Scudder),  5  cf ,  3  9,  [M.  C.  Z.|. 

Saunderstomi,  Rhode  Ishmd,  IX,  3  to  9,  1913,  (H.),  5  d',  4  9 . 

Wesquage  Beach,  Rhode  IsLand,  IX,  8  and  10,  1913,  (H.),  2  9 . 

Cattaraugus,  New  York,  IX,  1894,  1  o^,  3  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.  and  Cornell  Univ.]. 

Chfton  Springs,  New  York,  1  d',  3  9,  [M.  C.  Z.  and  Cornell  Univ.]. 

Ithaca,  New  York,  VII,  27  to  30,  1885,  VIII,  4  to  26,  1885,  (O.  E.  Pearce), 
19cf ,  14  9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.  and  Cornell  Univ.];  VIII,  15  and  22,  1890  and  1891,  2 d^, 
1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Berkshire,  New  York,  1  d',  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Mosholu,  New  York,  X,  18,  1  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Port  Allegany,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  1  to  8,  1904^  (H.  W.  Fowler),  1  9  ,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 

Tobyhanna,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  2,  1903  (H.),  2  d",  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Blairsville,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  27,  3  d',  4  9,  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Diamond  Valley,  Huntington  Co.,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  10,  1905,  (R.),  1  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Rockville,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  5  to  29,  4  d',  4  9,  1  juv.  9,  [Penna.  State 
Dept.  Zool.]. 

Camphill,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  22,  1    9 ,  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 
Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  9,  VIII,  2  to  18,  4  d",  4  9,1  juv.  9  ,  [Penna. 
State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Dauphin,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  15,  1  d",  1   9 ,  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 
Middletown,  Pennsylvania,  X,  19,  1  d",  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 
Highspire,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  28,  1  juv.  9 ,  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 
Perkasie,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  4,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  2  d^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 
Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  7,  1914,  (H.;  scarce  in  marsh  vegetation,  com- 
mon in  clumps  of  weeds  in  fields),  4  d^,  1   9  • 

Devon,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  14,  1905,  1  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  15,  1911,  IX,  19,  1908,  (R.  &  H.),  2  d^,  1  9  • 

Castle  Rock,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  19,  1908,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d',  4   9 . 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


42  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Chestnut  Hill,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  2,  1904,  IX,  13  to  18,  1903,  (H.),  4  d', 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 

Mount  Airy,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  15,  VIII,  4, 1911,  (H.  Fox),  3  c?,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Addingham,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  8,  1914,  (D.  E.  Culver),  2  cf ,  1  9,  [A. 
N.  S.  P.] 

Gibson's  Point,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  20,  1911,  VIII,  1,  1912, 
VIII,  9,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  11  c^,  4  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  13,  1911,  IX,  9,  1904,  IX,  19,  1908,  IX,  29, 
1903  and  1913,  (R.  &  H.),  9  c^,  21   9 . 

Essington,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  27,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  1  c?,  3   9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Riverton,  New  Jersey,  X,  8,  1911,  (H.  Viereck),  1   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Washington  Park,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  11,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  2  c^,  2  9 ,  [A.  N. 

S.  P.]. 

Clementon,  New  Jersey,  VII,  25,  1911,  (H.  Fox;  in  humid  field),  1  9  ,  [A.  N. 

S.  P.]. 

Canton,  New  Jersey,  IX,  7,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  1   9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

May's  Landing,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  29,  1914,  (H.),  2  d". 

Reega,  New  Jersey,  VII,  31,  VIII,  10,  16  and  29,  1914,  (H.;  in  undergrowth 
in  pine  woods),  8  cT,  2  9,  1  juv.  cf,  2  juv.  9,  (immature  individuals  on  the 
two  earhest  dates). 

Pleasantville,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  17,  1914,  (H.),  1  cT. 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  6  and  11,  1914,  (H.;  in  low  bushes  and  heavy 
weeds  and  grasses),  6  cT,  3  9,2  juv.  cf,  2  juv.  9,  (two  instars  represented, 
taken  on  the  first  date) . 

Margate,  New  Jersey,  VII,  24,  1914,  (H.;  in  barrier  dune  vegetation),  2 
juv.  cf ,  1  juv.   9  ,  (former  in  different  instars). 

Tuckahoe,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  26,  1914,  (H.;  in  glade\  1  c?. 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14  and  26,  1914,  (H.;  occasional  in  fresh- 
marsh  with  agile  and  concinnum) ,  3  c? ,  5  9  . 

Ocean  View,  New  Jersey,  IX,  7,  1908,  (H.  Fox),  1  d",  [A.  N.  S.  P.];  VII,  27, 
1914,  (H.;  common  in  high  grasses  and  in  field),  3  cT,  1  juv.  cf,  5  juv.  9,  (two 
instars) . 

Swainton,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  8,  1914,  (H.;  occasional,  in  late  afternoon  with 
a  low  continuous  buzzing  with  but  few  cHcks,  a  quite  different  song  from  that 
of  midday), '2  d",  1  juv.   9. 

Cape  May  Court  House,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  21,  1914,  (H.;  in  high  cattails 
and  rushes,  after  dark),  1  d'. 

Wildwood  Junction,  New  Jersey,  VII,  27,  VIII,  8  and  21,  1914,  (H.;  in 
open  field),  3  c?,  2  juv.  d',  1  juv.  9 ,  (first  adult  on  second  date). 

Mount  Pleasant,  New  Jersey,  IX,  5,  1904,  (H.  Fox),  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Sea  Isle  Junction,  New. Jersey,  X,  2,  1909,  X,  15,  1910,  (H.  Fox;  in  swamp), 
2  d,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Chestertown,  Maryland,  VII,  31,  1904,  VIII,  22,  1899,  (E.  G.  Vanatta),  2 
d,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  IX,  (W.  T.  Davis,  part),  3  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Davis 
and  Hebard  Clns.];  VIII,  25  to  X,  31,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  5cf ,  4  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Virginia,  VIII,  14,  X,  1,  1883,  1  d^,  2  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  43 

FaUs  Church,  Virginia,  IX,  4,  1906,  (A.  X.  Caudell),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Dryden,  Virginia,  IX,  3,  1899,  1  cf ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Xorfolk,  Virginia,  IX,  8,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d",  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Wytheville,  Virginia,  IX,  5,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Mor.se  Cln.]. 

Grant  County,  West  Virginia,  (Shaler),  1  cf,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Kanawha  Station,  West  Virginia,  VIII,  23,  1905,   (A.  D.  Hopkins),  1   cT, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

,  Blowing  Rock,  Xorth  Carohna,  VIII,  1906,  (R.  S.  Wogluni),  1  cf ,  [North 
Carohna  Dept.  Agr.  Cln.]. 

Blantyre,  North  Carolina,  IX,  1906,  (R.  S.  Woglum),  1  9  ,  [North  Carolina 
Dept.  Agr.  Cln.]. 

Linville,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  30,  1903,  (Morse),  1  c?,  1   9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  X,  10  and  29,  1900,  (Sherman),  1  c?,  1  9,  [North 
Carolina  Dept.  Agr.  Chi.]. 
.     Edenton,  North  Carohna,  VIII,  20,  1908,  (R.),  2  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]'^ 

Thompson's  MiUs,  Georgia,  X,  1909  and  1910,  (H.  A.  Allard),  8  cf ,  2   9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Gun  Lake,  Michigan,  VII,  13  to  26,  1912,  (M.  A.  Carriker,  Jr.),  3  cT,  1  9, 
[Hebard  Chi.]. 

Tuscarawas  City,  Ohio,  IX,  26,  1891,  19,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Salineville,  Ohio,  IX,  4  to  10,  1892,  3  9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Indiana,  (Blatchley),  2  c?,  2   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Sedan,  Indiana,  VIII,  29,  1905,  (W.  PhiUips),  2  c?,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Illinois,  (McNeill),  2  cf',  2   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

West  Northfield,  Illinois,  (Kennicott),  1  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Urbana,  Illinois,  IX,  10,  X,  17  and  19,  1904,  (F.  Knab),  1   cf,  2  9 ,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

Ogle  County,  Illinois,  (Allen),  1   9,  (M-  C.  Z.]. 

Peoria,  lUinois,  VII,  15,  1  d",  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Roan  Mountain  Station,  Tennessee,  IX,  3,  1903,  (Morse),  2  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chattanooga,  Tennessee,  VIII,  24,  1903,  (Morse),  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Clarksville,  Tennessee,  VIII,  15,  1912,  (S.  E.  Crumb),  1  c?,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Ramsey  County,  Minne.sota,  1   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

St.  Peters,  Minnesota,  1880,  1  c^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

DaUas  County,  Iowa,  VIII,  8  to  23,  IX,  1  to  3,  (AUen),  17c?,  12  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Denison,  Iowa,  VII,  20,  (Allen),  1  cf ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Jefferson,  Iowa,  VII,  20  to  24,  (Allen),  2  c^,  2  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Iowa  City,  Iowa,  (M.  P.  Somes),  1   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

St.  Louis,  Missouri,  IX,  25,  1876,  X,  17,  1875,  4  c?,  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Bushberg,  Misisouri,  VIII,  1870,  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Kirkwood,  Missouri,  X,  1877,  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  Arkansas,  IX,  5,  1905,  (Morse),  1  c?,  1    9,  [Morse  Chi.];  X, 
1891,  1  d',  1  9 ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Neligh,  Nebraska,  VIII,  (Gary),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

1^  Previously  recorded  by  us  as  0.  glnberrimum:  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1910,  p.  639,  (1911). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


44         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  VIII,  17  and  19,  IX,  1  and  5,  (Bruner),  3  c?,  13  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.j. 

Albion,  Nebraska,  IX,  U,  1904,  (Bruner),  2  9,  [Hebard  Cln.j. 

Kearney,  Nebraska,  VII,  27,  1910,  (R.  &  H.),  5  d^,  1   9  . 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  VIII,  IX,  3,  1909,  X,  1,  1909,  (L.  Bruner  and  C.  H. 
Gable),  5  cf ,  4  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

South  Bend,  Nebraska,  X,  15,  1910,  1  6^,2  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Weeping  Water,  Nebraska,  IX,  24,  1909,  (Bruner),  2   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Topeka,  Kansas,  (F.  W.  Cragin),  2   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Belpre,  Kansas,  IX,  13,  1909,  (H.;  stridulating  high  on  tassel  of  corn),  2  cf. 

Zenith,  Kansas,  IX,  11,  1907,  (H.),  1   9. 

Hiawatha,  Kansas,  VIII,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  &,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Wichita,  Kansas,  IX,  7,  1904,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  c^,  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Shawnee  County,  Kansas,  (Cragin),  1  d',  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Barbe  County,  Kansas,  (Cragin),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Wilburton,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  27,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d^,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Ardmore,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  18,  (F.  C.  Bishopp),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Caddo,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  8,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Denison,  Texas,  VIII,  11,  1905,  (Morse),  19,1  juv.    9,  [Morse  Cln.j. 

Dallas,  Texas,  (BoU),  3  cf ,  1  c?,  [M.  C.  Z.j. 

Manitou,  Colorado,  VIII,  1887,  1  d^,  [Hebard  Cln.j. 

The  present  authors  or  the  senior  author  alone  have  previously  recorded 
this  species  from  West  Creek  and  Atsion,  New  Jersey,  and  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
as  vulgare,  and  from  Sulphur  Springs  and  Raleigh,  North  CaroUna,  and  Mont- 
gomery County,  Virginia,  as  agile.  Rehn  has  by  error  reported  vulgare  from 
Brownsville,  Texas  (probably  buUaium  but  specimen  not  available),  and  Rehn 
and  Hebard  have  credited  it  to  Chokoloskee.  Florida.  The  locality  of  the 
latter  is  unquestionably  erroneous. 

Orchelimum  gladiator  Bruner     (Figs.  9,  21,  41,  42  and  72.) 

1891.     Orchelimum  gladiator  Bruner,  Canad.  Entom.,  xxiii,  p.  71.    [West  Point, 

Nebraska.] 
1910.     Orchelimum  m,anitobense  E.  M.  Walker,  Canad.  Entom.,  xlii,  p.  351, 

figs.  17  and  18.    [Ashdown,  Manitoba.] 

On  comparison  of  the  female  type  of  gladiator,  now  before  us, 
with  the  available  series  and  the  description  of  manitobe?ise ,  which 
was  based  on  two  males,  the  above  synonymy  is  clearly  evident. 
The  failure  of  Bruner  to  mention  the  form  of  the  lateral  lobes  of 
the  pronotum,  one  of  the  few  diagnostic  characters  shared  by 
both  sexes,  probably  was  responsible  for  Walker's  re-description 
of  the  species. 

The  present  form  has  been  mistaken  by  numerous  students 
for  vulgare,  particularly  in  the  male  sex,  aiul  in  consequence  there 
are  doubtless  in  the  literature  of  vulgare,  many  erroneous  deter- 
minations of  material  from  the  region  in  which  both  gladiator 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  45 

and  vulgare  occur,  Avhich  really  refer  to  the  present  species.  Un- 
less the  material  on  which  the  record  is  based  is  in  existence  there 
is,  however,  little  probability  of  these  errors  being  detected  and 
corrected. 

In  the  female  sex  the  very  robust  ovipositor  with  a  straight 
dorsal  outline  will  readily  separate  this  form  from  all  the  other 
species  of  the  genus  except  volantum,  which,  however,  has  a  less 
robust  and  less  expanded  form  of  the  same,  although  the  two 
species  superficially  resemble  one  another  in  this  respect.  The 
form  of  the  cercus  in  the  male  sex  is  very  distinctive.  The  shape 
of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  and  to  a  lesser  degree  the 
shape  of  the  fastigium,  will  aid  in  separating  both  sexes  of  the 
present  species  from  vulgare. 

As  a  rule  this  species  has  the  ventro-external  margin  of  the 
caudal  femora  unarmed,  l)ut  in  the  series  before  us  there  are 
three  specimens  having  a  single  spine  on  this  margin  and  a  single 
individual  having  two  spines  on  the  same. 

There  is  an  appreciable  amount  of  variation  in  size  in  both 
sexes,  but  the  diagnostic  characters  are  quite  constant. 

Distribution. — Covering  the  grassland  areas  and  liottom  lands 
of  the  northern  United  States  and  southern  Canada,  extending 
from  at  least  the  vicinity  of  Montreal,  southwestern  Maine  and 
eastern  Massachusetts,  west  to  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Cascades 
in  west-central  Washington  (Ellensburg)  and  to  northern  Cali- 
fornia (Sisson),  south  as  far  as  southwestern  Connecticut  (Stam- 
ford), southern  New  Jersey  (Winslow  Junction),  Tennessee, 
northeastern  Kansas  (Douglas  County),  south-central  Nebraska 
(North  Platte)  and  south-central  Montana  (Billings). 

Specimens  Examined:    87;  5.3  cf,  34  9. 

Montreal,  Quebec,  Canada,  VII,  15,  (Caulfield),  1  o",  [M.  C.  Z.j. 

Norway,  Maine,  (Smith),  1  cf,  IM.  C.  Z.]. 

Montgomery,  Vermont,  VII,  18,  1891,  (Morse),  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Stowe,  Vermont,  VII,  22,  1891,  (Morse),  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

White  Mountains,  alpine  and  valleys,  New  Hampshire,  (Scudder),  8  cf ,  3  9 , 
[M.  C.  Z.];  IX,  8,  1889,  (F.  H.  Sprague),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.j. 

Faneuil  Station,  Massachusetts,  VII,  22,  1892,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Readville,  Massachusetts,  VII,  21,  1892,  (Morse),  1  cf,  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Stamford,  Connecticut,  VIII,  22,  1894,  (Mor.se),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Ithaca,  New  York,  VII,  19,  1904,  VIII,  16,  1890,  1  cf ,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]; 
VIII,  4,  1885,  3  cf ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Winslow  Junction,  New  Jersey,  VII,  8,  1911,  (H.  Fox;  in  hog  along  tracks 
of  Cape  May  division  R.  R.),  I  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.j. 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


46         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Steuben  County,  Indiana,  VIII,  6  and  8, 1902,  (W.  S.  Blatchley),  2  9 ,  [Hebard 
Cln.  and  A.  N.  s".  P.], 

Marshall  County,  Indiana,  VII,  27  and  29,  VIII,  15,  1902,  (W.  S.  Blatchley), 
1  cf ,  4  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.  A.  N.  S.  P.  and  U.  S.  N.  M.l. 

Gary,  Indiana,  VII,  26,  1906,  1  d',  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Southern  IlUnois,  (Thomas),  1  d',  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Tennessee,  1    9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Cranmoor,  Wisconsin,  VIII,  16,  1909,  (C.  W.  Hooker),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Dallas  County,  Iowa,  VIII,  (Allen)  5  d,  {M.  C.  Z.]. 

Staples,  Minnesota,  VII,  21,  1909,  (H.;  in  ditch  of  high  weeds),  6  cf ,  14  9  . 

Bismarck,  North  Dakota,  VIII,  9,  1885,  1  d,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Mandan,  North  Dakota,  VII,  25,  1909,  (H.;  from  thistle),  1  d. 

Glendive,  Montana,  VII,  2o,  1909,  (H.;  from  sage  on  river  plain — extremely 
shy),  4  d',  1   9. 

BilHngs,  Montana,  VII,  28,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  in  sedgy  area  in  Yellowstone 
flood  plain),  1  cf  ■ 

North  Platte,  Nebraska,  elev.  2,800  feet,  VII,  28,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  swampy 
tracts  in  Platte  flood  plain),  3  cf . 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  VIII,  1887,  IX,  1  (L.  Bruner),  1  cf ,  2  9,  type  and 
paratype,  [Hebard  Cln.].     , 

Montana,  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Olmstead's,  near  EUensburg,  Washington,  VII,  14  to  15, 1882,  1  d,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Sisson,  Cahfornia,  VII,  (Dyar  and  Caudell),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.];  VIII,  29, 
1897.  (Morse),  1   9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Morse  (Canad.  Entom.,  XXXIII,  p.  201)  and  Caudell  (Proc.  U.  S.  Nat. 
Mus.,  XXXIV,  p.  78)  have  erroneously  recorded  this  species  as  O.  agile  from 
Sisson,  California,  and  Scudder  (in  Hitchcock,  Geol.  of  New  Hampsh.,  1,  p. 
368)  reported  it  as  0.  vulgare  from  the  White  Mountains,  New  Hampshire, 
and  in  similar  fashion  from  the  same  locahty  and  also  from  Mt.  Greylock, 
Massachusetts,  3500  feet  (Appalachia,  VIII,  p.  317).  The  original  material 
for  these  references  has  been  examined  bv  us. 

Orchelimum  calcaratum  new  species     (Figs.  1,  22,  43,  44  and  73.) 
1891.     Xiphidium   {Orchelimum)   cuticulare   Redtonbacher    (not   of    Serville, 
1839),  Verh.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  GeseU.,  Wien,  xh,  pp.  495,  503.    [Texas.] 

A  member  of  the  same  group  as  glaherrimum,  vulgare  and  glad- 
iator, but  differing  from  all  in  the  greatly  elongate  tooth  of  the 
male  cercus,  this  being  distinctly  longer  than  the  distal  portion 
of  the  cereal  shaft  and  aciculate  in  character,  while  in  the  female 
sex  the  species  can  be  separated  from  vulgare  by  the  less  robust 
fastigium,  by  the  very  slight  indication  of  a  humeral  sinus  and 
by  the  always  armed  ventro-external  margin  of  the  caudal  femora. 
The  female  is  readily  separable  from  glaherrimum  and  gladiator 
by  the  distinctly  arcuate  ovipositor,  as  well  as  by  a  number  of 
other  characters. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  47 

TTjpe. —  cf ;  San  Antonio,  Bexar  County,  Texas.  August  15  to 
16,  1912.  (Rehn  and  Hebard.)  [Hebard  Collection  Type  Xo. 
164.] 

Desa-iption  of  Type. — Size  medium  (for  the  genus);  form  robust;  surface 
moderately  polished.  Head  with  the  fastigium  gently  ascending  from  the  level 
of  the  occiput,  the  width  of  fastigium  faintly  greater  than  width  of  proximal 
antennal  joint,  the  margins  when  seen  from  the  cephalic  aspect  regularly  but  not 
strongW  converging  ventrad;  eyes  moderately  prominent,  faintly  ovate  in  basal 
outhne;  antennaewhen  in  perfect  condition  nearly  four  times  as  long  as  the  body. 
Pronotum  very  faintly  sellate,  this  being  due  to  the  gently  ascending  character 
of  the  metazona,  the  line  of  the  prozona  nearly  straight  when  seen  from  the  side; 
greatest  caudal  width  of  the  metazona  contained  one  and  one-third  times  in 
the  entire  pronotal  length;  cephaUc  margin  subtruncate,  caudal  margin  gently 
arcuate,  metazona  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  prozona,  well  separated 
from  the  latter  by  an  appreciable  transverse  sulcus;  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum 
with  their  greatest  dorsal  length  surpassing  their  depth,  cephaUc  margin 
oblique  subtruncate,  ventro-cephalic  angle  very  broadly  rounded,  ventral 
margin  strongly  oblique  truncate,  ventro-caudal  angle  rectangulate,  caudal 
margin  gently  arcuate,  humeral  sinus  hardly  indicated,  convex  callosity  subo- 
vate,  with  pomted  extremities  and  moderately  broad.  Tegmina  not  reaching 
the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora,  in  general  form  resembUng  those  of  vulgare; 
stridulating  area  subequal  in  extent  to  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum,  stridulat- 
ing  vein  transverse,  robust.  Wings  very  slightly  surpassing  the  tegmina. 
Disto-dorsat  abdominal  segment  wath  the  median  emargination  U-shaped, 
relatively  broad  and  deep,  the  flanking  processes  considerably  produced  and 
recurved  ventrad;  cerci  rather  heavy,  proximal  half  straight,  rounded  in  form, 
subcolumnar,  median  tooth  aciculate,  placed  immediately  distad  of  the  middle, 
elongate,  but  Httle  shorter  than  the  length  of  the  entire  shaft  of  the  cercus, 
directed  inwards  and  gently  falcate  distad,  subdepressed  proximad,  distal 
portion  of  the  shaft  of  the  cercus  tapering  to  a  blunt  point,  depressed;  sub- 
genital  plate  with  distal  margin  subrectangularly  emarginate,  styles  short, 
subrobust,  lateral  margins  regularly  converging  to  the  bases  of  the  styles, 
venter  of  plate  with  distinct  paired  ridge-Kke  carinae  extending  cephalad  from 
the  base  of  the  styles,  a  much  fainter  median  carina  also  present.  Caudal 
femora  robust,  distal  portion  rather  slender,  ven  tro-external  margin  armed 
distad  with  three  to  four  spines,  ventro-internal  margin  unarmed,  genicular 
lobes  bispinose. 

Allotype. —  9  ;  Same  data  as  type. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Differing  from  the  description  of  the  type  in  the 
following  respects.  Dorsal  line  of  pronotum  nearly  straight  when  seen  from 
the  side,  not  ascending  on  the  metazona;  greatest  caudal  width  of  metazona 
contained  one  and  one-half  times  in  entire  pronotal  length.  Ovipositor  slightly 
less  than  half  the  length  of  the  caudal  femora,  regularly  falcate,  rather  broad, 
ventral  margin  very  faintly  serrulate  distad,  subgenital  plate  of  the  form  usual 
m  the  genus. 

TRANS.    .\M.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


48  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Paratypic  Series. — We  have  selected  as  paratypic  a  series  of 
twelve  males  and  ten  females  having  the  same  data  as  the  type 
and  allotype. 

Measurements  {in  millimelers) 
d"           <f  d"  9              9                9 
Type  Paratype  Paratype  Allotype  Paralype      Paralype 
Length  of  body  (in  9 
exclusive  of  oviposi- 
tor)     19. G       20  23.2  18.3         17.1             20 

Length  of  pronotum      6             5.2  6.2  5.8           5.6               6 
Length  of  tegmeu. .  .    17           15.7  18.9  17             16.5             18 
Length  of  caudal  fe- 
mur  ..18.2       17  20.8  19.8         19.1             20 

Length  of  ovipositor ....  9.1           9                   9.6 

Color  Notes. — General  color  light  turtle  green  to  olivine,  prac- 
tically pure  on  the  face,  sides  of  the  head,  lateral  lobes  of  the 
pronotum,  pleura  and  sides  of  the  abdomen,  clearer  turtle  green 
on  the  limbs.  Median  line  on  the  head,  expanding  caudad,  weak 
vinaceous-rufous  to  ochraceous  buff,  continued  over  the  dorsum 
of  the  pronotum  and  there  more  or  less  strongly  Ijordered  laterad 
on  the  prozona  by  lines  of  mahogany  red  to  bay.  These  stripes 
gently  diverge  caudad  and  occasionally  are  entirely  absent.  Teg- 
mina  very  faint  glaucous,  more  or  less  weakly  tinged  with  snuff 
brown  on  the  dorsal  aspect,  particularly  in  the  female.  Stridu- 
lating  field  of  male  tegmina  with  three  spots  of  blackish  brown  on 
each  tegmen,  placed  in  the  same  position  as  those  found  in  vulgare, 
i.  e.,  one  at  base  of  anal  vein,  one  at  apex  of  arc  of  the  same  and 
the  third  on  the  sutural  margin  near  the  disto-sutural  angle  of  the 
speculum.  Abdomen  of  male  generally  with  a  broad  median 
area  of  ferruginous  on  the  dorsum  of  the  apex,  this  frequently 
absent.     Ovipositor  chestnut  brown.     Eyes  walnut  brown. 

Distribution. ^R&nging  from  the  Central  Texan  region,  north 
to  northeastern  Kansas  (Topeka  and  Hiawatha)  and  southeast- 
ern Illinois  (Olney),  extending  south  to  Flatonia  and  San  iVnto- 
nio,  Texas,  east  to  Doucette,  Texas,  western  Arkansas  (Fayette- 
ville  and  Magazine  Mountain)  and  southeastern  Illinois,  and 
west  to  Colorado  and  west-central  Texas  (Kerrville). 

Biological  Note.^. — This  species  is  clumsy  in  its  actions  and 
comparatively  easy  to  capture  after  being  located.  It  was  found 
in  a  great  variety  of  situations,  ranging  from  high  grass  to  twelve 
feet  above  the  ground  in  }K)st  oak.     It  was  taken  in  grass  among 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  49 

cotton,  in  green  weeds,  in  low  l)ushes  and  in  tall  nettles,  as  well 
as  in  bushes  in  pine  woods.     The  stridulation  is  not  loud. 

Morphological  Notes. — An  analysis  of  a  portion  of  the  series 
of  the  present  species  for  constancy  of  spines  on  the  ventro- 
external  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  gives  the  following  results: 
1-1,  2  specimens;  1-2,  3  specimens;  2-2,  3  specimens;  2-3,  7 
specimens;  2-4,  2  specimens;  2-5,  1  specimen;  3-3,  3  specimens; 
3-4,  4  specimens;  3-5,  2  specimens;  4-4,  3  specimens;  4-5,  1 
specimen;  5-5,  1  specimen.  Individuals  lacking  one  caudal  limb 
have  not  been  considered.  No  specimens  have  been  examined 
with  these  margins  unspined.  In  all  of  the  specimens  before  us 
the  tegmina  and  wings  do  not  surpass,  and  in  but  two  instances 
reach,  the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora. 

Synonymy. — Serville's  cuticulare  is  clearly  not  this  species  but 
is  a  synonym  of  0.  glaherrimum,  the  name  having  been  used  in 
error  by  Redtenbacher,  who  has  been  followed  by  sul)sequent 
authors. 

Specimens  Examined:    85;   42  cf ,  41    9,  2  juv.    9. 

Olncy,  Illinois,  (R.  Ridgway),  1   9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Central  Missom-i,  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Hiawatha,  Kansas,  VIII,  1904,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Topeka,  Kansas  (F.  W.  Cragin),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Zenith,  Stafford  County,  Kansas,  IX,  11,  1907,  (H.),  1  d. 

Wichita,  Kansas,  VII,  18,  1904,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  cf ,  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  .\rkansas,  IX,  5,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d',  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Magazine  Mountain,  Arkansas,  2000  feet  elev.,  VIII,  29,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf , 
[Morse  Cln.l. 

South  McAlester,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  7,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.j. 

Shawnee,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  26,  1905,  (Morse),  5  cf ,  3  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Waurika,  Oklahoma,  X,  12,  1909,  (F.  C.  Bishopp),  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Colorado,  VIII,  1873,  2  9 ,  [Morse  Cln.l. 

Denison,  Texas,  VIII,  11,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Dallas,  Te.xas,  IX,  25  and  26,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d",  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.];  IX. 
10,  1908,  [F.  C.  Bishopp),  1  9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.];  (Boll),  4  cf ,  7  9,1  juv.  9, 
[M.  C.  Z.]. 

Piano,  Texas,  X,  1907,  (E.  S.  Tucker),  1   9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Weatherford,  Texas,  IX,  23,  1912,  (R.  k  H.),  2  d . 

Wichita  FaUs,  Texas,  VIII,  15,  1905,  (Morse),  2  a",  2  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Temple,  Texas,  IX,  24,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  3  a^. 

Terrell,  Texas,  VIII,  27,  1904,  (on  cotton),  1   9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Doucette,  Texas,  VII,  24,  1912,  (H.),  1  cf . 

Flatonia,  Texas,  VIII,  19  and  20,  1912,  (R.  <fe  H.),  1  d",  5  9. 

Victoria,  Texas,  VII,  2()  and  27,  1912,  (H.),  1    9  . 

TRANS.    AM.    KNT.    SOC,    XLI. 


50         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

San  Antonio,  Texas,  VIII,  15  and  16,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  Ud",  12  9,1  juv.  9 , 
type,  allotype  and  paratypes;  X,  29,  1905,  (F.  C.  Pratt),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Kerrville,  Texas,  VIII,  17  and  18,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d". 

Orchelimum  buliatum  new  species     (Figs.  2,  23,  45,  45,  46  and  74.) 
1903.     Orchelimum  lotigipenne  Caudell  (not  Orchelimum  longipennis  Scudder, 
1862),  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  xxvi,  p.  806.     ["Southern  Texas."]  (Part.) 

A  member  of  the  same  group  as  laticauda  and  riigripes,  but 
separable  from  the  former  by  the  relatively  broader  fastigium, 
by  the  more  extensive  metazona  of  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum 
and  the  shorter  and  marginally  more  acute  lateral  lobes- of  the 
same,  while  from  nigripes  the  male  is  readily  separated  by  the 
less  strongly  adpressed  cereal  tooth  and  the  appreciably  indi- 
cated humeral  sinus  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum.  The 
female  is  separated  from  that  of  nigripes  by  the  less  angulate 
ventro-cephalic  angle  of  the  lateral  lobes  and  the  generally  un- 
spined  caudal  femora,  while  from  laticauda  the  same  sex  differs 
in  the  sinuate  ventral  section  of  the  caudal  margin  of  the  lateral 
lobes. 

Type. —  c^  ;  Galveston,  Galveston  County,  Texas.  July  21,1912. 
(Hebard.)     [Hebard  Collection  Type  No.  165.] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  very  large  (for  the  genus);  form  robust.  Head 
with  the  dorsum  of  the  occiput  plane,  hardly  ascending  to  the  fastigium,  the 
latter  subcompressed,  not  as  thick  as  the  proximal  antennal  joint  and  when  seen 
from  the  facial  aspect  with  its  margins  gently  converging  ventrad,  with  the 
extremity  at  the  interfastigial  suture  distinctly  truncate;  eyes  moderately 
prominent,  subcircular  in  basal  outhne;  antennae  very  elongate,  when  in  perfect 
condition  at  least  thi-ee  times  as  long  as  the  body.  Pronotmii  subsellate,  when 
seen  from  the  lateral  aspect  the  metazona  is  distinctly  and  in  a  subbullate 
fashion  ascending  dorso-caudad,  when  seen  from  the  dorsal  aspect  the  meta- 
zona is  seen  to  be  somewhat  inflated  laterad,  its  gi'eatest  width  about  five-sixths 
the  length  of  the  entire  pronotum;  length  of  the  metazona  about  two-fifths 
the  length  of  the  entire  pronotum,  transverse  sulcus  deeply  and  broadly  im- 
pressed on  the  dorsum;  cephalic  margin  of  disk  weakly  arcuato-emarginate 
mesad,  caudal  margin  of  disk  strongly  and  regularly  arcuate,  no  indications 
of  lateral  shoulders  present  on  prozona,  but  on  the  metazona  these  are  well 
indicated  and  slightly  projecting  though  well  rounded;  lateral  lobes  of  the 
pronotum  with  the  greatest  dorsal  length  subequal  to  the  greatest  depth, 
cephahc  margin  oblique,  straight,  ventro-cephalic  angle  rounded  obtuse, 
ventral  margin  moderately  oblique,  ventro-caudal  angle  sharper  than  a  right 
angle  with  the  angle  proper  strongly  rounded,  caudal  margin  oblique  sinuate, 
humeral  sinus  but  faintly  indicated,  convex  callosity  well  indicated  but  elongate 
and  narrow.  Tegmina  surpassing  the  apices  of  the  caudal  femora  by  about  the 
length  of  the  pronotum,  moderately  broad,  apex  moderately  rounded;  stridu- 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  51 

lating  field  quite  ample,  rather  bullate,  in  area  surpassing  that  of  the  dorsum 
of  the  head  and  pronotum,  stridulating  vein  straight,  transverse,  crassate, 
speculum  broader  than  usual  in  the  genus.  Wings  surpassing  the  tegmina  by 
nearly  the  pronotal  length.  Cerci  robust,  rather  short,  median  tooth  directed 
proximo-mesad  and  subdepressed,  shaft  of  cercus  with  a  sinuate  medio-longi- 
tudinal  carination  on  the  dorsal  surface,  the  distal  section  subacuminate  when 
seen  from  the  dorsum,  tapering  regularly  when  seen  from  the  side ;  subgenital 
plate  moderately  produced,  distal  margin  obtuse-angulate  emarginate,  styles 
brief,  articulate,  a  moderately  distinct  and  complete  medio-longitudinal  and 
distinct  lateral  carinae  indicated.  Caudal  femora  about  four-fifths  the  length 
of  the  body,  moderately  inflateii  proximad,  ventral  margins  unspined,  genicular 
lobes  bispinose. 

Allotype. —  9  ;  Rosenberg,  Fort  Bend  County,  Texas.  July  25 
and  26,   1912.     (Hebard.)     [Hebard  Collection.] 

Description  of  Allotijpe. — The  features  here  given  are  those  of  difference  from 
the  male  sex.  Size  smaller  than  in  the  male  sex;  form  more  slender.  Prono- 
tum not  at  all  sellate,  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect  the  dorsal  outline  is 
straight,  greatest  width  of  raetazona  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  whole 
pronotum;  length  of  the  metazona  almost  one-half  the  entire  pronotal  length, 
transverse  sulcus  well  indicated  on  the  dorsum  but  by  no  means  so  impressed 
as  in  the  male;  lateral  shoulders  not  appreciably  indicated  anywhere.  Teg- 
mina slightly  surpassing  the  apices  of  the  caudal  femora.  Wings  surpassing 
the  tips  of  the  tegmina  by  several  millimeters.  Ovipositor  sUghtly  more  than 
half  the  length  of  the  caudal  femora,  rather  strongly  falcate,  comparatively 
bi'oad,  apex  acute,  ventral  margin  of  ovipositor  appreciably  but  very  finely 
serrulate  on  distal  half;  subgenital  plate  of  female  shallowly  and  narrowly 
emarginate  disto-mesad. 

Paratypic  Series. — We  have  selected  as  paratypes  two  males 
from  Galveston,  Texas,  bearing  the  same  data  as  the  type,  one 
male  from  Rosenberg,  Texas,  bearing  the  same  data  as  the  allo- 
type and  six  males  from  Gregory,  San  Patricio  County,  Texas, 
July  30,  1912  (Hebard). 

Measurements  {in  miUiynelers) 

d'  cf  c^  c? 

Galveston      Galveston  Rosenberg    Gregory 

{Type)         [Paratype)  iParatype)  (Paratype) 

Length  of  body 22  2:-! .  5  20  22 .8 

Length  of  pronotum 5.5             5.8             53  5.3 

Greatest  caudal  width  of  pronotum  4.5            4.5            4.1  4.3 

Length  of  tegmen 29  27  23.5  28.6 

Greatest  width  of  stridulating  field  of 

tegmen 4.7             4.9            4.5  4.G 

Length  of  caudal  femur 18.9  20  16.8  19 

Length  of  ovipositor ....              ...  ■  ■  •  • 

TIi.\XS.    .\M.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


52  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Mission      Brownsville    Rosenberg 

(Allotype) 

Length  of  body 17.5  20.2  19.5 

Length  of  pronotum 4.9             4.9  4.8 

Greatest  caudal  width  of  pronot  um  3.9             4  3.6 

Length  of  tegmen 24 . 2  23 . 5  21.7 

Greatest  width  of  stridulating  field  of 

tegmen 4.2            4.2  .... 

Length  of  caudal  femur 15  16. S  17.3 

Length  of  ovipositor 8.3 

Color  Notes. — General  color  ranging  from  light  chalcedony 
yellow  to  clear  dull  green-yellow  (Ridgway),  occasionally  em- 
browned by  desiccation  until  it  is  nearly  old  gold,  the  greater 
portion  of  the  tegmina  more  brilliant,  varying  from  light  oriental 
green  to  nearly  dull  citrine;  dorsum  of  the  head,  pronotum  and 
stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina  washed  with  cinnamon-buff 
to  clay  color.  Occiput  generallj^  with  indications  of  a  pair  of 
hessian  brown  lines  diverging  caudad;  eyes  ranging  from  rood's 
brown  to  seal  brown;  antennae  ochraceous-buff  to  ochraceous- 
tawny,  rather  weakly  annulate  with  darker.  Pronotum  with  the 
dorsum  bearing  abbreviate  diverging  lines  similar  to  but  less 
frequently  indicated  than  those  on  the  occiput.  Tegmina  with 
three  spots  of  seal  brown  always  indicated  in  the  male  sex,  one 
proximad,  another  at  the  apex  of  the  arcuate  portion  of  the  anal 
vein  at  its  junction  with  the  speculum  and  the  third  near  the 
other  (toward  the  free  margin)  angle  of  the  speculum.  Limbs 
quite  greenish,  rarely  quite  brownish  (sudaii  brown)  on  the  caudal 
tibiae,  a  blackish  mark  between  the  slits  of  the  tympana  of  the 
cephalic  tibiae;  all  spines  black,  at  least  at  the  tips,  on  the  caudal 
tibiae  largely  brownish  black.  Apex  of  the  abdomen  more  or  less 
yellow-ocher,  the  cerci  ochraceous-orange  to  mars  yellow.  Ovi- 
positor prout's  brown. 

Distribution. — This  species  is  found  from  the  coastal  prairie 
region  of  Texas,  south  as  far  as  the  Brownsville  region,  north  to 
northern  Texas  (Wichita  Falls  and  Dallas) .  west  as  far  as  Co- 
manche and  Mission  (Hidalgo  County)  in  the  same  state,  while 
to  the  eastward  the  species  ranges  as  far  as  eastern  Louisiana 
(Milneburg).     It  doubtless  occurs  in  northeastern  Mexico. 

Biological  Notes. — This  species  was  found  fre(|uenting  high 
grasses  along  streams  or  in  depressions  (Rosenberg),  in  areas  of 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  53 

marsh  vegetation  (Gregory)  or  in  dense  clumps  of  coffee  bean 
{Sesban  macrocarpa)  growing  from  six  to  ten  feet  high  on  sandy 
soil  back  from  the  gulf  beach  (Galveston).  Its  note  was  a  long 
buzzing  zeeeeeee,  somewhat  resembling  that  of  some  cicadas,  with 
but  few  interspersed  clicking  sounds.  At  Gregory  the  song  was 
noticed  to  be  especially  loud  during  the  morning,  again  increasing 
in  volume  at  night,  but  in  a  more  subdued  tone  and  different  key. 

Morphological  Notes. — -Theventro-external  margin  of  the  caudal 
femora  is  usually  unarmed,  but  in  two  specimens  we  find  a  single 
spine  on  one  or  the  other  margin,  another  has  two  spines  on  one 
margin  and  a  third  specimen  has  a  single  spine  on  one  limb  and 
three  on  the  other. 

The  two  Galveston  paratypes  and  the  Rosenberg  pair  have  the 
tegmina  and  wings  shorter  than  the  remainder  of  the  material, 
which  have  proportions  about  as  in  the  type. 

Specimens  Examined:  25;  18  cf ,  7    9  • 

Milneburg,  Louisiana,  VII,  22,  1905,  (Morse),  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.|. 

Dallas,  Texas,  (Boll),  1  9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Wichita  Falls,  Texas,  VIII,  15,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d',  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Comanche,  Texas,  VII,  22,  1909,  (C.  R.  Jones;  on  cotton),  Icf ,  [U.  8.  X.  M.]. 

Galveston,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.),  3  cf,  tijpe  and  paratypes. 

Rosenberg,  Texas,  VII,  25  and  26,  1912,  (H.),  1  cf,  1  9,  allotijpe  and 
paratype. 

Victoria,  Texas,  VI,  (Caudell),  1  c?,  1  9  ;  VII,  22,  (W.  E.  Hinds),  1  9  ;  VI, 
19,  190S,  (E.  S.  Tucker  on  corn),  1  d^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Gregory,  Texas,  VII,  30,  1912,  (H.),  6  (f,  paratypes. 

Mission,  Texas,  VIII,  5  and  6,  1912,  (H.),  1  d'. 

Brownsville,  Texas,  VII,  31  to  VIII,  5,  1912,  (H.),  2  d. 

Coast  of  Texas  (Aaron),  Icf,  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

This  is  in  part  the  Orchelimum  longipenne  recorded  by  Caudell  from  "south 
ern  Texas, "  as  mater'al  before  us  so  labelled  shows. 

Orchelimum  laticauda  Redtenbachcri"     (Figs.  10,  24,  47,  48  and  75.) 
1891.     X[iphidium]  {Orchelimum)  laticauda  Redtenbacher,  Verh.   k.-k.  zool.- 

bot.  Gesell.  Wien,  xh,  pp.  495,  504.     [New  Orleans,  Louisiana.] 
1909.     Orchelimum  pulchellum.  Davis,  Canad.  Entom.,  xli,  p.  33.    [Dcnnisville, 

Helmetta  and  Trenton,   New  .Jersey.! 

A  careful  study  of  Redtenbacher's  description  has  resulted  in 
our  placing  pulchellum  as  a  synonym   of  laticaudu.     Mr.   Davis 

""'  The  present  authors  or  the  senior  author  alone  have  erroneously  recorded 
this  species  as  O.  nigripes  (Entoni.  News,  xiii,  p.  315;  Proc  .\('ad.  Nat.  Sei. 
Phila.,  1904,  p.  79()  and  Hep-  X-  J-  '"^tate  Mus.,  190!),  p.  1S9)  antl  as  ().  nitidnm 

TR.WS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    .XLI. 


54  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

has  gone  over  the  ground  with  us  and  agrees  that  the  description 
fits  hirge  Florida  specimens,  which  are  specifically  identical  with 
his  New  Jersey  material.  Through  the  kindness  ot  the  same 
gentleman  we  have  before  us  eight  of  his  typical  New  Jersey 
specimens  of  pulcheUum  for  comparison. 

Redtenbacher  has  given  as  one  of  the  main  characters  of  this 
species  the  presence  of  spines  on  the  ventro-internal  margin  of 
the  caudal  femora.  This  we  find  occurs  in  but  few  specimens, 
the  vast  majority  having  the  internal  margin  unarmed.  The 
number  of  spines  on  the  ventro-external  margin  varies  from  two 
to  eight. 

Davis  was  correct  in  giving  nigripes  as  the  closest  relative  of 
this  species,  the  present  authors'  comment  on  this  point^''  being 
due  to  a  misconception  of  nigripes. 

The  average  size  of  specimens  from  the  northern  portion  of  the 
range  of  the  species  is  distinctly  under  that  of  individuals  from 
the  southern  states,  but  this  is  by  no  means  an  absolute  rule,  as 
series  show  very  considerable  individual  variation,  which  almost 
or  quite  equals  the  geographic  averages.  Female  specimens  from 
Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  and  Florence,  South  Carohna,  show  the 
following  extremes  in  size  (measurements  in  millimeters). 

Tinicum,  Florence, 

Pennsylvania  South  Carolina 

Length  of  body  (exclusive  of  ovipositor)  18.3  22.8  .20  20 

Length  of  pronotum 4.2  5.3          5  5.7 

Length  of  tegmen 18.7  28.3  21.9  26.3 

Length  of  caudal  femiu- 15.3  19.2  18.3  19.2 

Length  of  ovipositor 9  10.7  10.3  11.2 

The  intensity  of  the  coloration  and  the  brilliancy  of  certain 
shades  varies  considerably  in  the  series  before  us. 

Distribution. — Covering  the  Atlantic  Coastal  Plain  region 
from  north  central  New  Jersey  (Helmetta,  Spotswood  and  James- 
burg)  south  to  southern  Florida,  westward  to  New  Orleans, 
Louisiana;   in   the   eastern  states   occurring  at  suitable  valley 

(Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1904,  p.  796  (Part);  Ibid.,  1905,  p.  48  and  Ibid., 
1907,  p.  306).  The  first  misidentification  was  due  to  the  fact  that  true  nigripes 
was  not  at  hand  for  examination,  and  the  second  was  due  fu-st  to  the  confusion 
of  two  species  and  later,  when  this  was  found  to  be  the  case,  error  was  made 
in  restricting  nitidum  to  the  wrong  component.  The  present  species  has  also 
been  erroneously  recorded  as  nigripes  by  Smith,  Brimlcy  and  AUard. 
"  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1910,  p.  642,  (1911). 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  55 

localities  in  the  Piedmont  region  above  the  fall-line  (Chestnut 
Hill,  Pennsylvania,  Montgomery  County,  Maryland,  and  Thomp- 
son's Mills,  Georgia). 

Specimens  Examined:  219,  1200",  97  9  ,  1  juv.  d^,  1  juv.   9  • 

Chestnut  Hill,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  18,  190o,  (H.;  in  cattails), 
2  c^,3  9. 

Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  X,  1906,  (R.  &  H.;  in  cattails),  2  cf ,  1  9 ,  IX,  7, 
191-1,  (H.;  in  great  numbers  in  tall  plants  along  river  and  in  marsh  vegetation), 
18  cT,  26  9. 

Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  13,  1911,  IX,  9  to  29,  1903  to  1913,  (R.  & 
H.;  in  numbers  in  cattails  and  high  reeds),  46  cT,  28  9,1  juv.  c?- 

Riverton,  New  Jersey,  IX,  11,  1904,  (G.  M.  Greene),  1  d',  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Spotswood,  New  Jersey,  IX,  22,  1909,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d^,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Helmetta,  New  Jersey,  IX,  21,  1909,  (W.  T.  Davis),  4  o^,  [Davis  Chi.]. 
Paralyses  of  Orchelinmm  pulchellum  Davis. 

Jamesburg,  New  Jersey,  IX,  23,  1909,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  c^,  [Da via  Chi.]; 
1  c^,  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Maple  Shade,  New  Jersey,  X,  10,  1914,  (B.Long),  1  d^,  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Dennisville,  New  Jersey,  IX,  5,  1909  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Paratype  of  Orrhelimum,  pulchellum  Davis. 

Near  Town  Bank,  Cape  May  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  15,  1912,  1  <f, 
[Davis  Chi.]. 

Anglesea,  New  Jersey,  IX,  6,  1  d^,  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Clu.]. 

Tolehester,  Maryland,  VIII,  30,  1  a^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Plummer's  Island,  Maryland,  IX,  2,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  1  cf,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Montgomery  County,  Maryland,  IX,  25,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d",  [Davis 
Chi.]. 

Hyattsville,  Maryland,  IX,  17,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d',  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Washington,  D.  C,  VIII,  1883,  1  d^,  2  9,  [Hebard  Cln.];  VIII,  23,  1878, 
IX,  27,  1896,  X,  21,  1902,  1  d',  2   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Anolostan  Island,  Virginia,  IX,  6,  1912,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  3  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Rosslyn,  Virginia,  IX,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  1  cf ,  3  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fredericksburg,  Vu-ginia,  VII,  20,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  in  tall  weeds  along 
river),  1  d'. 

Weldon,  North  Carolina,  VII,  24,  1913,  (R.  &  H.),  1  juv.  d. 

Newbern,  North  Carolina  (Ardway),  2  9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  among  low  swamp 
plants  in  timbered  swamp),  2  d^,  5  9  . 

Florence,  South  Carohna,  IX,  6,  1911,  (R.  &  H;  in  swamp  grasses  along 
branch  in  open  spot  in  deciduous  woods),  4  d',  8  9  . 

Thompson's  Mills,  Georgia,  X,  1909,  (H.  A.  AUard),  26",  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Jesup,  Georgia,  IX,  1,  1911,  (H.;  among  buUrushes  in  pond  in  pine  forest), 
1    d. 

BiUy's  Island,  Georgia,  VI  and  VII,  1912,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  2  cf ,  1   9  . 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  hammock  land  and 
saw-grass  and  reed  marsh),  1  d^,  5  9  . 

TRANS.    .\M.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


56  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Jacksonville,  Florida,  (Priddey),  2  cT,  1   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

South  Jacksonville,  Florida,  IX,  7  and  28,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  ScT,  [Davis 
Cln.]. 

Ortega,  Florida,  IX,  6  and  27,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  3  cT,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Sanford,  Florida,  (G.  B.  Frazer),  2  c^,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

In  addition  to  these  localities  we  have  already  recorded  the  species  as  nigripes, 
nitiduniand  as  the  synonymous  pulchcllum  from  Belleplain,  Riverton,  Lucaston, 
Gloucester,  Clemen  ton.  West  Creek  and  Sea  Isle  City,  New  Jersey;  Edenton 
aijd  Raleigh,  North  Carolina;  Thomasville,  Georgia,  and  Jacksonville,  Palatka, 
Detroit,  Lakeland  and  Chokoloskee,  Florida. 

Orchelimum  nigripes  Scudder     (Figs.  11,  25,  49,  50  and  76.) 

?1869.     Xvphidiuvi  validum  Walker,  Catal.  Derm.  Salt.  Brit.  Mus.,  ii,  p.  277. 

[No  locahty.] 
1875.     Orchelimum  nigripes  Scudder,  Proc.  Boston.  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xvii,  p. 

459.     [Dallas,  Texas.] 
1891.    X[iphidium]  {Orchelimum)   robustum  Redtenbacher,   Verh.  k.-k.  zool.- 

bot.  Gesell.  Wien,  xh,  pp.  494,  499.     [New  Orleans,  Louisiana.] 

We  have  examined  the  type  of  the  present  species  in  the  col- 
lection of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology.  It  is  a  male 
from  Dallas,  Texas,  bearing  labels  reading,  "8cudder's  Type 
1875,  Orchelimum  nigripes  Scudd.,"  also,  "Boll's  no.  21."  The 
measurements  of  the  type  are  as  follows:  length  of  body,  17  mm.; 
length  of  pronotum,  5;  greatest  caudal  width  of  pronotum,  3.5; 
length  of  tegmen,  21 ;  length  of  caudal  femur,  16.6. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  A.  N.  Caudell  we  have  before  us 
notes  which  he  made  from  the  type  of  Walker's  validum.  Taken 
with  the  characters  given  in  the  original  description  of  the  same 
the  combination  appears  to  fit  the  present  form  better  than  any 
other  in  the  genus,  this  being  the  position  assigned  validum  by 
Kirby.  However,  there  is  nothing  really  conclusive  in  the  agree- 
ment of  these  features  and  Mr.  Caudell's  comment  is,  that,  while 
he  had  time  to  make  but  a  hurried  examination  of  the  specimen, 
he  is  "very  sure  it  is  not  the  same  as  our  nigripes. "  Taken  alto- 
gether it  seems  best  to  give  the  name  validum  a  queried  position 
under  this  species,  leaving  for  the  future  the  exact  determination 
of  its  status. 

The  above  synonymy  is  evident  after  carefully  studying  the 
literature.  Redtenbacher's  rohustum  is  certainly  'nigripes  with 
the  exception  of  the  caudal  limbs,  these  in  all  probability  not  be- 
longing to  the  specimen.  Their  size,  i.  e.,  length  of  the  femora, 
is  distinctly  less  than  that  normal  for  specimens  of  the  genus  of 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  57 

similar  body  bulk  to  the  single  female  of  robustum,  while  their 
spineless  character  shows  they  in  all  probability  belong  to  a 
smaller  individual  of  a  different  species  of  the  genus.  The  color 
of  the  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  and  all  of  the  other  color  fea- 
tures of  robust um  are  those  of  nigripes,  while  the  peculiar  features 
of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  of  this  species  are  well 
described. 

This  species  is  closely  related  to  0.  laticauda,  which  it  replaces 
throughout  the  central  valley  and  prairie  region  of  the  United 
States.  The  eastern  species,  laticauda,  has  on  numerous  occa- 
sions been  mistaken  for  nigripes  and  so  recorded,  but  there  need 
be  no  confusion  of  the  two  forms  after  they  have  once  been 
compared.  The  shape  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  alone 
serves  as  a  ready  means  for  separating  the  species.  We  have  seen 
two  specimens  of  this  species  from  Lafayette,  Indiana,  which 
show  practically  no  black  on  the  tibiae. 

In  size  this  species  shows  much  the  same  features  as  laticauda, 
averaging  smaller  in  the  northern  portion  of  its  range  and  larger 
in  the  southern,  but  individual  variation  is  everywhere  evident. 
The  caudate  winged  type  is  typically  represented  by  two  females, 
one  from  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  and  the  other  from  Victoria,  Texas. 
In  addition  a  number  of  both  sexes  have  the  tegmina  and  wings 
more  elongate  than  in  the  majority  of  the  series.  Two  specimens 
in  the  present  series  have  the  caudal  femora  spined  on  the  ventro- 
internal  margin. 

Distribution. — The  central  valleys  and  prairies  of  the  United 
States,  from  as  far  north  as  the  shores  of  the  Mississippi  in 
Minnesota  (Lugger),  south  to  New  Orleans  (Redtenbacher)  and 
Victoria,  Texas,  east  to  Point  Pelee,  southern  Ontario  (E.  ^L 
Walker),  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  Clarksville,  Tennessee,  west  as 
far  as  Gering,  on  the  Platte  River,  in  western  Nebraska  and 
Denver  and  "Rocky  Mountains"  (Redtenbacher),  Colorado. 

Specimens  Examined:  68;  23  cf,  43  9,2  juv.   9  . 
Columbus,  Ohio  (C.  M.  Mead),  1   9,  [Hel)ard  Cln.]. 
Indiana,  (W.  S.  Blatchjey),  3  d",  4  9,  [Hebard  Cln.  and  Morse  Cln.]. 
Lafayette,  Indiana,  X,  14,  1913,  (H.  Fox),  18,  1  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 
Vigo  County,  Indiana,  (\V.  S.  Blatehley),  1  cr\  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.  and  U.  S. 
X.  M.). 

Goose  Pond,  Indiana,  IX,  tj,  1892,  (Blatchley),  1   9,  [f.  S.  X.  M.]. 
Illinois,  1  o^,[M.C.  Z.|. 

THA.NS.    .\.M.     HN'T.    SOC,    XLl. 


58  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Clarksville,  Tennessee,  X,  1,  1913,  (S.  E.  Crumb;  feeding  on  tobacco),  1  cf, 
2  9,  [U.S.  N.  M.]. 

Lone  Rock,  Wisconsin,  VIII,  23,  1906,  1    9,  [Penna.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Ames,  Iowa,  VIII,  28,  1897,  1   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Iowa  City,  Iowa,  (Shimek),  1  d",  10  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Omaha,  Nebraska,  1  d',  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  IX,  3,  1909,  IX,  15,  IX,  1888,  2  o^,  7  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]; 
IX,  (Bruner),  1   9,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Weeping  Water,  Nebraska,  IX,  24,  1909,  (Bruner),  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cbi.]. 

Gering,  Nebraska,  1    9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Shawnee  County,  Kansas,  1882,  1  cT,  1   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Topeka,  Kansas,  (Cragin),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Wichita,  Kansas,  X,  3,  1909,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  cf ,  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  Arkansas,  IX,  5,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

De  Queen,  Arkansas,  VII,  29,  1905,  (Morse),  1  c?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Arkadelphia,  Arkansas,  IX,  13,  1914,  (C.  B.  Jones),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Denver,  Colorado,  2   9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Denison,  Texas,  VIII,  11,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cT,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Dallas,  Texas,  (Boll),  1  d^,  [M.  C.  Z.],  type;  IX,  10,  1909,  (E.  S.  Tucker; 
on  Polygonum  blossoms),  1  c?,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Wichita  Falls,  Texas,  VIII,  16,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Beaumont,  Texas,  VII,  23,  1912,  (H.;  swampy  land),  3  c?,  2  9,2  juv.   9- 

Victoria,  Texas,  VII,  26  to  27,  1912,  (H.;  high  weeds  in  "Branch"),  2  cf ,  1  9  . 

Orchelimum  minoi  Bruner     (Figs.  3,  26,  51,  52  and  77.) 

1891.     Orchelimum  minor  Bnuier,  Canad.  Entom.,  xxiii,  p.  72.     [District  of 

Columbia.] 
1905.     Orchelimum  cuticulare?  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 

1904,  p.  796.     [Thomasville,  Georgia.) 

An  examination  of  the  present  series  of  specimens  of  both  sexes 
of  this  rare  species  shows  that  the  number  of  spines  on  the  ventro- 
external  margin  of  the  caiichxl  femora  varies  from  two  to  seven, 
one  individual  possessing  two  on  one  limb  and  six  on  the  other. 

In  general  size  there  is  some  variation  which  may  be  geo- 
graphic, as  the  largest  individual  is  from  the  most  southern 
point  from  which  the  species  has  been  recorded,  although  the 
series  in  hand  is  not  sufficient  to  more  than  call  attention  to  this  " 
feature. 

The  male  cerci  show  some  variation  in  the  length  of  the  distal 
portion  of  the  shaft,  this  being  most  apparent  in  the  large  Thomas- 
ville specimen.  This,  like  the  size  extreme  of  the  same  individual, 
may  possibly  be  explained  on  geographic  grounds. 

The  speculum  of  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina 
varies  to  an  appreciable  degree  in  the  exact  ratio  of  length  and 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  59 

breadth,  in  fact  more  so  than  in  any  other  form  except  0.  con- 
cinnum,  but  an  exact  expression  of  this  variation  is  hardly  possi- 
ble, as,  while  tangible  and  apparent  to  the  eye  after  study  of  the 
genus,  it  is  relatively  so  slight  that  a  satisfactory  and  convincing 
measurement  of  it  is  hard  to  secure. 

The  type  of  the  species,  a  female,  is  now  before  us  and  meas- 
urements of  it  have  never  been  published.     We  here  give  these 
and  the  proportions  of  several  representative  males  as  well  as 
the  large  Thomasville  individual  of  the  same  sex. 
Measurements  {in  millimeters) 

Length  of       Length  of     Length  of    Length  of      Length  of 
body  pronotum        tegmen    caudal  femur  ovipositor 

Atsior,  New  Jersey 16  4.4  15  1.3.2 

Sulphur     Springs,     North 

CaroHiui 15.9  4.2  Itj  1.3.2 

Thomasville,  Georgia ...  .        20.8  4.8  15.6  15.6 

9 
District  of  Columbia 
Type 15.4  4.2  16.2  14.5  11 

Synonymy. — ^In  the  prefatory  remarks  (p.  18)  we  have  already 
commented  upon  our  queried  determination  of  this  species  as 
0.  cuticulare.  The  specimen  so  named  had  lost  all  of  its  original 
coloration,  was  of  larger  size  than  the  average  of  the  species  and 
had  the  cerci  rather  longer  than  usual.  The  true  cuticulare  of 
Serville,  as  we  have  shown  elsewhere  in  this  paper,  equals  the 
earlier  glaherrimum  and  the  form  called  cuticulare  by  Redten- 
bacher  is  the  very  different  calcaratum. 

Distribution.- — ^The  Coastal  Plain  of  the  eastern  United  States 
from  central  New  Jersey  (Helmetta  and  I.akehurst),  south  to 
southern  Georgia  (Thomasville),  west  as  far  as  the  mountain 
valleys  of  North  Carolina  (Sulphur  Springs)  at  an  elevation  of 
2500  feet  and  the  vicinity  of  Washington.  To  the  localities 
from  which  the  species  has  been  recorded  we  may  add  Florence, 
South  Carolina,  where  its  note  was  heard  coming  from  about 
twelve  feet  up  in  a  short-leaf  pine. 

Specimens  Examined:  47;  33  cf ,  8  9,1  juv.  cf ,  5  juv.  9  ■ 

Almost  all  of  the  material  before  us  has  been  previously  recorded,  but  we 
are  hstiug  it  here  to  show  the  som'ces  of  information  for  the  present  study. 

Brown's  Mills  Junction,  New  Jersey,  X,  6,  1907,  (E.  Daecke),  1  9,  [Hebard 
Cln.l. 

Lakehurst,  New  Jersey,  IX,  6,  X,  19,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  cf ,  1  9,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


60  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Stafford's  Forge,  New  Jersey,  IX,  16,  1905,  (H.),  1  ^,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Atsion,  New  Jersey,  X,  8,  1903,  (H.),  2  d',  [Hebard  Cln.  and  A.  N.  S.  P.|. 

Reega,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  10,  1914,  (H.,  undergrowth  in  pine  barrens),  1 
juv.  cf,  4  juv.  9  ;  VIII,  29,  1914,  (H.;  common  in  pines,  males  continuing  to 
sing  after  dark),  1  cf ,  1  9,1  juv.  9  . 

Maryland  opposite  Plummer's  Island,  IX,  6,  1909,  (H.  A.  AUard;  on  pine), 
3  cf ,  l'  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

D'strict  of  Columbia,  IX,  15,  1884,  1   9,  type,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Sulphur  Springs,  North  Carolina,  IX,  2  and  X,  6,  1905,  (H.),  3cf,  [Hebard 
Cln.  and  A.  N.  S.  P.l. 

Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  IX,  20,  1904,  (Brimley),  1   9  ,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Thompson's  Mills,  Georgia,  1908,  X,  1909  and  1910,  (H.  A.  AUard),  20  cf , 
2  9  ,  [Hebard,  Cln.,  A.  N.  S.  P.,  and  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Hoschton,  Georgia,  X,  5,  1908,  (H.  A.  AUard),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Thomasville,  Georgia,  VIII,  28,  1903,  1  d,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Orchelimum  concinnum  Scudder     (Figs.  12,  27,  53,  54,  78  and  79.) 
1862.     ()[rchclit)ium]  concinnum  Scudder,   Boston  Journ.   Nat.   Hist.,    vii,   p. 

452.     [Cape  Cod,  Massachusetts.] 
1862.     0[rch€limum]  longi-pennis  Scudder,  Ibid.,  p.  453.     [Texas.] 
1891.     Orchelimum  gracile  Bruner  (not  Orchelimum  gracilis  Harris),  Canad. 

Entom.,  xxiii,  p.  70.     [West  Point  and  Lincoln,  and  Wheeler,  Garfield  and 

Holt  Counties,  Nebraska.] 

1891.  X[iphirlium]    {Orchelimum)   inerme   Redtenbacher,    Verh.   k.-k.    zool.- 
bot.  Gesell.  Wien,  xli,  pp.  495,  501  [Texas;  Kansas.]. 

1892.  Orchelimum  delicatum  Bruner,  Entom.  News,  iii,  p.  265.     [New  name 
for  0.  gracile  Bruner,  not  of  Harris.]. 

1893.  Orchelimum    indianense     Blatchley,     Canad.     Entom.,     xxv,     p.     90. 
[Kewanna,  Fulton  County,  Indiana.]. 

1893.     Orchelimum.    canipcsire    Blatchley,    Ibid.,    p.    91.     [Vigo   and    Fulton 

Counties,  Indiana.]. 
1899.     Xiphidium  gracilinum   Griffini,    Miscell.    Entom.,   vii,    p.   96.      [New 

name  for  Orchelimum  gracile  Bruner,  not  of  Harris.] 

The  present  species  is  probably  the  most  variable,  as  it  is  the 
most  widely  distributed,  form  in  the  genus  and  the  above  synon- 
ymy illustrates  the  difficulty  previous  authors  have  encountered 
in  endeavoring  to  determine  material  belonging  to  it.  The 
present  authors  have  given  more  time  and  consideration  to  it 
than  to  any  other  member  of  the  genus,  and  after  the  most  critical 
examination  of  the  specimens  in  hand  and  a  careful  testing  of  the 
evidence  on  which  the  numerous  synonyms  were  erected,  we  are 
thoroughly  convinced  that  concinnum  is  a  very  variable  form, 
showing  decided  geographic  size  variation,  probable  environ- 
mental adaptations   in  ovipositor  characters  in  the  female  and 


REHN    AND  HEBARD  61 

certainly   great   individual   variation   in   certain   structural   and 
several  color  features. 

We  have  examined  eleven  specimens  of  the  original  Cape  Cod 
series  on  which  Scudder  based  concinnum.  Ten  of  these  are  now 
in  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  and  one,  a  male,  is  in 
the  United  States  National  Museum.  Of  the  former  lot  we  select 
as  lectotype  a  male  labelled:  "0.  concinnum,  Cape  Cod,"  with  an 
additional  round  red  paper  label.  The  single  type  of  0.  longipen- 
nis,  a  female,  is  in  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  labelled: 
"Texas.  A.  Agassiz.  0.  longipennis  Scudd.,"  with  an  addi- 
tional red  type  label. 

The  type  and  paratypes  of  Orchelimum  gracile  Bruner  (Orcheli- 
mum  delicatum  Bruner)  are  now  before  us  and  the  only  tangible 
character  to  separate  them  from  pale  faced  eastern  specimens  of 
concinnum  is  the  longer,  straighter  ovipositor,  which  is  discussed 
beyond.  Redtenbacher's  inerme  was  proposed  merely  to  replace 
longipennis,  which  name  was  preoccupied  in  the  genus  Xiphidium 
in  which  he  placed  it.  The  description  of  inerme,  when  exam- 
ined, is  also  seen  to  be  based  on  the  same  condition  of  this  species 
as  that  to  which  Scudder  gave  the  name  longipeniiis.  Blatchley's 
indianense  is  absolutely  inseparable  from  dark  faced  concinnum, 
while  campestre  is  the  pale  faced  condition  of  this  species,  para- 
types of  both  forms,  now  before  us,  demonstrating  this  very 
clearly. 

Taking  up  the  features  of  variation  in  this  species,  we  find  they 
can  readily  be  classified  under  three  headings,  i.  e.,  geographic 
and  individual  size  variation,  ovipositor  variation  and  general 
color  and  structure  variation. 

Individual  size  variation  at  any  one  locality  is  less  pronounced 
in  this  species  than  in  most  of  the  other  forms  of  the  genus,  but 
the  geographic  size  variation  is  very  great.  Material  from  New 
England  is  minimum  in  size,  southward  along  the  east  coast  the 
bulk  increasing  until  individuals  from  the  southeastern  states  are 
very  decidedly  larger  than  those  from  New  Hampshire.  Speci- 
mens from  Indiana  and  Iowa  are  larger  than  New  England  indi- 
viduals but  not  greatly  so,  while  in  eastern  Nebraska  and  eastern 
Kansas  the  size  is  in  general  as  great  as  in  representatives  from 
the  coast  of  Georgia;  southward  in  Texas  and  northern  New  Mex- 
ico the  bulk  regularly  increases,  until  on  the  central  Gulf  coast  of 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


62         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTBRA) 

Texas  we  find  maximum  sized  individuals  nearly  twice  as  large 
as  New  England  specimens  and  at  first  glance  apparently  very 
different.  From  west  central  Nebraska  northward  to  south 
central  Montana  we  find  the  species  holds  a  fairly  uniform  size. 

The  most  puzzling  variation  feature  is  in  the  length  and  curve 
of  the  ovipositor.  Over  almost  the  entire  range  of  the  species 
there  is  little  variation  in  the  relative  size  and  curve  of  the  ovi- 
positor, which  shows  only  very  minor  variations  in  depth,  etc. 
In  the  central  area,  however,  and  to  a  lesser  degree  in  Montana, 
we  find  a  part  or  all  of  the  females  from  certain  localities  possess- 
ing ovipositors  far  longer,  more  robust  and  straighter  than  the 
average  type.  This  is  the  form  called  delicaium  (gracile)  by 
Bruner  and  it  and  the  more  normal  concinnum  type  were  both 
taken  by  him  at  West  Point  and  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  while  nu- 
merous female  specimens  from  Nehgh,  Kearney,  North  Platte  and 
Haigler,  Nebraska,  and  Billings,  Montana,  are  nearer  this  type 
than  average  concinnum,  or  intermediate  between  the  two.  No 
other  structural  character  stands  the  tests  for  correlation  with 
this  ovipositor  feature  and  it  is  impossible  to  sort  the  males  before 
us  into  two  species,  those,  fourteen  in  number,  for  instance,  from 
Billings,  a  locality  having  no  typical  concinnum  ovipositor  among 
its  sixteen  females,  being  quite  inseparable  from  more  eastern 
specimens,  while  the  males  from  West  Point  and  Lincoln  are 
certainly  one  species,  the  male  type  of  delicaium  being  the  same 
as  dozens  of  others  which  are  undoubted  concinnum.  The 
explanation  of  this  ovipositor  development  should,  we  think,  be 
looked  for  in  the  immediate  environment  in  which  the  long  ovi- 
positor individuals  occur,  the  fact  that  both  have  been  taken  at 
one  locality  strongly  suggesting  this. 

Among  the  general  structural  variations  we  find  the  width  of 
the  fastigium  and  the  degree  of  divergence  of  the  margins  of  the 
same,  when  seen  from  the  cephaHc  aspect,  to  be  quite  variable, 
while  the  degree  of  straightness  or  arcuation  of  the  ventro- 
caudal  margin  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  and  the  degree 
of  angulation  of  the  caudal  margin  of  the  same  are  inconstant, 
varying  in  nearly  every  series  from  a  single  locality.  The  form 
of  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina  is  rather  plastic,  while 
the  male  cerci  show  certain  variational  features  in  length,  degree 
of  slenderness  of  the  distal  extremity  and  the  strength  of  the 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  63 

dorsal  carination.  In  the  present  species  the  majority  of  the 
specimens  are  decidedly'  long-winged,  i.  e.,  having  the  tegmina 
and  wings  strongly  surpassing  the  apices  of  the  caudal  femora, 
while  in  a  number  of  specimens,  these  outnumbering  the  more 
usual  type  in  the  eastern  Nebraska  representation,  the  teg- 
mina and  wings  are  extremely  elongate,  surpassing  the  caudal 
femora  by  from  one-half  to  two-thirds  their  length.  The  long- 
winged  type  is  that  to  which  Scudder  gave  his  name  longipen- 
nis.  The  tegmina  and  wings  average  shorter  in  the  specimens 
from  Kearney,  Neligh,  North  Platte  and  Haigler,  Nebraska,  and 
Billings,  Montana,  than  in  those  from  any  other  locality.  Every 
one  of  seven  specimens  collected  at  electric  lights  at  Lincoln, 
Nebraska,  by  Prof.  Bruner  is  of  the  very  long-winged  type,  while 
of  thirty  specimens  from  Billings,  all  taken  in  a  sedgy  area,  but 
two  are  of  the  verj^  long-winged  form. 

The  color  variation  is  chiefly  in  that  of  the  dorsum  of  the 
pronotum  and  of  the  face.  The  former  area  may  be  uniform 
with  the  general  body  color  or  ma}^  be  supplied  with  a  pair  of 
brownish  diverging  lines,  the  area  between  these  may  or  maj-  not 
be  infuscate  or  washed  with  ferruginous,  while  the  extent  and 
depth  of  these  lines  and  the  embrownment  of  the  enclosed  area 
on  the  occiput  is  variable  in  the  same  proportion  as  on  the  prono- 
tum. The  face  may  be  concolorous  with  the  remainder  of  the 
head  or  supplied  with  a  more  or  less  distinct  median  vertical  bar, 
which  in  the  more  intensely  colored  specimens  is  almost  blackish 
and  generally  considerably  expanding  ventrad,  although  it  ma}' 
be  nearly  subequal  in  width.  Interior  specimens  do  not  show 
this  dark  l^ar,  as  far  as  our  material  goes,  except  in  the  case  of  the 
Indiana  material  called  indianense  by  Blatchley  and  of  a  single 
female  labelled  "Colorado,"  but  from  the  coastal  sections  this 
form  generally  outnumbers  the  pale  faced  type  which  occurs  in 
exactly  the  same  situations.  In  the  coastal  area  of  Texas  the 
pale  faced  type  is  proportionately  more  numerous  tlian  in  the 
eastern  coastal  section.  The  occasional  presence  of  a  similar 
facial  bar  has  also  been  noted  bj'  us  in  0.  luilitare. 

From  observations  made  in  New  Jersey  by  the  junior  author 
during  the  summer  of  1914,  it  is  evident  that  the  young  of  the 
present  species  found  in  the  eastern  coastal  region  exhil)it  two 
color  forms,  one  with  a  striped  face,  the  other  with  a  uniformly 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


64         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

green  face.  The  striped  face  form  retains  that  condition  through 
the  ecdyses  to  the  adult  condition,  the  other  reaches  the  adult 
condition  without  acquiring  the  barred  face,  but  within  a  few 
days  after  becoming  adult,  as  the  chitin  thoroughly  hardens  the 
stripe  develops  and  becomes  as  prominent  as  in  the  other  type. 
This  was  ascertained  by  keeping  specimens  under  observation 
from  the  immature  stages  to  that  of  thoroughly  hardened  adults. 
It  is  very  probable  that  green  face  adult  specimens  from  New 
Jersey  were  taken  before  they  had  fully  acquired  their  permanent 
adult  coloration. 

Measurements  (in  millimeters)  of  a  number  of  average  pairs 
from  representative  localities  .are  here  presented. 


Rye  Beach,      Chestnut  Neck, 

Wrightsville, 

Tybee  Island, 

New  Hampshire 

New  Jersey 

North  Carolina 

Georgia 

c?           9 

cf          9 

cf           9 

&          9 

Length  of  pronotum  .  . 

,3.7       4.2 

4.1       4. 

1 

4.1       4.1 

4.4       4.8 

Length  of  tegmen .... 

19         16.7 

21 . 1     20 

21.5     21.2 

22.4     23 

Length  of  caudal  femur 

13.2     13.5 

14.8     15 

16.5     15.7 

16.6     17.5 

Length  of  ovipositor .  . 

7.5 

....       7. 

,8 

....       8.2 

8.1 

Homestead, 

Vigo  Co. 

West  Point, 

West  Point, 

Florida 

Indiana 

Nebraska 

Nebraska 

(Paratypes  ( 

Df 

(0.  delicatum) 

0.  campestre) 

[type)        (para- 
type) 

d^          9 

o^          9 

&          9 

o^          9 

Length  of  pronotum  .  . 

4.1       4.5 

4.2       4 

2 

3.9       3.8 

4.2       4.7 

Length  of  tegmen  .... 

21.4     22.5 

22 . 8     20 

.8 

18         18.2 

22.7     23.2 

Length  of  caudal  femur 

14.5     17 

16         15 

.6 

14         14.5 

16.5     18.5 

Length  of  ovipositor .  . 

8.1 

....       7 

.5 

....      10.5 

....       7.5 

Lincoln,        North  Platte, 

Billings, 

Texas 

Nebraska          Nebraska 

Montana 

{TypeoiO. 

tongipennis) 

9             c?          9 

&          9 

& 

Length  of  pronotum .  .  . 

4.5          4 

.5       4.3 

4.6       4.6 

5 

Length  of  tegmen 

26.2         19 

.8     20.2 

22         21.3 

29 . 6 

Length  of  caudal  femur . 

17.1         14 

.5     14.7 

15.7     16.2 

19 

Length  of  ovipositor .  .  . 

13 

9 

9 

8.5 

Virginia  Point, 

Giegory, 

Del  Rio, 

Beulah, 

Texas 

Texas 

Texas                 New  Mexico 

d'         9 

cf 

cf 

9 

d         9 

Length  of  pronotum .  .  . 

4.9       5 

5,2 

5 

.5       4.9         4.6       5 

Length  of  tegmen  .... 

.     25        25.5 

30.7 

23 

.9     20          24.7     26.8 

Length  of  caudal  femur 

.      17. S     18.6 

18.9 

18 

.5     16           17         17.5 

Length  of  ovipositor  . 

9 

.  .        8.4 

.  ..      11.2 

Normally  this  species  has  the  ventro-external  margin  of  the 
caudal  femora  unspined,  an  occasional  specimen,  however,  having 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  65 

a  single  adventitious  spine  on  one  limb  and  much  more  rarely 
two  spines  on  but  a  single  limb.  We  have  examined  no  specimen 
with  spines  on  both  caudal  femora.  Curiously  all  individuals 
noticed  to  have  any  spines  at  all  are  from  localities  west  of  the 
Mississippi  (Iowa,  Missouri,  Nebraska  and  Texas). 

Distribution. — In  the  eastern  United  States  apparenth'  re- 
stricted to  the  general  vicinity  of  the  coast,  generally  in  or  near 
salt  marsh,  and  distributed  from  New  Hampshire  (Rye  Beach) 
south  to  southern  Florida  (Homestead);  in  the  interior  ranging 
from  extreme  southern  Ontario  (five  localities  reported  by 
Walker),  northern  peninsula  of  Michigan  (Menominee),  south- 
eastern Minnesota  (see  Lugger)  and  south-central  Montana 
(Billings)  south  to  the  Gulf  Coast  of  Florida  and  Mississippi,  to 
at  least  south-central  Texas  (Gregory  and  Del  Rio),  west  to  at 
least  Billings,  Montana,  eastern  Colorado  (La  Junta  and  Jules- 
burg)  and  Albuquerque,  New  Mexico.  The  vertical  range  of 
the  species  is  easily  the  greatest  in  the  genus,  extending  from 
sea-level  to  approximately  8000  feet  (Beulah,  New  Mexico). 
From  the  eastern  states  we  know  of  no  correct  record  of  the 
occurrence  of  the  species  at  a  locality  away  from  the  general 
vicinity  of  the  coast.  Allard  has  reported  longipenne  from 
Thompson's  Mills,  Georgia,  but  the  material,  which  we  have  seen 
collected  by  him  an  1  so  labelled,  is  referable  to  0.  agile. 

Specimens  Examined:   472;  235  d',  212  9,  13  juv.  cf,  12  juv.  9. 

Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire,  IX,  1  and  2,  1913,  (H.;  in  salt  marsh  grass), 
3  d^,  4  9. 

Vicinity  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  (Scudder),  2  cT,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Cape  Cod,  Massachusetts,  (Scudder),  9  c?',  2  9,  type  and  paratypes,  [M.  C. 
Z.;  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Scituate,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  29,  1897,  (F.  H.  Sprague),  2  9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Wesquage  Beach,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  S  to  10,  1913,  (H  ;  in  salt  marsh  grass), 
1  d". 

Stony  Creek,  Connecticut,  IX,  2,  1904,  (H.  L.  Viereck),  1  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Saybrook,  Connecticut,  VII,  27,  1904,  (H.  L.  Viereck),  1  d",  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Lighthouse  Point,  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  IX,  27,  1904,  (B.  H.  Walden), 

1  9,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Spray  Beach,  New  Jersey,  IX,  6,  1906,  (Bayard  Long),  2  c?",  [A.  N.  S.  P.). 

Mullica  River  meadows  near  New  Gretna,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  24,  1914,  (H.; 
in  short  grass  far  out  on  flats  and  in  bordering  rush  swamp),  19  c?',  20  9,  1 
juv.  cT,  1  juv.   9  . 

Chestnut  Neck,  New  Jersey,  VII,  16,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  salt  marsh  grass), 

2  c^,6  9. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


66  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Canton,  New  Jersey,  IX,  7,  1910,  (H.  Fox);  1  cf',  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  5  to  VIII,  26,  1914,  (H.;  abundant  in  marshy 
depression  in  sand),  40  c?,  28  9.6  juv.  c?,  7  juv.  9  • 

Margate  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  24,  VIII,  17,  1914,  (H.;  scarce  in  salt  marsh 
chiefly  of  Panicularia  fluitans),  2  cf,  2  9  . 

Pleasantville,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  17,  1914,  (H. ;  sliore  margin  of  salt  meadow), 
1  d". 

Ocean  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  middle  of  salt  marsh),  1  d'. 

Tiickahoe,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  26,  1914,  (H.;  in  freshwater  marsh),  1  (f. 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14  and  26,  1914,  (H.;  in  fresh  marsh  gi-asses 
and  rushes),  13  cf,  7  9  • 

Between  Woodbine  and  Belleplain,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  21,  1912,  (H.  Fox; 
in  wet  bog  of  J  uncus  canadensis),  2  cf,  3  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Ocean  View,  New  Jersey,  VII,  30,  1908,  VII,  16,  1911,  IX,  8,  1911,  (H.  Fox), 
7  c?',  9  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.];  VII,  27,  1914,  (H.;  in  upland  field  and  on  edge  of  salt 
marsh).  Id',!   9,1  juv.   9- 

Sea  Isle  City,  New  Jersey,  X,  9,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  1  c?,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Piermont,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  26,  1909,  (H.  Fox;  salt  marsh),  2  cf,  1  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Avalon,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12,  1911,  (H.  Fox),  3  c?,  4  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Swainton,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  8,  1914,  (H.;  in  swampy  field),  1  9  . 

Cape  May  Court  House,  New  Jersey,  VII,  20,  VIII,  14  and  21,  1914,  (H.; 
common  in  salt  marsh  of  Spartina  patens  and  Distichlis  spicala)  ,2  cf ,  5  9,6 
juv.  o^,  2  juv.   9  ,  (immature  individuals  on  the  earliest  date). 

Anglesea,  New  Jersey,  IX,  5,  3  cf ,  5  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cold  Spring,  New  Jersey,  IX,  4,  1907,  (Bayard  Long),  2  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]; 
VIII,  28,  1912,  (H.  Fox),  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cape  May,  New  Jersey,  VII,  22,  1910,  (H.;  in  salt  marsh),  1  &■ 

Chestertown,  Maryland,  VIII,  4,  1912,  VIII,  24,  1900,  (E.  G.  Vanattaj,  1 
c?,2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Virginia,  VIII,  14,  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Ocean  View,  Virginia,  VIII,  9,  1904,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  1  c?,  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Vii-ginia  Beach,  Virginia,  VIII,  31,  1903,  (E.  S.  G.  Titus),  1  d^,  1  9,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carohna,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  fairly  abundant  in 
high  grasses  growuig  on  edge  of  dry  land)  ,6  cf ,  6   9  • 

Smith  Island,  North  Carolina;  X,  1906,  (F.  Sherman),  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  IX,  2,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  very  common  in  salt  marsh), 
24  cf ,  14  9  ;  VIII,  12,  1903,  (Morse),  5  cf ,  3   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Warrington,  Florida,  VIII,  4,  1903,  (Morse),  2  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Fort  Barrancas,  Florida,  VIII,  3,  1903,  (Morse),  4  cf ,  3  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Biloxi,  Mississippi,  VII,  19,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Buras,  Louisiana,  VII,  23,  190.5,  (Morse),  1   9 ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Crowley,  Louisiana,  IX,  23,  1911,  (E.  S.  Tucker;  in  rice  field),  2  cf,  2  9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Cleveland,  Ohio,  VIII,  19,  1  cf ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Cedar  Point,  Ohio,  VIII,  1912,  (W.  J.  Kostir),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  67 

Gypsum,  Ohio,  VIII,  20,  (J.  L.  King),  1  ^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Menominee,  Michigan,  IX,  5,  1904,  (E.  S.  G.  Titus),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Vigo  County,  Indiana,  VIII,  27  and  IX,  8,  1893,  (Blatchley),  2  d',  2  9.. 
[Hebard  Chi.,  and  U.  S.  N.  M.].    Paraiijpes  of  0.  cainpestre. 

Kewannee,  Indiana,  IX,  24,  1892,  X,  7,  1893,  (Blatchley)  3  d^,  1  9 ,  [Hebard 
Chi.  M.  C.  Z.  and  U.  S.  N.  M.].     Paralypes  of  0.  indianense. 

Starke  County,  Indiana,  VIII,  11, 1904,  VIII,  15, 20  and21, 1902,  (Blatchley), 
2  cf,  4  9 .  [Hebard  Chi.,  A.  N.  S.  P.,  and  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Marshall  County,  Indiana,  VII,  29,  1902,  X,  5  and  15,  1904,  (Blatchley), 
2  d^,  4  9  ,  [Hebard  Chi.,  A.  N.  S.  P.,  and  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Lake  Maxinkuckee,  Indiana,  VIII,  17,  1893,  (Blatchley),  Icf,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Steuben  Coimty,  Indiana,  VIII,  6  and  8,  1902,  IX,  8,  1902,  (Blatchley)  od^, 
1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.,  A.  N.  S.  P.,  and  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Kosciusko  County,  Indiana,  VIII,  8  and  27,  1902,  (Blatchley),  1  o^  1  9 , 
[A.  N.  S.  P.  and  U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fulton  County,  Indiana,  IX,  24,  1892,  (Blatchley),  1  cf,  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Lake  County,  Indiana,  IX,  1,  1902,  (Blatchley),  2  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.,  and  U.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

Moline,  lUinois,  VIII,  4,  (McNeill),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

La^ai  Ridge,  Illinois,  (A.  Agassiz),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Arkansas,  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fort  Dodge,  Iowa,  VIII,  27,  1910,  (M.  P.  Somes),  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Dallas  County,  Iowa,  VIII,  20  to  23,  (Allen),  1   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Hollister,  Missouri,  VIII,  12,  1912,  (H.  H.  Knight),  2o^,  1  9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

West  Pomt,  Nebraska,  VII,  1884,  VIII,  17,  IX,  4  and  5,  (L.  Bruner),  8  cT, 
7  9  [Hebard  Chi.];  VIII,  17,  (L.  Bruner),  1  d^,  1  9,  [Cornell  Univ.].  Type 
and  five  paratypes  of  gracile  Bruner. 

Lincok,  Nebraska,  VII,  VIII,  (L.  Bruner),  7  d',  6  9,  [Hebard  Cln.,  and 
U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Burnham,  Nebraska,  VIII,  30,  1911,  (L.  Bruner),  1  d",  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Cedar  Bluffs,  Nebraska,  2  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Neligh,  Nebraska,  VIII,  (M.  Gary),  2  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Kearney,  Nebraska,  VII,  27,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  gra.ssy  patch),  1  9  . 

North  Platte,  Nebraska,  VII,  28,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  marshy  tract),  G  o',  8  9  . 

Haigler,  Nebraska,  VIII,  10,  1901,  (L.  Bruner),  1   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Clearwater,  Kansas,  VIII,  30,  1904,  (F.  B.  Isely),  1  d^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Billings,  Montana,  VII,  28,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  in  marshy  area  of  sedges), 
14  d',  16  9,1  juv.   9. 

Julesburg,  Colorado,  VII,  29,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  grasses  in  river  bottom), 
1  d^,  1  9. 

Near  La  Jimta,  Colorado,  IX,  11,  1909,  (R.  &H.;  in  Arkansas  River  bottom 
land),  1  d'. 

Barber  County,  Kansas,  (F.  W.  Cragin),  2  d^,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

DaUas,  Texas,  (Boll),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Vii-ginia  Point,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.;  in  lu.xuriant  salt  marsh  vegetation), 
5  d^,7  9. 

Victoria,  Texas,  VI,  (A.  N.  Caudell),  1  9 .  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


68  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Gregory,  Texas,  VII,  30,  1912,  (H.;  in  fresh  marsh  vegetation),  1  cf. 

Del  Rio,  Texas,  VIII,  22  and  23,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  in  heavy  grasses  in  Rio 
Grande  bottom),  2  cf,  1   9  • 

Albuquerque,  New  Mexico,  VII,  13  and  16,  (Oslar),  2  cf ,  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]; 
IX,  14,  1907,  (H.;  in  cultivated  ground),  1  c^,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Beulah,  New  Mexico,  VIII,  17,  (H.  Skinner),  1  o",  2  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

The  present  authors  or  the  senior  author  alone  have  already  recorded  this 
species  from  Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey  and  Punta  Gorda,  Fort  Myers,  South 
Bay  of  Lake  Okeechobee,  Chokoloskee  and  Homestead,  Florida,  and  as  longi- 
penne  from  Hannibal,  Missouri. 

Orchelimum  fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard     (Figs.  13,  28,  55,  56  and  80.) 
?1839.     Orchelimum  herbaceu-m  Serville,  Hist.  Nat.  Ins.  Orth.,  p.  524.     [North 
America.] 

1907.  Orchelimum,  fidicinium  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1907,  p.  309,  figs.  7  to  9.     [Cedar  Keys  and  Gainesville,  Florida.] 

1908.  Orchelimum  crusculum  Davis,  Journ.  N.  Y.  Entom.  Soc,  xvi,  p.  223. 
[Tucker ton.  New  Jersey;   Staten  Island  and  Rockaway,  New  York.] 

As  we  liave  a]ready  stated  in  tlie  preliminary  remarks  on  the 
genus,  Serville's  herhaceum,  which  has  generally  been  associated 
with  Scudder's  concinnum,  seems  to  resemble  this  species  more 
closely  in  the  length  and  form  of  the  ovipositor  than  any  other 
of  which  we  know  the  female,  except  the  long  ovipositor  type  of 
concinnum.  The  latter  condition,  however,  as  far  as  known,  occurs 
only  in  a  region  which  at  that  time  was  almost  unexplored  and 
there  is  little  possibility  of  it  having  been  in  Serville's  possession, 
particularly  as  he  says  the  specimen  came  from  Latreille,  who 
died  in  1833.  The  character  of  the  facial  marking  described  by 
Serville  is  not  normally  found  in  any  form  known  to  us,  that  is 
no  form  has  an  "almost  transverse"  black  spot  on  the  face.  A 
similar  condition  is  found  below  the  eyes  in  specimens  of  a  num- 
ber of  species  which  have  discolored  in  drying.  However,  we 
have  no  definite  proof  that  herhaceum  is  the  same  as  fidicinium, 
and,  until  we  have  some  positive  information  of  this  sort,  we  do 
not  care  to  replace  a  well  understood  name  by  another  of  doubt- 
ful status.  We  have  endeavored  to  locate  Serville's  type  and 
have  the  same  examined,  but  unfortunately  without  success. 

The  synonymy  of  crusculum  is  evident  on  comparison  of  typi- 
cal material  of  the  same,  kindly  loaned  to  us  by  Mr.  Davis,  with 
the  typical  series  of  fidicinium. 

As  in  other  species  of  the  genus  there  is  a  general  increase  in 
size  southward,  but  in  the  Cumberland  Island  series  we  find  a 


1-2 

1-2 

2-1 

1-2 

3-3 

1-0 

3-31  s 

1-0 

4-1 

1-2 

1-1 

5-3 

3-2 

3-2 

2-1 

3-2 

1-1 

1-1 

2-4 

1-1 

REHN    AND    HEBARD  69 

very  considerable  amount  of  individual  variation  in  this  respect 
in  both  sexes.  The  smaller  New  Jersey  individuals,  however, 
are  very  appreciably  smaller  than  the  smallest  Cumberland  Island 
specimens. 

The  ovipositor  curve  varies  somewhat,  in  one  extreme  this 
appendage  being  straighter  than  in  others,  with  its  dorsal  margin 
but  little  arcuate,  while  the  more  usual  condition  has  the  whole 
ovipositor  with  its  margins  more  regularly  but  not  strongly  arcu- 
ate. The  distal  section  of  the  ventro-external  margin  of  the  caudal 
femora  is  either  unarmed  or  supplied  with  from  one  to  five  spines. 
An  examination  of  thirty  specimens,  taken  at  random,  for  the 
number  of  these  spines  shows  the  following: 

Cape  May,  New  Jersey  Wrightsville,  North  Carolina         Cumberland  Island,  Georgia 

1-0  4-1 

1-0  o-o 

0-0  0-1 

0-0  1-1 

2-1  3-2 


There  is  a  great  amount  of  variation  in  the  depth  of  the  gen- 
eral coloration,  but  in  the  vast  majority  the  dark  dorsal  band  is 
indicated.  The  Cumberland  Island  and  numerous  New  Jersey 
specimens  average  dark  in  general  tone,  with  generally  strongly 
contrasted  pattern.  When  fresh  many  specimens  from  these 
localities  were  distinctly  thalassine  in  tone. 

Distribution. — Salt  marsh  and  maritime  region  from  western 
Long  Island,  New  York  (Rockaway)  to  southern  Georgia  (Cum- 
berland Island)  and  western  Florida  (Cedar  Keys).  It  has  l)een 
recorded  inland  in  but  a  single  instance,  that  from  Gainesville, 
Florida,  although  two  females  labelled  "Swansea,  South  Caro- 
lina," a  locality  approximately  one  hundred  miles  inland,  are  now 
in  hand.  We  feel  very  doubtful,  with  our  personal  knowledge  of 
the  habits  of  this  species,  as  to  the  correctness  of  these  two  records. 
The  Gainesville  one  was  reported  by  us  when  our  knowledge  of 
the  insect  was  l)y  no  means  as  full  as  at  present,  and  in  all  proba- 
bility the  specimen  reported  was  secured  the  jjrevious  day  at 
Cedar  Keys  and  accidentally  confused  in  labelling. 

1*  The  ventro-internal  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  liavo  a  singk'  .spine 
instead  of  being  unarmed  as  usual. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


70  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Specimens  Examined:    248;   112  c/',  117  9 ,  6  juv.  cf ,  13  juv.   9. 

Tuckerton,  New  Jersey,  IX,  1,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d',  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.].  Para- 
types  of  0.  crusculum  Davis. 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  24,  1914,  (H.;  common  in  and  about  tall  fringing 
borders  of  Spartina  strida  far  out  on  tidal  flats),  15  cf ,  17  9 ,  4  juv.  cf,  2  juv.  9 . 

Ocean  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  middle  of  salt  marsh),  5  cf, 
5  9. 

Townsend's  Inlet,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  10,  1908,  (H.  Fox;  in  grassy  marsh 
and  grassy  meadow),  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Avalon,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1908,  (H.  Fox;  in  Scir pus  iftar  beach),  1  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.];  VIII,  20,  1910,  VIII,  12,  1911,  VIII,  26,  1912,  (H.  Fox;  in  Spar- 
tina in  salt  marsh),  5  d",  16  9,1  juv.  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Ocean  View,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12,  1908,  VIII,  29,  1910,  (H.  Fox;  grassy 
places  in  salt  marsh),  1  d',  5  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Sea  Isle  City  Turnpike,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12,  1911,  VIII,  15,  1910,  (H.  Fox; 
in  Spartina  in  salt  marsh),  10  cf ,  H   9,1  juv.  cf,  9  juv.  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Goshen,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  22,  1910,  (H.  Fox),  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

South  Dennisville,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  27,  1912,  (H.  Fox;  in  Spartina  glabra), 
3  c?,  1   9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cape  May  Court  House,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  in  salt  marsh  in 
Spartina  striata),  1  cf,  1  9  • 

Anglesea,  New  Jersey,  IX,  8,  1   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cape  May,  New  Jersey,  VII,  22,  1910,  (H.;  in  salt  marsh),  4  d',  3  9  ;  VIII, 
8,  1914,  (H.;  out  on  salt  marsh  in  Spartina  striata),  3  d^,  2  9  . 

Ocean  View,  Virginia,  VIII.  9,  (Caudell),  7  d',  1  9,1  juv.  d",  1  juv.  9,  [U. 
S.  N.  M.  and  A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  scarce  in  marsh  grass), 
5  d^,  10  9. 

Swansea,  South  Carolina,  VIII,  7,  1911,  (F.  Knab),  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Coast  of  South  Carolina,  1  d',  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Savannah,  Georgia,  VIII,  20,  1895,  (A.  Oemler),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.J. 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  VII,  26,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  2  c?,  1  9 ,  [Ga.  State 
Cln.];  VIII,  13,  1903,  (Morse),  8  o^,  3  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Cumberland  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  31,  1911,  (H.;  in  high  salt  marsh  grass 
growing  between  high  and  low  tide  beach  lines  on  boggy  gi'ound),  41  d^,  32  9  • 

The  species  has  been  recorded  previously  from  Cedar  Keys  (and  Gainesville, 
incorrectly)  Florida;  Rockaway  and  Staten  Island,  New  York,  and  Tuckerton, 
Ocean  View,  Townsend's  Inlet  and  Anglesea,  New  Jersey. 

Orchelimum  tailitare  Rehu  and  Hcbard     (Figs.  14,  29,  57,  58  and  81.) 
1907.     Orchelimum  militare  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1907,  p.  311,  figs.  10  and  11.     [Gainesville,  Florida.] 

Tliis  very  distinct  species  has  some  relationship  to  0.  fidicin- 
ium,  but  the  sum  total  of  its  characters  give  it  an  isolated  posi- 
tion. 

In  size  it  answers  to  the  general  rule  of  the  genus,  in  that  the 
smaller  individuals  are  more  frequent  at  the  more  northern  local- 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  71 

ities  and  the  average  size  southward  is  greater,  but  the  Florence 
series  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  individual  size  variation  is 
very  great. 

As  with  glaberrimum  this  species  occasionally  develops  a  red- 
dish coloration  of  the  head,  as  rich  and  decided  as  in  the  most 
extreme  individual  of  the  larger  species,  while  other  specimens  of 
militare  have  a  vertical  facial  bar  ranging  in  color  from  pale  red- 
dish to  walnut  brown,  which  condition  is  quite  similar  to  that 
frequently  found  in  0.  concinnum.  This  facial  marking  occa- 
sionally spreads  out  laterad  over  the  ventral  portion  of  the  genae 
and  again  in  some  few  specimens  the  infra-ocular  and  infra- 
antennal  regions  are  quite  blackish. 

The  number  of  spines  on  the  distal  portion  of  the  ventro-ex- 
ternal  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  either  varies  from  one  to  two 
or  the  margin  is  unarmed.  A  count  of  twentj^  specimens  shows 
the  following  results: 

Florence,  South  Carolina  Winter  Park,  North  CaroUna 

0-0  0-0  0-0  0-2 

2-2  1-1  0-0  1-0 

2-1  2-1  1-0  0-0 

0-0  1-1  0-0  0-0 

0-0  0-1  0-0  1-1 

Distribution. — -Coastal  Plain  region.  Gulf  coast  and  Florida, 
ranging  from  south-central  New  Jersey  (Speedwell)  south  to 
southern  Florida  (Detroit),  west  at  least  as  far  as  southern  Mis- 
sissippi (Nugent)  and  southeastern  Louisiana  (Buras).  The 
known  limits  of  its  range  inland  toward  the  Piedmont  region  are 
Florence,  South  Carolina,  and  Tifton,  Georgia. 

Specimens  Examined:    74;  45  cf,  28  9 ,  1  juv.   9. 

Speedwell,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  31,  1905,  (Witmer  Stone),  IcT^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]'». 

Winter  Park,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  gi-een  grasses  on  edge 
of  field),  12  d^,  2  9. 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  high  weeds  near 
lake  shore),  1  cf,  2  9  . 

Florence,  South  Carolina,  IX,  6,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  open  phices  in  short- 
leaf  pine  or  oak  woods,  in  grasses  several  feet  high),  15  c?,  10  9  . 

Jesup,  Georgia,  IX,  1,  1911,  (H.;  in  bulrushes  in  swamp  in  pine  woods)-",  2  9  . 

^8  This  specimen  was  recorded  l)y  Smith  (1909  List  of  New  Jersey  Insects) 
under  0.  herbaceum. 

-"  This  specimen  was  seen  to  dive  off  of  tlic  rushes  into  the  water  and  swim 
swiftly  to  a  leaf  under  which  it  chnig,  being  perfectly  concealed  an  inch  or 
more  under  water. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


72  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Waycross,  Georgia,  VIII,  11,  1903,  (Morse),  2  c^,  2   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Jordan's.  Billy's  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  31,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  cf ,  1  9- 

Homerville,  Georgia,  VIII,  27,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  Juv.   9  • 

Tifton,  Georgia,  IX,  8,  1910,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  d",  [Ga.  State  Cln.]. 

Bainbridge,  Georgia,  IX,  17  to  X,  19,  1910,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  9 ,  [Ga.  State 
Cln.]. 

Jacksonville,  Florida,  (Priddey),  Id';  VIII,  1885,  (Ashmead),  IcT,  [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII,  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  swampy  area  on  edge  of 
hammock),  1   9  . 

Hastings,  Florida,  V,  22  to  X,  15,  (A.  G.  Brown),  8  c?^,  4  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Nugent,  Mississippi,  VII,  20,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d',  3  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Buras,  Louisiana,  VII,  23,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

We  have  previously  recorded  this  species  from  Gainesville  and  Detroit, 
Florida;  Okeefenokee  Swamp,  Georgia,  and  Winter  Park,  North  Carolina. 

Orchelimum  volantum  McNeill     (Figs.  15,  30,  59,  60  and  82.) 

1891.     Orchelimum  volantum  McNeill,  Psyche,  vi,  p.  26.     [Rock  River  near 

Cleveland,  Henry  County,  Illinois.] 
1893.     Orchelimum   bruneri   Blatchley,    Canad.   Entom.   xxv,    p.   92.      [Vigo 
County,  Indiana.] 

The  above  synonymy  has  l^een  estalihshed  by  Blatchley  after 
the  examination  of  typical  material  on  which  the  two  names  were 
based.-^  The  paired  dark  lines  on  the  dorsum  of  the  head  and 
pronotum  are  indicated  in  the  majority  of  the  specimens,  occa- 
sionally, however,  entirely  absent. 

The  ventro-external  margin  of  the  caudal  femora  shows  from 
one  to  four  spines  present  distad,  eight  specimens,  which  possess 
one  or  both  caudal  limbs,  showing  the  following  formulae;  3-4, 
2-4,  2-4,  2-1,  2-3,  2-3,  3-?,  3-?. 

Distribution. — North-central  Mis.sissippi  and  lower  Missouri 
valleys,  southern  Great  Lake  region;  from  south-central  Ontario 
(Niagara  Kiver)  and  northern  Ohio  (Cedar  Point),  west  to  east- 
ern Nebraska  (Cedar  Bluffs)  and  Kansas  (Douglas  County),  the 
latter  and  Vigo  County,  Indiana,  being  the  most  southern  locali- 
ties, while  Sarnia,  Ontario  is  the  most  northern  point  from  which 
it  is  known. 

Specimens  Examined:    15;  4  cf,  11   9. 

Point  Pelee,  Ontario,  VIII,  8,  1901,  (E.  M.  Walker),  1  d',  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.], 

Lake  Maxinkuckee,  Indiana,  VIII,  17,  1893,  (W.  S.  Blatchley),  1  d',  2  9, 
[Morse  Cln.,  U.  S.  N.  M.  and  M.  C.  Z.].     Paratypcs  of  0.  bruneri  Blatchley. 

21  Orthoi)t.  of  Indiana,  ]).  391,  (1903). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  73 

Vigo  County,  Indiana,  VIII,  17  and  18,  IX,  28  and  X,  1,  1893,  (W.  S.  Blatch- 

ley),  1   cf,  5  9,  [Hebard  Cln.   and  U.  S.  N.   M.].     Parntypes  of  0.  bruneri. 
Iowa  City,  Iowa,  (Shimek),  3   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 
Cedar  Bluffs,  Iowa,  1  d',  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Orchelimum  bradleyi  new  specie.s     (Figs.  4,  31,  61,  62  and  83.) 

1911.     Orchelimum  volantum  Rehn   and  Hebard    (not  Orchelimum  volnnlum 

McNeill,  1891),  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1910,  p.  595.     [Okefenokee 

Swamp,  Georgia.] 
1911.     Orchelimum  volantum  Sherman  and   Brimley   (not   McNeiU,    1891), 

Entom.  News,  xxii,  p.  391.     [Wilmington,  North  Carolina.] 

The  acquisition  of  male  individuals  of  this  striking  species,  and 
the  ability  to  judge  the  constancy  of  the  ovipositor  characters 
previously  pointed  out  (vide  supra),  enal)le  us  to  differentiate  the 
present  form  from  its  nearest  ally,  the  interior  volantum.  While 
the  general  form  is  very  similar  the  new  species  is  distinctly  the 
larger,  the  cephalic  and  median  femora  are  more  distinctly  taper- 
ing and  the  caudal  femora  are  slightly  more  inflated  proximad. 
In  the  male  sex  the  differential  characters  are  cereal,  the  new 
form  having  the  cercus  more  attenuate  distad,  mesad  more 
inflated  on  the  dorsal  surface  and  with  the  median  tooth  de- 
cidedly proximal  in  position  and  directed  more  ventro-proximad. 
Another  cereal  feature  in  the  new  form  is  the  decided  depression 
at  the  base  of  the  tooth.  In  the  female  sex  the  ovipositor  of 
bradleyi  is  similar  in  general  character  and  dorsal  curve  to  that 
of  volantum,  but  it  is  narrow  disto-mesad  w^ith  the  ventral  margin 
regularly  and  gently  arcuate. 

Type. — cf  ;  Chase  Prairie,  OkeefT3nokee  Swamp,  Georgia.  Sep- 
tember 5,  1913.  (J.  Chester  Bradley.)  [Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
Type  no.  5242.] 

DescripHon  of  Type. — Size  medium;  form  elongate,  slender.  Head  with  the 
fastigium  roundly  and  appreciably  elevated  dorsad  of  the  occiput,  as  in  volantum 
regularly  rounding,  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect,  to  the  interfastigial 
suture,  narrow,  ventral  portion  with  the  adjacent  facial  fastigium  strongly 
compressed;  eyes  subovate  in  basal  outline,  moderately  prominent  when  seen 
from  the  dorsum ;  antennae  at  least  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  the  body. 
Pronotum  with  the  dorsal  outline  of  the  metanotum  moderately  ascending 
caudad;  cephalic  margin  of  the  pronotum  emarginato-truncate,  caudal  margin 
moderately  arcuate;  prozona  slightly  more  than  one  and  one-half  times  the 
length  of  the  metazona,  greatest  dorsal  width  of  metazona  four-fifths  the  dorsal 
length  of  the  entire  pronotum;  lateral  loties  of  the  pronotum  with  the  greatest 
dorsal  length  of  the  lobes  subequal  to  their  greatest  depth,  ventro-ccphalic 
angle   obtusely-rounded,    ventral   margin   oblique,    straight,    ventro-cephaUc 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


74  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

angle  rotundato-obtuse-angulate,  caudal  margin  arcuate  but  slightly  flattened 
ventrad,  humeral  sinus  distinct,  broad,  convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  broad, 
elliptical.  Tegmina  nearly  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  the  caudal  femora, 
elongate  lanceolate,  moderately  acute;  structure  of  the  stridulating  field  as  in 
volanlum.  Wings  surpassing  the  tegmina  by  about  half  the  ])ronotal  length. 
Cerci  elongate,  robust,  distal  portion  tapering,  internal  tooth  place  distinctly 
proximad  of  the  middle,  the  tooth  depressed,  directed  ventro-proximad  and 
moderately  acute,  the  distal  portion  of  the  tooth  alone  tapering,  the  proximal 
portion  subequal  in  width,  dorsal  surface  of  cereal  shaft  inflated  dorso-mesad, 
this  developed  proximad  into  a  carinate  ridge  which  curves  around  the  base  of 
the  tooth,  distal  portion  of  shaft  depressed,  tapering  and  with  the  apex  gently 
incurved;  subgenital  plate  fuU,  lateral  margins  arcuate,  distal  margin  very 
shallowly  obtuse-angulate  emarginate,  styles  articulate,  slender.  Cephalic 
and  median  femora  very  appreciable  tapering  distad;  caudal  femora  consid- 
erably inflated  proximad,  very  slender  distad,  distal  portion  of  ventro-external 
margins  armed  with  two  to  three  spines. 

Allotype. —  9  ;  Same  data  as  the  type. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Differing  from  the  description  of  the  male  in  the 
following  features.  Ovipositor  very  slightly  longer  than  half  the  caudal 
femoral  length,  rather  heavy,  dorsal  margin  nearly  straight,  ventral  margin 
straight  proximad,  gently  arcuate  distad,  apex  very  acute,  width  subequal  in 
proximal  five-eighths.  Subgenital  plate  simple,  narrowly  emarginate  disto- 
mesad. 

Paratypic  Series. — ^We  have  in  addition  to  the  type  and  allo- 
type a  paratypic  series  of  four  males  from  the  tj'pe  locality. 

Measurements  {in  inillimeters) 
& 


Length  of  body 

Length  of  pronotum .  . 

Length  of  tegmen 

Length   of  wing   distad   of 

tegmen 

Length  of  caudal  femur. 


Length  of  body 

Length  of  pronotum .  . 
Length  of  tegmen .... 
Length   of   wing   distad   of 

tegmen 

Length  of  caudal  femur 
Length  of  ovipositor .  . 

-2  Greatly  shrivelled. 


(Type) 
23.2 

Chase  Prairie,  Georgia 

(Paralype)           (Paratype) 

24                   25 

(Paratype) 
23.2 

4.9 

4.8 

4.8 

5 

26.8 

25.7 

26 

27.7 

2.7 

3 

2.8 

2.6 

20 

19.5 

19 

19.2 

9 

Wilmington, 
forth  Carolina 

1822 

Chase  Prairie, 
Georgia 
(Allotype) 

23.2 

Okeefenokee 
Swamp,  Georgia 

21.5 

Jacksonville, 
Florida 

23.6 

5.2 

5 

4.9 

5 

28.9 

26 

26.1 

28.6 

1.6 

broken 

2.5 

2.7 

21.2 

18.9 

20.2 

19.2 

11.3 

10.4 

10.7 

11.5 

REHN    AND    HEBARD  75 

Color  Notes. — General  color  (in  well  preserved  specimens)  light 
paris  green  to  light  oriental  green,  becoming  more  biscay  green 
on  the  caudal  limbs.  Dorsmn  of  head  occasionally,  and  of  pro- 
notum  and  stridulating  field  of  tegmina  always,  more  or  less 
ochraceous-buff;  as  far  as  the  present  material  goes  always 
bearing  on  the  prozona  a  pair  of  brownish  (russet  to  bone-brown) 
lines,  which  become  w^eakened  on  the  metazona  and  there  diverge; 
these  lines  are  rarely  present  on  the  occiput.  Eyes  chocolate. 
Antennae  ochraceous-orange,  each  joint  uni-annulate  with  bone 
brown.  Abdominal  appendages  of  male  washed  with  honey 
yellow.  Ovipositor  weakly  washed  with  kaiser  brown  or  uni- 
colorous  with  the  body.     Tibial  spines  black  tipped. 

Morphological  Notes. — The  number  of  spines  on  the  ventro- 
external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  varies  from  one  to  four. 

Biological  Notes. — Dr.  J.  Chester  Bradley,  in  whose  honor  we 
have  named  the  species  and  who  collected  the  typical  material, 
has  supplied  us  with  the  following  notes  on  the  habits  of  these 
insects.  "In  the  eastern  half  of  the  Okeefenokee  Swamp  are 
extensive  so-called  prairies.  These  are  really  inundated  plains 
grown  up  with  sawgrass,  maiden-cane,  or  in  places  open  shallow 
lakes  covered  with  a  multitude  of  water  plants.  The  natives  of 
the  Okeefenokee  told  us  of  diving  grasshoppers  which  lived  on 
these  prairies,  and  in  making  a  trip  to  the  Chase  Prairies  in 
September  1913,  I  found  these  grasshoppers  in  great  abundance 
in  the  grasslike  plants  growing  out  of  the  water  or  growing 
along  the  banks  of  the  old  canal.  As  the  boat  approached  them 
they  jumped  from  the  grass  into  the  water,  completely  disap- 
pearing, and  so  quick  were  they  to  do  this  when  alarmed  that 
it  was  only  after  some  difficulty  that  we  succeeded  in  catching 
a  series  of  specimens." 

Distribution. — Extending  from  southeastern  North  Carolina 
(Wilmington)  south  to  northern  Florida  (Jacksonville  and  Tal- 
lahassee), inland  as  far  as  the  Okeefenokee  Swamp,  southern 
Georgia. 

Specimens  Examined:    10;  6  cf,  4  9  . 

Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  1,  1   9 ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Okeefenokee  Swamp,  Georgia,  IX,  10,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1   9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Chase  Prairie,  Okeefenokee  Swamp,  Georgia,  IX,  .5,  1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  5 
cf,  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.,  Hebard  Cln.  and  Cornell  University].  Type,  allotype  and 
paratypes. 

TRA.NS.   AM.   ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


76         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Jacksonville,  Florida,  (Priddey)  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 
Tallahassee,  Florida,  (T.  Glover),  1  d",  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Orchelimum  superbum  new  species     (Figs.  5,  32,  63  and  64.) 

1914.     Orchelimum  glaberrimum  Fox,  (not  of  Burmeister,  1838),  Proc.  Acad. 

Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1914,  p.  526.    (Part.)    [Between  Winslow  and  Folsom,  New 

Jersey.] 

A  very  distinct  species  belonging  to  the  same  subgenus  as 
fraternum  and  unispina,  but  also  showing  tendencies  toward 
bradleyi.  In  the  unispinose  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora 
it  shows  affinity  to  fraternum  and  unispina,  but  the  much  greater 
size,  form  of  the  stridulating  field  of  the  male  tegmina  and  other 
features  remove  it  from  their  immediate  vicinity.  Of  the  two 
it  is  nearer  unispina,  which,  however,  also  differs  from  superbum 
in  having  acuminate  cerci  in  the  male.  It  resembles  bradleyi 
somewhat  in  general  plan  of  the  stridulating  field  but  the  de- 
tails are  quite  different  and  the  cerci  and  lateral  lobes  of  the 
pronotum  as  well  as  the  caudal  genicular  spines  are  different 
from  those  found  in  bradleyi.     The  female  sex  is  not  known. 

Type. —  d^;  Winslow  Junction,  Camden  County,  New  Jersey. 
July  8,  1911.  (Henry  Fox;  in  bog  toward  Folsom  along  Cape 
May  Division  of  Atl.  City  R.  R.)  [Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  Type 
no.  5266.] 

Description  oj  Type. — Size  moderately  large;  foi'm  subcompressed,  elongate. 
Head  with  the  plane  of  the  occiput  and  fastigium  horizontal,  the  latter  well 
rounded  into  the  outline  of  the  moderately  retreating  face  when  viewed  from  the 
lateral  aspect;  fastigium  moderately  broad,  arcuate  dorsad  in  transverse  sec- 
tion, cephalic  outhne  blunt  arcuate,  the  lateral  margins,  when  seen  from  the 
cephalic  aspect,  moderately  concavo-arcuate  convergent  ventrad,  the  ventral 
point  truncate  and  closely  in  contact  with  the  fastigium  of  the  face;  eyes  nearly 
circular  in  basal  outline,  which  is  fairly  flattened  cephalad,  the  depth  of  the  eye 
but  faintly  more  than  half  that  of  the  infra-ocular  portion  of  the  genae,  when 
viewed  from  the  dorsum  the  eyes  are  not  prominent  and  are  appreciably 
flattened;  antennae  at  least  twice  as  long  as  the  body,  proximal  joint  with  a 
very  distinct  distal  rounded  lobe  on  the  internal  face.  Pronotum  faintly 
sellate,  the  dorsal  line,  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect,  horizontal  on  the 
prozona  and  faintly  ascending  on  the  metazona,  the  greatest  dorsal  width  of 
disk  of  pronotum  contained  one  and  one-half  times  in  the  length  of  same; 
cephalic  margin  of  pronotal  disk  very  faintly  arcuato-emarginate,  caudal  mar- 
gin of  pronotal  disk  regularly  arcuate;  prozona  constituting  slightly  less  than 
two-thirds  the  length  of  the  pronotal  disk,  separated  from  the  metazona  by  a 
weakly  impressed  transverse  depression,  a  weak  medio-longitudinal  sulcus 
faintly  indicated  on  the  caudal  section  of  the  prozona  and  somewhat  more 
strongly  on  the  metazona;  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  broadly  rounding  into 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  77 

the  prozonal  disk  and  separated  from  the  dorsal  surface  by  a  distmct  but 
rounded  shoulder  on  the  metazona,  in  outline  the  lobes  areas  deep  as  the  greatest 
dorsal  length  of  the  same,  cephahc  margin  broadly  rounding  into  the  straight 
and  very  oblique  ventral  margin,  ventro-oaudal  angle  narrowly  rounded  acute- 
angulate,  caudal  margin  extending  slightly  ventro-cephalad  in  du-ection  but 
nearly  vertical,  straight  with  a  very  faint  sinuosity,  no  distinct  humeral  sinus 
present,  convex  callosity  elongate,  narrow.     Tegmina  elongate,  sublanceolate, 
surpassing  the  apex  of  the  abdomen  by  the  combined  length  of  the  head  and 
pronotum,  distal  half  of  the  tegmina  appreciably  narrower  than  the  proximal 
portion,  apex  narrowly  rounded;  stridulating  area  shorter  than  the  dorsum  of 
the  pronotum,  no  wider  than  the  same,  stridulating  vein  nearly  transverse, 
strongly  thickened  toward  the  humeral  trunk,  the  greatest  width  of  the  specu- 
lum, i.  e.,   along  the  stridulating  vein,  contained  nearly  one  and   one-half 
times  in  the  greatest  length  of  the  same.     Wings  very  briefly  surpassing  the 
tips  of  the  tegmina.     Cerci  with  the  portion  proximad  of  the  tooth  short  and 
relatively  slender,  the  median  portion  very  robust  and  inflated,  the  distal 
extremity  subdepressed,  an  indication  of  a  carina  is  present  on  the  dorsal 
surface  proximad  of  the  tooth,  the  latter  internal  in  position  and  ventro- 
cephahc  in  trend,  in  length  subequal  to  the  section  of  the  cereal  shaft  proximad 
of  the  tooth,  tapering,  the  immediate  apex  sharply  acuminate  and  uncinate, 
median  inflation  of  shaft  bulbous,  apex  of  shaft  very  bluntly  narrowing, 
slightly  directed  inwards,  internal  margui  of  that  portion  faintly  arcuato- 
concave,  the  plane  of  depression  tilted  ventro-laterad;  subgenital  plate  obtuse- 
angulate  emarginate,  styles  rather  short,  shghtly  tapering,  ventral  surface  of 
plate  moderately  tricarinate,  the  median  one  much  stronger  than  those  ex- 
tending from  the  style  bases.    Cephalic  and  median  tibiae  each  with  six  pairs 
of  spines.     Caudal  femora  equal  to  about  three-fourths  of  the  tegminal  length, 
considerably  inflated  proximad  but  passing  evenly  and  gradually  into  the 
slender  distal  portion,  genicular  lobes  unispinose,  ventral  margins  unarmed; 
caudal  tibiae  with  margins  well  spined. 

Paratypic  Series. — We  have  selected  the  type  from  a  series  of 
four  males  bearing  the  same  data  and  one  male  from  Sewell, 
Gloucester  County,  New  Jersey,  taken  July  10,  1910,  by  Dr. 
Henry  Fox.  The  four  specimens  other  than  the  type  we  indicate 
as  paratypes. 

Measurements  {in  millimeters) 

■71  Length  of  Length  of         Length  of  Length  of 

'^  body  pronotum  tegmen  caudal  femur 

Winslow  Junction,  New  Jer- 
sey.... T^/pe 24.6  6  24.4  18 

Winslow  Junction,  New  Jer- 
sey....  Parafype 24.5  6.1  25.4  18.2 

Winslow     Junction,      New 

Jersey ....  Paratype 23  6  25  17.  & 

Sewell,  New  Jersey ...  .Par- 

atype 19.6  5  22  15. ft 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


78  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Color  Notes. — General  color  ranging  from  lime  green  to  light 
cress  green,  the  discoidal  and  stridulating  fields  of  the  tegmina 
weakly  washed  with  wood  brown,  the  usual  longitudinal  expand- 
ing bar  on  the  dorsum  of  the  head  and  pronotum  hazel  to  russet 
on  the  pronotum,  becoming  obsolete  on  the  metazona  and  inten- 
sified on  the  head,  the  paired  bordering  lines  on  the  pronotum 
bone  brown,  sharply  pencilled,  moderately  broad  and  slightly 
converging  caudad  on  the  metazona,  contrasted  laterad  by  a 
yellowish  wash,  the  dark  lines  subobsolete  on  the  head.  Tegmina 
with  the  veins  of  the  costal  section  of  the  marginal  field  sulphate 
green,  the  distal  section  of  the  same  field  toward  the  humeral 
trunk,  including  the  mediastine  vein,  lined  in  similar  fashion  with 
acajou  red,  area  of  the  humeral  trunk  weakly  lined  with  buff- 
yellow.  Abdomen  with  a  broad  subequal  medio-longitudinal  bar 
of  claret  brown  of  variable  intensity,  this  bordered  laterad  by 
distinct  but  narrow  lines  of  buff-yellow,  these  varying  in  inten- 
sity and  continuity.  Eyes  auburn  to  chestnut.  Antennae  with 
the  proximal  joint  of  the  general  color,  the  remainder  washed 
with  auburn  to  bay,  becoming  stronger  distad.  Cerci  pale  ochra- 
ceous-orange,  more  or  less  washed  distad  and  mesad  with  fer- 
ruginous. Caudal  tibiae  washed  with  russet,  the  spines  black 
with  pale  bases. 

Distribution. — The  species  is  only  known  from  two  localities  in 
or  along  the  western  edge  of  the  Pine  Barren  area  of  southern 
New  Jersey. 

Biological  Notes. — All  the  material  known  of  this  species  was 
taken  in  bogs  or  reedy  swamps.  At  Sewell,  according  to  infor- 
mation with  the  specimen  taken  at  that  locality,  several  individ- 
uals were  heard  singing. 

Morphological  Notes. — The  specimens  examined  are  quite  uni- 
form in  structure,  the  only  variation  being  in  size  and  this  is 
probably  geographic,  as  those  individuals  from  the  type  locality 
are  of  very  similar  size,  while  that  from  Sewell  is  distinctly 
smaller. 

Specimens  Examined:    5  cf . 

Sewell,  New  Jersey,  VII,  10,  1910,  (H.  Fox;  in  reedy  swamp),  Icf,  paraiype, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Winslow  Junction,  New  Jersey,  VII,  8,  1911,  (H.  Fox;  in  bog),  4  o"',  type 
and  paralypes,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 


KEHN    AND    HEBARD  79 

Orchelimum  fraternum  new  ispt'fios     (Figs.  16,  33,  65  and  66.) 

As  shown  in  the  key  this  is  a  species  related  to  0.  unispina, 
differing  in  the  possession  of  a  distinct  though  shallow  humeral 
sinus  to  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  in  the  relatively 
greater  width  of  the  same  lateral  lobes,  in  the  relatively  broader 
convex  callosity  of  the  lobes  and  in  the  relatively  blunter  and 
less  attenuate  cerci  of  the  male. 

Type. —  cf ;  Guadalajara,  State  of  Jalisco,  Mexico.  (D.  L. 
Crawford.)     [Acad,  of  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  Type  no.  5269.] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  medium;  form  moderately  robust,  subcompressed. 
Head  with  the  line  of  the  occiput  and  fastigium  on  a  plane  with  that  of  the 
dorsum  of  the  pronotum  when  seen  from  the  side,  the  fastigial  outline  well 
rounding  into  the  subarcuate  and  but  moderately  retreating  facial  outline; 
fastigium  heavy,  when  viewed  from  the  dorsum  apprecialjly  thicker  than  the 
width  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint,  when  seen  from  the  facial  aspect  the 
lateral  margins  of  the  fastigium  are  strongly  arcuato-concave  convergent 
ventrad,  rather  narrowly  in  contact  with  the  facial  fastigium,  the  interfastigial 
suture  arcuate,  the  fastigium  of  the  face  narrow;  eyes  subcircular  in  basal 
outline,  this  flattened  cephalad,  in  depth  the  eyes  are  equal  to  about  one  and 
one-half  times  that  of  the  infra-ocular  portion  of  the  genae,  when  viewed  from 
the  dorsum  the  eyes  are  but  little  prominent  and  somewhat  flattened;  antennae 
at  least  twice  as  long  as  the  body,  proximal  joint  with  a  distinct  rounded  pro- 
jection distad  on  the  internal  margin.  Pronotum  when  seen  from  the  side 
with  the  dorsal  line  nearly  straight,  very  faintly  ascending  caudad  on  the 
metazona,  greatest  dorsal  width  (caudad)  of  pronotal  disk  contained  about  one 
and  two-fifths  time  in  the  dorsal  length,  on  the  prozona  the  disk  rounds  laterad 
into  the  lateral  lobes  but  is  separated  on  the  metazona  l)y  distmct  though 
rounded  shoulders ;  cephalic  margin  of  pronotal  disk  faintly  emarginate,  caudal 
margin  of  pronotal  disk  arcuate,  slightly  flattened  mesad,  prozona  nearly  twice 
the  length  of  the  metazona,  separated  by  a  distinct  but  not  very  deep  trans- 
verse impression,  faint  indications  of  a  medio-longitudinai  sulcus  present  on 
the  prozona,  this  being  continuous  though  slight  on  the  metazona;  lateral 
lobes  of  the  pronotum  with  their  greatest  dorsal  length  slightly  surpassing  the 
greatest  depth  of  the  lobes,  cephalic  margin  of  lol^es  moderately  oblique, 
truncate,  passing  into  the  sinuato-truncate  ventral  margin  by  a  well  roimded 
obtuse  angle,  ventro-caudal  angle  narrowly  rounded,  rectangulate,  caudal 
margin  oblique  truncate,  with  a  distinct  and  broad  though  shallow  humeral 
sinus,  convex  callosity  distinct,  elongate  elliptical,  with  its  greatest  width  con- 
tained about  three  times  in  its  length.  Tegmina  decidedly  surpassing  the 
apex  of  the  abdomen  and  falling  short  of  the  apices  of  the  caudal  femora  by 
about  the  same  distance,  elongate  lanceolate,  the  margins  regularly  converging 
in  their  distal  two-thirds,  apex  acuminate  with  the  extremity  very  narrowly 
rounded;  stridulating  field  relatively  small,  distinctly  shorter  than  tlie  pro- 
notal disk  and  not  quite  as  wide  as  the  greatest  width  of  the  same,  stridulating 
vein  nearly  straight,  slender,  subecjual  in  width.     Wings  slightly  surpassing 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


80         STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

the  tegminal  apices.  Pros'ternum  bispinose.  Cerci  acuminate,  straight,  the 
section  of  the  shaft  proximad  of  the  tooth  more  slender  than  the  median  portion, 
which  is  subinflated,  tooth  pkced  at  about  the  proximal  third  on  the  internal 
face  and  directed  cephalo-laterad,  the  tooth  being  subequal  in  length  to  the 
proximal  portion  of  the  shaft,  greatly  thickened  at  the  base  and  with  a  very 
slender  and  subspiniform  apex,  median  portion  of  shaft  subequal  in  width,  the 
distal  third  tapering  with  the  immediate  apex  blunt;  subgenital  plate  with  the 
distal  margin  subtruncate,  styles  small,  slender  and  tapering,  ventral  surface 
of  plate  with  a  weak  median  and  much  thicker  paired  lateral  carinae.  Caudal 
femora  sUghtly  shorter  than  the  body  length,  slightly  surpassing  the  tips  of  the 
wings,  strongly  inflated  in  the  proximal  half  and  regularly  tapering  to  the 
slender  distal  portion,  ventral  margins  unarmed,  genicular  lobes  very  briefly 
and  rather  bluntly  unispinose. 

The  type  specimen  is  unique. 

Measurements  of  Type  (in  millimeters) . — Length  of  body,  18.2; 
length  of  pronotum,  4.9;  length  of  tegmen,  16.6;  length  of  caudal 
femur,  16.1. 

Color  Notes. — General  color  on  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  prono- 
tum and  on  the  abdomen  kildare  green,  passing  into  mignonette 
green  on  the  limbs  and  chrysolite  green  on  the  face  and  genae, 
the  apex  of  the  abdomen  passing  into  chamois.  Dorsum  of  the 
fastigium,  occiput  and  dorsum  of  pronotum  snuff  brown,  becom- 
ing tawny-olive  on  the  middle  of  the  pronotal  disk,  a  fine  median 
dividing  line  of  the  general  color  present  on  the  head,  while  on 
the  pronotum  the  distinct  dark  bordering  margins  of  the  area 
and  a  continuation  of  the  dividing  line  of  the  head  are  seal  brown, 
the  lateral  bordering  sections  regularly  arcuato-convex  and  thus 
converging  caudad  as  well  as  cephalad.  Cerci  weakly  washed 
distad  with  Indian  red.  Dorsal  tibial  spines  black  for  the  greater 
portion  of  their  length,  ventral  tibial  spines  with  black  less  exten- 
sive. Eyes  vinaceous-tawny.  Antennae,  except  the  two  proximal 
joints,  ferruginous,  sparsely  annulate  with  seal  brown. 

Distribution. — This  species  is  only  known  from  the  type  locality 
in  western  Mexico-Guadalajara,  state  of  Jalisco. 

Remarks. — This  species  is  quite  close  to  0.  miispina  and  addi- 
tional material  may  show  them  to  be  inseparable  specifically,  but 
at  the  present  writing  we  have  found  no  indications  elsewhere  in 
the  genus,  of  variation  sufficiently  decided  to  cover  the  differences 
in  the  character  of  the  humeral  sinus  and  of  the  cerci  seen  in 
these  two  forms.  There  is  no  alternative  to  our  present  course 
but  to  arbitrarily  consider  them  to  be  the  same  form,  which  would 
not  be  warranted  by  our  knowledge  of  the  general  fixity  within 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  81 

the  genus,  of  the  features  here  given  as  diagnostic  of  this  form. 

The  species  is,  however,  from  a  locality  at  which  unispina  also 

occurs. 

Specimens  Examined:    1  d'. 

Guadalajara,  Jalisco,  Mexico,  (D.  L.  Cra^v'ford),  1  cf ,  type,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Orchelimum  unispina  (Saussure  and  Pictet)     (Figs.  17,  34,  67  and  68.) 
1898.     Xiphidium  unispina  Saussure  and  Pictet,  Biol.  Cent.-Amer.,  Orth.,  i, 

p.  398.     [Jalisco  and  Orizaba,  Mexico.] 

This  species  was  originally  described  as  a  species  of  Xiphidium 
(  =  Conocephalus  as  at  present  restricted),  but  it  is  clearly  a  mem- 
ber of  the  genus  Orchelimum,  although  belonging  to  a  subgenus 
which  approaches  Conocephalus.  Saussure  and  Pictet  described 
only  the  male  sex,  but  by  a  lapsus  calami  they  give  the  sex  of  the 
measured  material  as  female. 

It  is  evident  that  this  species  shows  considerable  variability 
in  tegminal  and  wing  length,  the  original  material  having  had 
the  tegmina  surpassing  the  caudal  femora  and  the  wings  surpass- 
ing the  tegmina,  while  the  only  adult  seen  by  us  has  the  tegmina 
decidedly  failing  to  reach  the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora  and  the 
wings  subequal  to  the  tegmina  distad. 

Measurements  {in  millimeters) 


d" 
Jalisco  or  Orizaba,  Mexico. 

Length  of 
body 

Length  of 
pronotum 

Length  of 
tegmen 

Length  of 
caudal  femur 

(Ex  Saussure  and  Pictet) 

Types 

Guadalajara,  Mexico 

17 

18.2 

4 

4.5 

20 

14 

15 
13.7 

We  have  before  us  a  male  in  the  second  instar  preceding  ma- 
turity, and  this  shows  that  the  cerci  do  not  develop  their  character- 
istic structure  until  the  last  or  next  to  the  last  ecdysis. 

This  species  is  known  only  from  central  and  south  central 
Mexico,  the  records  being  from  Orizaba,  state  of  Vera  Cruz,  and 
the  state  of  JaUsco,  and  specifically  Guadalajara  and  Ocotlan  in 
the  latter  state. 

Specimens  Examined:    2;  1  o^,  1  juv.  cf. 

Guadalajara,  Jal'sco,  Mexico,  (D.  L.  Crawiord),  1  d^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Ocotlan,  Jalisco,  Mexico,  5000  feet  elevation,  VIII,  29  to  IX,  1,  1906,  (P.  P. 
Calvert),  1  juv.  d,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


82  STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (ORTHOPTERA) 

EXPLANATION    OF    PLATES 

Plate  I 
Fig.    1. — Orchelimum   calcaratum.     Lateral    outline   of   type.     San    Antonio. 

Texas.     ( X  2) 
Fig.    2. — Orchelimum  huUatum.     Lateral  outline  of  type.     Galveston,  Texas. 

(X2) 
Fig.    3. — Orchelimum  minor.     Lateral  outline  of  male.     Stafford's  Forge,  New 

Jersey.     (X  2) 
Fig.    4. — Orchelimum    bradleyi.     Lateral    outline    of    type.     Chase    Prairie., 

Georgia.     (X  2) 
Fig.    5. — Orchelmmm  superbum.     Lateral  outline  of  tyj)e.     Winslow  Junction, 

New  Jersey.     ( X  2) 
Outlines  of  lateral  lobe  of  pronotum  of  male.     ( X  3) 
Fig.    6. — Orchelimum  agile.     Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
Fig.    7. — Orchelimum  gldberrimum.     Florence,  South  CaroUna. 
Fig.    8. — Orchelimum  vulgare.     Marion,  Massachusetts. 
Fig.    9. — Orchelimum  gladiator.     West  Point,  Nebraska.  ^ 

Fig.  10. — Orchelimum  laticauda.     Washington,  D.  C. 
Fig.  IL — Orchelimum  nigripes.     Victoria,  Texas. 
Fig.  12. — Orchelimum  concinnum.     Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire. 

Plate  II 

Outlines  of  lateral  lobe  of  pronotum  of  male.     (X  3) 
Fig.  13. — Orchelimum  fidicinium.     Type.     Cedar  Keys,  Florida. 
Fig.  14. — Orchelimum  militare.     Type.     Gainesville,  Florida. 
Fig.  15. — Orchelimum  volantum.     Cedar  Bluffs,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  16. — Orchelimum  fraternum.     Type.     Guadalajara,  Mexico. 
Fig.  Vl .—Orchelimum  unispina.     Lateral  outline  of  male.     Guadalajara,  Mex- 
ico.    (X2) 

Outlines  of  stridulating  field  of  male.     ( X  3) 
Fig.  18. — Orchelimum  agile.     Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
Fig.  \% .—Orchelimuvi  glaberrimum.     Florence,  South  Carolina. 
Fig.  20. — Orchelimum  vulgare.     Marion,  Massachusetts. 
Fig.  21. — Orchelimum  gladiator.     West  Point,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  22. — Orchelimum  calcaratum.     Type.     San  Antonio,  Texas. 
Fig.  23. — Orchelimum  bullatum.     Type.     Galveston,  Texas. 
Fig.  24. — Orchelimum  laticauda.     Washington,  D.  C. 
Fig.  25. — Orchelim,um  nigripes.     Victoria,  Texas. 
Fig.  26. — Orchelimum  minor.     Stafford's  Forge,  New  Jersey. 
Fig.  27. — Orchelimum  concinnum.     Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire. 
Fig.  28. — Orchelimum  fidicinium.     Type.     Cedar  Keys,  Florida. 
Fig.  29. — Orchelimum  militare.     Type.     Gainesville,  Florida. 
Fig.  30. — Orchelimum  volantum.     Cedar  Bluffs,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  31. — Orchelimum  bradleyi.     Type.     Chase  Prairie,  Georgia. 
Fig.  32. — Orchelimum  superbum.     Type.     Winslow  Junction,  New  Jersey. 
Fig.  33. — Orchelimum  fraternum.     Type.     Guadalajara,  Mexico. 
Fig.  34. — Orchelimum  unispina.     Guadalajara,  Mexico. 


REHN    AND   HEBARD  83 


Plate  III 

Dorsal  (first)  and  lateral  (second)  outlines  of  left  cercus  of  male.   ( X  10) 
Figs.  35  and  36. — Orchelimum  agile.     Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
Figs.  37  and  38. — Orchelimum  glaberrimum.     Florence,  South  Carolina. 
Figs.  39  and  40. — Orchelimum  vulgare.     Marion,  Massachusetts. 
Figs.  41  and  42. — Orchelimum  gladiator.     West  Point,  Nebraska. 
Figs.  43  and  44. — Orchelimum  calcaralum.     Type.     San  Antonio,  Texas. 
Figs.  45  and  46. — Orchelimum  bullatum.     Type.     Galveston,  Texas. 
Figs.  47  and  48. — Orchelimum  laticauda.     Washington,  D.  C. 
Figs.  49  and  50. — Orchelimum  nigripes.     Victoria,  Texas. 
Figs.  51  and  52. — Orchelimum  minor.     Stafford's  Forge,  New  Jersey. 
Figs.  53  and  54. — Orchelimum  concinnum.     Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire. 
Figs.  55  and  56. — Orchelimum  fidicinium.     Type.     Cedar  Keys,  Florida. 
Figs.  57  and  58.     Orchelimum  militare.     Type.     Gainesville,  Florida. 

Plate  IV 

Dorsal  (first)  and  lateral  (second)  outlines  of  left  cercus  of  male.   ( X  10) 
Figs.  59  and  60. — Orchelimum  volantum.     Cedar  Bluffs,  Nebraska. 
Figs.  61  and  62. — Orchelimum  bradleyi.     Type.     Chase  Prairie,  Georgia. 
Figs.  63  and  64. — ■Orchelimum    superbum.     Type.     Winslow    Junction,    New 

Jersey. 
Figs.  65  and  66. — OrcJiclimum  Jraternum.     Type.     Guadalajara,  Mexico. 
Figs.  67  and  68. — Orchelimum  unispina.     Guadalajara,  Mexico. 

Outlines  of  ovipositor  of  female.      ( X  2) 
Fig.  69. — Orchelimum  agile.     Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
Fig.  70. — Orchelimum  glaberrimum.     Florence,  South  Carolina. 
Fig.  71. — Orchelimum  vulgare.     Marion,  Massachusetts. 
Fig.  72. — Orchelimum  gladiator.     Type.     West  Point,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  73. — Orchelimum  calcaralum.     Allotype.     San  Antonio,  Texas. 
Fig.  74. — Orchelimum  bullatum.     Allotype.     Rosenberg,  Texas. 
Pig.  75. — Orchelimum  laticauda.     Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
Fig.  76. — Orchelimum  nigripes.     Lincoln,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  77. — Orchelimum  minor.     Type.     District  of  Columbia. 
Fig.  78. — Orchelimum  concinnum.     Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire. 
Fig.  79. — Orchelimum  concinnum.     Lincoln,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  80. — Orchelimum  fidicijiium.     Allotype.     Cedar  Keys,  Florida. 
Fig.  81. — Orchelimum  militare.     Allotype.     Gainesville,  Florida. 
Fig.  82. — Orchelimum  volantum.     Vigo  County,  Indiana. 
Fig.  83. — Orchelimum  bradleyi.     Allotype.     Chase  Prairie,  Georgia. 


TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC.    XLI. 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  i. 


REHN  AND  HEBARD-AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.   II. 


22 


/„    / 


23 


25 


26 


'27 


28 


29 


30 


33  34 

31  32 

REHN  AND  HEBARD-AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  III. 


REHN  AND  HEBARD—AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Eiit.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  IV 


66 


v:. 


74 


v:^- 


80  82  8  3 

REHN  AND  HEBARD    AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


CONTENTS 


New    Species   of  Heterocera  from    Tropical   America.  By 

W.  Schaus .        .  .1 

(Issued  February  20,  1915) 

Studies  in   American   Tettigoniidae   (Orthoptera).      IV.  A 

Synopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Orchelimum.  By 

James  A.  G.  Rehn  and  Morgan  Hebard  .        .         .  .11 
(Issued  April  12,  1915) 


.VOLUME  XLI 


NUMBER  2 


JUNE  1915 


TRANSACTION? 


OF  THE 


AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


./ 


PUnUSIIED  BY  THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  \T  THE 
ACADEMY'  OF  NATURAL  SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 

SUBSCRIPTION  PRICE  FOUR  DOLLARS  PER  VOLUME 


H.    F.    WILSON  85 


MISCELLANEOUS  APHID    NOTES,   CHIEFLY  FROM 

OREGON 

BY    H.    F.    WILSON 

Unless  otherwise  stated,  the  types  of  the  new  species  described 
in  these  Notes  are  in  the  private  collection  of  the  author. 

I.   LIFE  HISTORY  NOTES  ON  PROCIPHILUS  FRAXINI- 
DIPETALAE  Essig^ 

That  the  Pemphiginids  in  the  genus  Prociphilus  and  feeding 
on  ash  have  the  conifers  for  their  alternate  food  plants,  was 
demonstrated  in  Europe  a  number  of  years  ago.  In  the  fall  of 
1909,  the  writer,  in  an  attempt  to  trace  a  winged  aphid  which 
was  flying  through  the  air  in  great  numbers  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
located  them  on  the  roots  of  the  white  pine,  Pinus  strobus,  and 
as  this  species  was  later  found  to  develop  on  Fraxinus  sp.,^  the 
writer  was  able  to  work  out  the  relationship  of  the  present  species 
on  Fraxinus  oregona  Nuttall  and  Pseudotsuga  taxifolia  (Poir) 
Brit.,  in  Oregon. 

Each  spring  there  appears  on  the  leaves  of  the  ash  a  purphsh 
globose  aphid  which  causes  the  leaves  to  curl  and  assume  a  gall-like 
formation.  Inside  the  curled  leaves  these  early  spring  forms,  the 
stem  mothers,  produce  alive  a  number  of  young  greenish  aphids 
which  become  mature  pupae  about  the  last  of  May,  and  attain- 
ing wings,  usually  disappear  about  the  first  week  in  June.  These 
winged  forms  supposedly^  go  to  the  roots  of  Douglas  fir  and 

1  In  Europe  there  are  two  similar  Pemphiginids  on  ash;  owing  to  a  lack  of 
sufficient  material,  the  author  is  unable  at  this  time  to  compare  the  American 
species  with  European  forms;  but  as  there  seems  to  be  practically  no  distin- 
guishing characters  between  them,  the  American  species  may  prove  to  be  the 
same  as  those  in  Europe. 

2  This  species  was  later  described  as  P.  venafuscus  by  Dr.  Edith  M.  Patch, 
Entomologist  of  the  Maine  Experiment  Station. 

3  The  writer  has  tried  for  three  years  to  colonize  the  alate  form  from  the  ash 
on  Douglas  fir  for  seedlings,  but  without  success.  The  migi-atory  forms  from 
this  latter  plant  have  been  transferred  to  ash  seedlings  with  the  successful 
production  of  eggs  and  the  stem  mothers  the  following  sjjring. 


TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XH.  ^y^^m'':   '       1* 


yZ^ 


86  APHID    NOTES 

produce  alive  a  number  of  pale  whitish  young,  which  develop 
into  apterous  viviparous  females  and  are  the  first  of  a  series  of 
summer  generations. 

In  the  fall,  part  of  the  aphids  then  present  on  the  roots  migrate 
to  the  ash  and  produce  alive  the  sexual  forms.  Those  remaining 
do  not  acquire  wings  but  continue  feeding,  and  one  can  find  these 
apterous  viviparous  forms  present  on  the  roots  in  all  stages 
throughout  the  year.  The  sexual  forms  are  minute,  brownish, 
and  have  no  mouth  parts.  After  copulation,  each  female  pro- 
duces a  single  elongate  egg.  In  this  stage  the  insect  is  carried 
over  the  winter  on  the  ash. 

A  second  species  which  has  been  imported  into  this  state  (Oregon) 
on  red  and  white  ash,  the  writer  is  calling  Prociphilus  humeliae 
Schrank.  This  species  seems  to  be  entirely  distinct  from  the 
first  species,  in  that  it  feeds  on  the  tips  of  the  shoots  and  does  not 
ordinarily  get  on  to  the  leaves.  The  stem  mothers  of  the  two 
are  quite  similar,  but  the  migratory  forms  show  a  decided  differ- 
ence in  several  ways.  A  description  of  the  various  stages  of 
Prociphilus  fraxini-dipetaliae  Essig  follows : 

Stem  mother:  Globose,  body  nearly  as  wide  as  long.  General  color  choco- 
late brown  and  mottled  with  green  above.  Sutures  between  body  segments 
dark  green.  Head  and  legs  black,  antennae  black  at  the  base,  light  brown 
toward  the  tip.  Each  eye  is  composed  of  three  smaller  eyes.  The  wax  plates 
on  the  head  are  very  variable  in  that  the  two  larger  ones  at  the  base  of  each 
section  of  the  occiput  oftentimes  merge  into  one  long  plate,  the  smaller  ones 
varying  in  number  from  five  to  six,  and  apparently  without  regular  size  or 
position.  Those  on  the  body  are  in  series  of  six  to  each  segment  and  are  more 
or  less  regular  in  position. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  4  mm.;  width,  2.75  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal  segments,  I,  0.09  mm.;  II,  0.11  mm.;  Ill,  0.176  mm.;  IV,  0.11  mm.;  V, 
0.09  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.;  spur,  0.05  mm.;  total  length,  0.75  mm. 

Pupa:  General  color  lemon  yellow,  except  the  v/ing  pads  which  are  dusky. 
The  entire  body  above  is  covered  with  long  waxy  white  threads  which  have  a 
blue  tinge.  When  they  are  about  ready  to  change  to  alate  forms,  they  become 
a  Httler  darker  in  color  with  occasional  pinkish  and  bluish  variations.  Each 
abdominal  segment  with  a  row  of  six  oblong  wax  plates.  Cauda,  short  and 
broad,  rounded  at  the  tip.  Color  black  to  dusky.  Length  of  body,  3  to  4 
mm.;  width,  2  mm. 

Spring  migrant  (Plate  V,  fig.  l):  General  color  blui.sh  green  with  the  entire 
body  pulverulent.  The  legs,  antennae  and  thorax  are  bluish  l)lack ;  the  abdomen 
is  dark  greenish  blue.  On  account  of  the  fact  that  the  waxy  threads  on  the 
body  of  the  insect  are  easily  rubbed  off,  it  is  hard  to  tell  just  how  nmch  of  this 


H.    F.    WILSON  87 

material  should  be  present,  but  in  all  specimens  examined,  only  long  threads 
were  found  along  the  sides  and  at  the  tip  of  the  abdomen.  The  wax  plates 
are  apparently  limited  to  two  on  the  head  at  the  base  of  the  occiput,  four  on 
the  prothorax,  two  at  the  top  and  center  and  one  on  each  side,  and  two  large 
plates  on  the  mesathorax,  one  on  each  side  of  the  median  line,  and  at  the 
base  of  the  segment.  The  wings  are  hyaline  with  the  stigma  dusky  at  the 
thinner  portion  to  black  at  the  thicker 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  3.8  mm.;  width,  1.8  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal  segments:  I,  0.0G6  mm.;  II,  0.09  mm.;  Ill,  0.49  mm.;  IV,  0.242  mm.;  V, 
0.3  mm.;  VI,  0.3  mm.;  spur,  0.066  mm.;  wing  expanse,  11  mm. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  On  roots  of  Douglas  fir.  General  color  white 
with  a  dusky  tinge;  head,  antennae  and  cauda  dusky  to  nearly  black.  Where- 
ever  they  have  been  feeding,  the  bark  and  earth  have  a  bluish  tinge.  Head 
with  four  pairs  of  wax  plates,  sometimes  the  center  plate  is  absent  and  the  two 
basal  plates  are  merged  into  one  long  plate.  Antennae  and  legs  set  with 
numerous  short  hairs.  Fifth  segment  with  one  small  sensoria  at  the  distal 
end. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2  mm. ;  width,  1.5  mm.  Length  of  antennae 
by  segments:  I,  0.066  mm.;  II,  0.11  mm.;  Ill,  0.12  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V, 
0.2  mm.;  VI  and  spur,  0.176  mm. 

Fall  migrant  (Plate  V,  fig.  2):  General  appearance,  wings  smoky;  head  and 
thorax  l^luish  black;  abdomen  bluish  green,  covered  with  a  heavy  coating 
of  white  waxy  threads.  Antennae  and  legs  dusky.  Antennae  with  six 
segments,  the  spur  being  but  a  thumb-like  projection.  The  third  segment 
with  21  to  24  transverse  sensoria;  foui-th  with  8  to  12;  fifth  with  6  to  11;  sixth 
with  3  to  6.  Abdomen  spindle  shaped  and  with  a  row  of  7  or  8  nipple-like 
protuberances  along  each  side.  Cauda  short  and  bluntly  angled  at  the  tip. 
Anal  plate  broad  and  slightly  rounded. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.25  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm.;  wing  expanse, 
8.5  mm.  Length  of  antennae  by  segments:  I,  0.066  mm.;  II,  0.09  mm.;  Ill, 
0.38  mm.;  IV,  0.22  mm.;  V,  0.242  mim.;  VI,  0.176  mm.;  spur,  0.045  mm.;  total 
length,  1.219  mm. 

Sexual  forms:  The  sexual  forms  are  minute,  light  brown  and  the  only  devel- 
opment which  takes  place  after  birth  may  be  a  single  molt,  as  reported  from 
other  related  species.  Both  sexes  are  without  mouth  parts  and  each  female 
develops  but  a  single  egg.  Copulation  apparently  takes  place  shortly  after 
birth  and  both  males  and  females  live  but  a  short  time.  The  males  are  broader 
and  shorter  than  the  females  and  the  body  segments  are  more  distinct.  The 
antennae  have  fine  hairs  in  both  cases. 

Measurements:  Males— Length  of  body,  0.56  mm.;  width,  0.31  mm.; 
antennae,  0.22  mm.  Females— Length  of  body,  0.71  mm.;  width,  0.242  mm.; 
antennae,  0.242  mm. 

The  eggs  are  light  brown  when  first  deposited  and  later  turn  brownish  black. 


TRANS.    .\M.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


88  APHID    NOTES 

II.  THE  APHIDIDAE  INFESTING  SAGE  BRUSH 
(ARTEMESIA  SPP.)  IN  OREGON 

Nine  species  of  aphids  have  heretofore  been  described  as  new 
from  the  various  species  of  Artemesia  in  America.  Of  these  at 
least  seven  are  found  in  Oregon.  Six  additional  species  are  here 
recorded  and  it  is  possible  that  two  of  these,  Microsiphum  ore- 
gonensis  and  Aphis  hermistonii,  may  prove  to  be  Western  forms 
of  M.  canadensis  Williams  and  Aphis  canae  Williams.  A  key 
to  the  Oregon  species  is  included  below: 

I.  Nectaries  less  than  four  times  as  long  as  wide.  II. 

Nectaries  more  than  four  times  as  long  as  wide.  V. 

II.  Body  with  speciaHzed  setae.  III. 

Body  without  specialized  setae.  IV. 

III.  SpeciaHzed  setae  broadly  fan-like  at  tip.     Nectaries  shorter  than 

width. 

Chaitophorus  tridentatae  new  species 
Specialized  setae  narrowly  fan-hke  at  tip.     Nectaries  twice  as  long 
as  broad. 

Microsiphum  oregonensis  new  species 

IV.  Setae  pointed  at  tip.     Nectaries  as  broad  as  long. 

Color  green.  Microsiphum  canadensis  (Williams) 

Color  red  or  brown.     Microsiphum  artemesiae  (Gillette) 
V.  Antennae  shorter  than  the  body.  VI. 

Antennae  longer  than  the  body.  IX. 

VI.  Body  with  specialized  setae  (fan-hke  at  tip).  VII. 

Body  without  speciahzed  setae  (pointed  at  the  tip) .  VIII . 

VII.  Nectaries  cylindrical  and  straight,  mouth  enlarged. 

Aphis  frigidae  Oestlund 
Nectaries  curved  and  slightly  clavate,  held  close  to  the  body. 

Aphis  tridentatae  new  species 
VIII.  Color  of  body  dark  green. 

Aphis  hermistonii  new  species 
Color  of  body  shining  wine  red. 

Aphis  artemesicola  Wilhams 
Color  of  body  brown. 

Third  antennal  segment  with  numerous  small  sensoria. 

Aphis  reticulata  new  species 
Third  antennal  segment  with  less  than  ten  large  sensoria. 

Aphis  oregonensis  new  species 


H.    F.    WILSON  89 

IX.  Body  covered  with  specialized  setae.     (Fan-like  at  tip.) 

Macrosiphum  artemesicola  Williams 
Body  covered  with  capitate  setae. 

Macrosiphum  frigidae  Oestlund 
Body  covered  with  pointed  setae. 

Macrosiphum  ludovicianae  Oestlund 

Chaitophorus  tridentatae  new  species  (Plate  VI,  figs.  22  to  25.) 

Found  throughout  eastern  Oregon  on  Artemesia  tridentata. 
This  species  is  not  always  easy  to  locate  on  account  of  the  simi- 
lai'ity  in  color  of  the  l)ody  to  that  of  the  plant.  The  entire  body 
is  covered  with  specialized  setae  which  are  fan  shaped  at  the  tip. 
These  give  the  appearance  of  fine  white  hairs  or  powder.  Most 
of  the  individuals  are  found  in  rows,  one  behind  the  other  on  the 
leaves.  A  good  many  are  found  in  around  the  base  of  the  leaf 
and  flower  stems. 

Apterozis  viviparous  female:  General  color,  light  green  with  more  or  less  of 
a  powdery  appearance.  Abdomen  with  a  darker  green  line  along  the  center. 
Antennae  dusky  at  the  tip  and  shading  to  light  green  at  the  base.  Legs  with 
tarsi  black;  remaining  parts  and  the  cauda  dusky.  Body  covered  with  spe- 
cialized setae  which  are  broadly  fan  shaped  at  the  apex.  Nectaries  not  much 
more  than  pores  and  hardly  distinguishable  among  the  speciaUzed  setae. 
Antennae  shorter  than  the  body  and  without  distinct  tubercles.  First  anten- 
nal  segment  strongly  gibbous  and  with  two  or  three  specialized  setae,  one  of 
which  is  found  at  the  apex  of  the  segment.  Second  segment  with  one,  third 
with  four,  fourth  with  two  and  fifth  and  sixth  without  setae.  Legs  have  no 
specialized  setae.  Cauda  slightly  ensrform  and  not  visible  from  above. 
Nectaries  so  short  that  shape  and  size  cannot  be  definitely  settled  with  material 
at  hand. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body  L38  mm.;  width  0.67  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.154  mm.;  IV,  0.11  mm.;  V.  0.135  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.154  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.11  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  Light  green  in  color  as  in  apterous  form.  Head  and 
thorax  light  brown.  Antennae  Ijlack  at  the  tip  and  shading  to  light  green  at 
the  ba.se.  Legs  light  green  with  tips  of  the  tibiae  and  the  tarsi  black.  Cauda 
light  green,  nectaries  invisible.  Entire  body  covered  with  specialized  setae 
as  in  the  apterous  form.  Third  antennal  segment  with  4  or  5  large  sensoria, 
wings  long  and  slender,  venation  normal.  Cauda  rounded  and  tapering  at 
the  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  0.88  mm.;  width,  0.30  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.22  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V,  0.176  mm.;  VI,  0.135 
mm.;  spur,  22  mm.  Length  of  cauda,  0.09  mm.;  length  of  wing,  1.84  mm.; 
width,  0.71  mm. 

TIi.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    .SOC,    XLI. 


90  APHID    NOTES 

Microsiphum  canadensis  (Williams)  (Plate  "\'I,  figs.  1  to  7.) 

Cryptosiphum  canadensis  ( Williams). ■* 

Except  for  a  difference  in  color  there  is  practically  no  difference 
between  this  species  and  M.  (Chaitophorus)  arteinesiae  Gillette. 
M.  oregonensis  differs  from  the  latter  in  the  specialized  setae,  so 
that  there  is  a  possibility  that  these  species  may  be  only  different 
forms  of  the  same  species. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  pale  green.  Antennae  deep 
black  at  the  tip  and  through  segments  4  to  6;  third  segment  dusky  at  the 
distal  end  and  shading  to  light  gi-een  at  the  base.  Legs  with  the  tarsi  and 
tips  of  the  tibiae  and  femora  black,  the  other  parts  dusky.  Body  globular 
and  broadly  ovate  from  above;  sparsely  set  with  heavy  blunt  setae.  Antennae 
as  long  as  the  body  and  on  semi-distinct  tubercles.  Third  segment  with  one 
large  sensoria  near  the  base  (notes  from  type  slide  in  U.  S.  Nat.  Museum). 
Davis ^  has  figured  this  segment  with  5  small  sensoria;  nectaries  about  as  broad 
as  long  and  tapering.     Cauda  very  short  and  broad. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.9  mm.;  width,  1.22  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.4  mm.;  IV,  0.4  mm.;  V,  0.2  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.55  mm.   Length  of  nectaries,  0.45  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.45  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color,  head  and  thorax  dusky  or  black, 
abdomen  dark  green  ?,  nectaries  and  cauda  dusky  to  black.  Abdomen  wide 
and  rounded;  tip  widely  rounded,  and  not  pointed  as  in  other  species.  Anten- 
nae as  long  as  the  body,  black  at  the  tips  and  lighter  at  the  base.  Antennal 
tubercles  distinct  but  not  extensive.  Third  antennal  segment  with  from  2  to 
4  large  sensoria.  Wings  with  normal  venation  but  with  veins  slightly  dusky. 
Nectaries  short,  slightly  tapering  and  about  as  broad  as  long.  Cauda  trian- 
gular and  acute  at  the  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.45  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.33  mm.;  IV,  0.27  mm.;  V,  0.27  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.; 
spur,  0.622  mm.  Length  of  nectaries;  length  of  cauda  0.066  mm.;  length  of 
wing,  2.1  mm.;  width,  0.84  mm. 

Microsiphum  artemesiae  (Gillette)  (Plate  VI,  figs.  8  to  16.) 
Chaitophorus  artemesiae  Gillette. ^ 

Collected  on  Artemesia  tridentata  at  Salisbury,  Oregon,  July 
26,  1914. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  wine  red  and  shining.  In  this 
case  not  brownish  lilack  as  in  the  original  description.     Antennae  black  at  the 

^  "The  Aphididae  of  Nebraska,"  University  of  Nebraska  Studies,  X,  no.  2, 
p.  89. 

^  WiUiams,  "The  Aphididae  of  Nebraska,"  a  critical  review,  ibid,  XI, 
no.  3,  July  1911,  plate  I. 

BEnt.  News,  XXII,  p.  443,  1911. 


H.    F.    WILSON  91 

tips,  shading  to  opaque  yellow  at  the  base.  Legs  black  except  the  basal  por- 
tions of  the  tibiae  and  tarsi  which  are  yellow.  Nectaries  and  Cauda  concolorous 
with  the  body.  Antennae  as  long  or  slightly  longer  than  the  body.  Antenna! 
tubercles  semi-distinct.  Third  antennal  segment  with  1  or  2  large  sensoria. 
Abdomen  globose;  nectaries  as  broad  as  wide  and  slightly  tapering.  Cauda 
short  and  triangular.     Body  covered  with  thick,  pointed  setae. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.75  mm.;  width,  1  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.51  mm.;  IV,  0.38  mm.;  V,  0.34  mm.;  VI,  0.066  mm.; 
spur,  0.69  mm.  Length  of  cauda  and  nectaries  cannot  be  determined  in  speci- 
mens at  hand. 

Alate  viid parous  female:  General  color,  head  and  thorax  black  with  a  reddish 
tinge.  Abdomen  shining  browiiish  red.  Antennae  black  at  the  tip,  yellowish 
at  the  base.  Legs,  except  base  of  tibiae  and  femora,  black.  Nectaries  and 
Cauda  concolorous  with  the  body.  Wings  with  stigma  and  veins  dusky; 
antennae  reaching  to  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  and  the  third  segment  with  as 
many  as  10  large  sensoria,  although  Gillette  only  gives  4.  The  number  appar- 
ently varies  considerably,  since  I  have  found  some  specimens  sent  me  by  Mr. 
L.  C.  Bragg  with  six  sensoria. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.44  mm.;  width,  0.84  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments;  III,  0.51  mm.;  IV,  0.38  mm.;  V,  0.35  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.; 
spur,  0.67  mm.  Length  of  nectaries  ?;  length  of  cauda  0.066  mm.;  length  of 
wings,  2.58  mm.;  width,  1  mm. 

Microsiphum  oregonensis  new  species?  (Plate  VI,  figs.  17  to  21.) 

Found  on  Artemesia  tridentata  at  Salisbury,  Oregon,  July  26, 
1914.  That  two  species  of  such  similar  and  unusual  characters 
should  exist  on  the  same  host  in  the  same  locality  is  more  or  less 
open  to  question,  but  the  present  species  is  questionably  described 
as  new  on  the  fact  that  the  setae  of  the  individuals  here  included 
are  entirely  different  from  those  of  the  preceding  species,  and 
while  the  nectaries  are  more  or  less  similar  there  is  still  a  distinct 
difference.  The  alate  form  has  not  been  taken. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  light  wine  red,  with  a  more 
or  less  shining  or  metalhc  appearance.  Antennae  and  legs  dusky  red  except 
the  basal  half  of  the  former  and  the  tibiae  of  the  latter.  Body  globose, 
oval  from  above,  and  sparsely  set  with  long  curved  specialized  setae  each  of 
which  bears  a  fiat  fan-shaped  tip.  Antennae  as  long  as  the  body.  Antennal 
tubercles  semi-distinct.  Thu-d  segment  with  a  single  large  sensoria  near  the 
base.  First,  second  and  thu-d  segments  with  spines  similar  to  those  on  the 
body.  On  the  third  segment  these  are  all  on  one  side.  Nectaries  twice  as 
long  as  broad  and  slightly  tapering.     Cauda  short,  broad  and  blunt. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.66  mm.;  width,  0.88  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.31  mm.;  IV,  0.3  mm.;  V,  0.27  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.49  nun.    Length  of  nectaries,  0.066  mm. ;  length  of  cauda,  0.066  mm. 

TR.VNS.    AM.    F:NT.    SOC.    XLI. 


92  APHID    NOTES 

Aphis  reticulata  new  species  (Plate  VII,  figs.  1  to  7.) 

On  Arte7nesia  tridenfata,  Klamath  Falls,  Oregon,  July  9,  1914, 
and  in  company  with  M.  frigidae  Oestlund. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  brown.  Antennae  black  at  the 
tip  and  shading  to  dusky  at  the  base  of  the  third  segment.  Segments  one  and 
two  brownish  opaque.  Legs  dark  brown  except  at  the  base  of  the  femora; 
nectaries  and  Cauda  dark  bro\«i  to  black.  The  important  character  of  this 
species  is  the  reticulation  found  over  the  entire  body.  The  structure  of  the 
outer  sheath  of  the  antennae  is  unusually  different  in  that  it  seems  to  be  made 
up  of  numerous  small  ridges  which  gives  an  additional  opaqueness  and  after 
clearing  they  can  hardly  be  seen  through.  Antennae  not  quite  as  long  as  the 
body  and  on  slight  tubercles.  The  nectaries  slightly  tapering  and  slightly 
curved  inward,  no  reticulations  are  found  at  the  tip.  Thorax  bears  a  single 
finger-hke  tubercle  on  each  side  and  the  abdomen  with  others,  a  large  pair 
just  back  of  the  thorax.  Cauda  shghtly  more  than  half  as  long  as  the  nectaries 
and  tapering  to  a  blunt  rounded  point. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.72  mm.;  width,  0.88  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.49  mm.;  IV,  0.24  mm.;  V,  0.2  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.33  mm.    Length  of  nectaries,  0.49  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.18  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  of  head,  thorax,  antennae  and  legs, 
black.  Abdomen  dark  brown.  Antennae  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  nec- 
taries, third  segment  with  about  40  irregular,  raised  sensoria.  Ocular  tubercles 
unusually  prominent.  Prothorax  with  a  single  finger-hke  tubercle  on  each 
side.  Abdomen  with  tubercle  above  base  of  hind  pair  of  legs.  Nectaries 
reaching  beyond  the  tip  of  the  cauda,  cyhndi'ical  and  tips  slightly  bent  out- 
ward and  downward.     Cauda  tapering,  curved  upward  and  blunt  at  the  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.5  mm.;  width,  0.58  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.4  mm.;  IV,  0.2  mm.;  V,  0.22  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm; 
spur,  0.35  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.31  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.154  mm.; 
length  of  wings,  3.1  mm.;  width,  1.04  mm. 

Aphis  oregonensis  new  species  (Plate  VII,  figs.  8  to  17.) 

Collected  at  Klamath  Falls,  Oregon,  July  8,  1913,  on  Artemesia 
tridentata. 

A  peculiar  condition  of  the  plant  Avas  found  in  connection  with 
each  colony  of  this  species.  In  every  instance  the  stem  of  the 
plant  had  been  broken  and  bent  over.  There  were  indications 
present  that  some  insect  had  almost  eaten  away  the  stem  at 
that  point. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color,  greyish  brown  tinged  with  wine 
red.  Nectaries  with  the  first  four  and  the  basal  half  of  the  fifth  segments 
yellow,  remaining  parts  black.  Legs,  except  the  tip  of  the  til)iae  and  the  tarsi, 
yellowish;  rest  black.  Nectaries  and  cauda  black.  Antennae  about  one-half 
the  length  of  the  body.     Prothorax  with  a  single  blunt  tubercle.     Abdomen 


H.    F.    WILSON  93 

broadly  oval,  pointed  at  the  tip  and  with  a  row  of  4  or  more  blunt  tubercles 
along  the  side  of  the  abdomen.  Nectaries  slightly  tapering  and  curved;  cauda 
short,  broad  at  the  base  and  tapering  to  a  rounded  tip. 

Measurements :  Length  of  body,  1.71  mm. ;  width  of  body,  1.11  mm.  Length 
of  antennal  segments;  III,  0.242  m.m.;  IV,  0.22  mm.;  V,  0.176  mm.;  VI,  0.135 
mm. ;  spur,  0.242  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.42  mm. ;  length  of  cauda,  0.09  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  of  head  and  thorax  black;  abdomen 
greyish  brown  tinged  with  wine  red.  Antennae  dusky  yellow  at  base,  black 
at  the  tip.  Legs  with  middle  of  tibiae  and  femora  dusky  yellow;  remaining 
parts  black.  Nectaries  dusky  red;  cauda  yellowish  at  the  base,  black  at  the 
tip.  Antennae  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  nectaries,  third  segment  with  4  or 
5  large  sensoria.  Prothorax  with  a  single  finger-like  tubercle  at  the  base  of 
each  side.  Just  back  of  that  and  apparently  between  the  prothorax  and  the 
mesathorax  on  each  side  is  a  larger  and  broader  tubercle  or  hump.  Abdomen 
with  a  number  of  large  tubercles  along  the  side,  two  of  which  are  finger-hke 
projections  one  on  each  side  midway  between  the  nectaries  and  the  cauda. 
Wing  venation  normal,  nectaries  tapering,  smaller  at  the  base  than  at  the 
tip  and  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  Cauda.  Cauda  short  and  tapering,  tip 
bluntly  rounded.     Caudal  plate  broad  and  shghtly  rounded. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.34  mm.;  width,  0.67  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.242  mm.;  IV,  0.154  mm.;  V,  0.154  mm.;  VI, 
0.11  mm.;  spur,  0.176  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.198  mm.;  length  of  cauda, 
0.11  mm.     Length  of  wing,  2.22  mm.;  width,  0.33  mm. 

Aphis  hermistonii  new  species  (Plate  VII,  figs.  18  to  25.) 

First  taken  at  Hermiston,  Oregon,  1912;  later  taken  at  Klamath 
Falls  and  other  points  in  eastern  Oregon.  Found  on  Artemesia 
tridentata. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  dark  green,  body  flecked  with 
patches  of  whitish  powder.  Antennae  dusky  yellow  at  the  base,  black  toward 
the  tip.  Legs,  nectaries  and  cauda  dusky  to  black.  Antennae  not  quite 
reaching  to  the  base  of  the  nectaries.  Third  segment  with  one  sensorium 
and  this  is  lacking  in  a  great  many  individuals.  Prothorax  with  a  single  well 
developed  finger-like  tubercle  on  each  side.  Abdomen  with  four  large  tuber- 
cles, two  on  each  side.  The  first  two  are  found  one  on  each  side  of  the  abdomen 
near  the  thorax.  The  other  two  are  found  half  way  between  the  nectaries 
and  the  base  of  the  cauda.  Nectaries  cyHndrical  with  the  tip  much  broader 
than  the  nectary  proper.     Cauda  short  and  tapering. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.35  mm.;  width,  0.777  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.176mm.;  IV,  0.154  mm.;  V,  0.156mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.18  mm.;  length  of  nectaries,  0.35  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.66  mm. 

Alale  viviparous  female:  General  color  head  and  thorax  black;  abdomen 
dark  green  with  scattered  spots  of  white  powder;  antennae,  legs,  nectaries 
and  cauda  dusky  or  black  with  a  greenish  tinge.  Antennae  not  quite  reaching 
to  the  base  of  nectaries.  Third  segment  with  4  or  5  large  sensoria.  Pro- 
thorax with  tubercles  as  in  the  apterous  form  and  aljdomen  with  a  single  large 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


94  APHID    NOTES 

tubercle  on  each  side  just  behind  the  metathorax.  Nectaries  thicker  at  the 
base  and  at  the  tip  than  in  the  middle.  Flange  at  the  tip  broadest  part  of 
nectaries.     Cauda  short,  tapering  and  turned  upward. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.2  mm.;  width,  0.5  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.198  mm.;  IV,  0.11  mm.;  V,  0.135  mm.;  VI,  0.01  mm.; 
spur,  0.176  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  1.54  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.05  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  1.62  mm.;  width,  0.67  mm. 

Aphis  tridentatae  new  species  (Plate  VII,  figs.  26  to  30.) 

Found  in  company  with  M.  artemesiae  Boyer  and  Ch.  triden- 
tatae during  May  and  June. 

This  species  resembles  Ch.  tridentatae  on  the  plants  and  the 
only  distinction  is  the  wider  body  and  pinkish  color  of  some 
individuals.  iTnder  the  microscope  the  spines  are  found  to  be 
different  and  the  presence  of  well  developed  nectaries  readily 
separates  this  species  from  the  other.  There  is  no  present  genus 
into  which  this  species  can  be  placed  so  it  is  deemed  best  to  desig- 
nate it  as  an  Aphis  for  the  time  being. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  light  pink  or  white,  covered  with 
numerous  white  fan-like  specialized  setae.  Antennae  black  at  the  tip  shading 
to  dusky  at  the  base;  legs  dusky  at  the  tip  of  the  femora  and  tibiae  and  the 
tarsi  black.  Head  shghtly  convex,  abdomen  obovate,  caudal  end  broadly 
rounded,  cauda  not  apparent  from  above,  very  short  and  rounded.  Antennae 
slightly  longer  than  one-half  the  body  and  antennal  tubercles  present  as  ridges. 
Antennae  without  specialized  setae.  Legs  sparsely  set  with  setae  like  those 
on  the  body  but  not  quite  so  heavy.  Eyes  hardly  tuberculate.  Nectaries 
curved  and  clavate  with  the  tip  cut  obliquely.  In  many  individuals  the 
nectaries  cling  so  closely  to  the  body  that  they  cannot  be  seen. 

Measin-ements:  Length  of  body,  1.54  mm.;  width,  0.8  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.14  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V,  0.135  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spm",  0.22  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.22  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.45  mm.; 
length  of  speciaUzed  setae,  0.045  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  pink  or  light  green  with  hght  Ijrown 
head  and  thorax.  Antennae  black  at  the  tip  and  shading  to  hght  or  dusky 
green  at  the  base.  Legs  with  femora  light,  tibiae  dusky  and  tarsi  black. 
Cauda  hght  gi-een.  The  spines  are  not  nearly  as  numerous  as  in  the  apterous 
forms  but  they  are  sparsely  found  over  the  entire  body  and  on  the  legs.  Those 
on  the  legs  are  much  finer  than  those  on  the  body.  Antennae  normally 
nearly  as  long  as  the  body  and  rather  slender.  Third  segment  with  4  round 
sensoria  placed  as  in  drawing.  Wings  long  and  slender,  venation  normal. 
Nectaries  as  in  the  apterous  form.  Cauda  almost  cylindrical  and  extending 
slightly  beyond  the  tip  of  the  abdomen. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1  mm.;  width,  0.35  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal segments:  III,  0.2  mm.;  IV,  0.176  mm.;  V,  0.154  nun.;  VI,  0.09  mm.;  spur. 


H.    F.    WILSON  95 

0.27  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.22  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.066  mm.;  length 
of  wing,  2.22  mm.;  width,  0.67  mm. 

Aphis  frigidae  Oestlund  ^  (Plate  VIII,  figs.  20  to  24.) 

Found  in  company  with  M.  frigidae  Oestlund  on  Artemesia 
tridentata  throughout  the  eastern  part  of  Oregon. 

General  color  dark  brown  with  a  greenish  tinge  which  is  not  at  first  evident 
on  account  of  a  general  light  colored  appearance  produced  by  a  coating  of  fine 
white  powder.  In  the  original  description  of  this  species  Oestlund  speaks  of 
"a  rather  thick  pubescence  of  fine  and  short  hairs"  which  I  have  been  unable 
to  discover.  The  entire  body  is,  however,  covered  with  long  curved  hairs 
having  flared  tips.  Antennae  black  except  at  the  base  of  the  third  and  the 
first  and  second  segments.  Legs,  nectaries  and  cauda  dusky  to  black.  The 
antennae  are  as  long  as  the  body  and  are  not  mounted  on  antennal  tubercles. 
Head  nearly  straight  in  front,  eyes  black  and  with  ocellus  weak  or  entirely 
wanting.  Abdomen  oval  and  round  and  curved  with  numerous  light  spots 
which  are  the  tubercles  from  which  the  hairs  originate.  The  nectaries  form 
one  of  the  most  important  specific  characters  of  this  species.  They  are  cylin- 
drical throughout  and  the  tip  is  widened  out  to  twice  the  width  of  the  main 
part.     Cauda  short  and  rounded  at  the  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.6  mm.;  width,  0.78  mm.;  length  of  anten- 
nal segments:  III,  0.25  mm.;  IV,  0.23  mm.;  V,  0.22  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.;  spur, 
0.42  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.42  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.12  mm. 

Aphis  artemesicola  Williams*  (Plate  VIII,  figs.  16  to  19.) 

What  is  beheved  to  be  this  species  was  taken  on  Artemesia 
tridentata  in  company  with  M.  canadensis  Williams  at  Salisbury, 
Oregon,  July  26,  1914,  Only  the  apterous  forms  were  taken 
but  the  specimens  agree  fairly  well  with  Williams'  description. 
The  number  of  sensoria  on  the  third  antennal  segment  do  not, 
however,  correspond  with  those  shown  by  Davis  in  his  critical 
review  of  Williams'  species.^ 

General  color  shining  wine  red;  antennae  about  two-thu'ds  the  length  of  the 
body.  Antennal  segments  one,  two  and  the  greater  part  of  three  dusky  yeUow; 
remaining  parts  deep  black.  Legs  black  except  at  base  of  femora  and  the  basal 
half  of  the  tibiae.  Nectaries  black;  cauda  black  at  tip,  dusky  red  toward  base. 
Antennae  with  from  2  to  8  sensoria  on  the  third  segments,  mostly  2  to  4.  Nec- 
taries slightly  tapering  and  each  one  with  about  four  haii's;  tip  flanged.  Cauda 
short  and  broad  at  the  base,  and  pointed  at  the  end.  Body  with  pointed 
hairs. 

^  Fourteenth  Annual  Kept.  Geol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  Minn.,  1886,  p.  46. 
^  "The  Aphididae  of  Nebraska,"  University  of  Nebraska  Studies,  X,  no.  2, 
p.  37. 
'  Loc.  cit. 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


96  APHID    NOTES 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.21  mm.;  width,  1.154  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.44  mm.;  IV,  0.33  mm.;  V,  0.27  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.; 
spur,  0.49  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.15  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.11  mm. 

Macrosiphum  artemesicola  Williams  i"  (Plate  VIII,  figs.  11  to  15.) 

On  Artemesia  vulgaris  at  Corvallis,  Oregon,  July  2,  1911. 

General  color  pale  green  and  appearing  as  if  covered  with  minute  particles 
of  fine  white  powder.  This  appearance  is  in  reality  due  to  numerous  capitate 
hairs  which  cover  the  entire  body  but  are  not  found  on  the  appendages.  This 
species  is  a  very  active  one  and  may  be  found  in  company  with  M.  ludovi- 
cianae  on  the  above  host  on  the  stems  and  leaves,  mostly  on  the  former. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  light  gi-een  and  almost  identical 
with  that  of  the  food  plant.  Antennae  black  except  the  first  and  second  and 
basal  parts  of  the  thu-d  segments.  Legs  dusky  to  black  except  the  basal  part 
of  the  tibiae  and  femora.  Nectaries  black.  Cauda  dusky.  Antennae  long 
and  slender  and  reaching  beyond  the  nectaries  and  cauda.  Each  antennal 
tubercle  with  a  single  capitate  hair  at  its  apex.  First  antennal  segment 
strongly  gibbous  on  the  inner  side.  Thu-d  segment  with  two  visible  sensoria 
near  the  base,  fifth  with  one  near  the  distal  end  and  sixth  with  the  usual  number 
at  the  base  of  the  spur.  The  entire  body  is  thickly  set  with  toadstool-like 
setae  of  which  there  appears  to  be  two  forms.  They  are  in  reality  about  the 
same  size  and  shape  except  that  those  on  the  head  and  at  the  base  of  the  cauda 
have  a  longer  stem  than  those  on  the  rest  of  the  body.  The  antennae  are  very 
sparsely  set  with  fine  short  hairs.  The  same  is  true  of  the  femora  and  while 
there  are  a  greater  number  on  the  tibiae  they  are  not  as  numerous  as  in  the 
previous  species.  The  hairs  on  the  cauda  and  caudal  plate  are  rather  sparse 
and  are  longer  than  those  on  the  legs  and  antennae.  Nectaries  slender  and 
slightly  tapering.  Cauda  ensiform  and  rounded  at  the  tip.  The  outer  sur- 
face of  the  latter  seems  to  be  made  up  of  fine  short  pointed  scales. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.73  mm.;  width,  0.88  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.58  mm.;  IV,  0.49  mm.;  V,  0.49  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.75  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.44  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.154  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  of  head  and  thorax  dusky  brown  or 
black;  abdomen  similar  in  appearance  to  that  of  apterous  form.  Antennae 
black  at  the  tip  shading  to  light  green  at  the  base.  Legs  dusky  green  at  distal 
end  of  tibiae  and  femora,  lighter  at  base;  tarsi  black.  Nectaries  and  cauda 
dusky  to  black.  Antennae  longer  than  the  body.  Antennal  tubercles  strong 
and  each  with  three  capitate  hairs,  center  of  forehead  with  two.  Fu'st  antennal 
segment  strongly  gibbous  and  without  hairs  or  bristles.  Third  segment  with 
about  14  round  sensoria  on  the  outer  side  of  the  segment,  fourth  apparently 
with  none,  the  fifth  with  one  and  the  sixth  normal.  Wings  hyaline  but  with 
dark  veins.  Nectaries  more  slender  than  in  the  apterous  form  and  thicker  at 
the  base  and  tip  than  in  the  middle.  Cauda  tapering  and  with  a  broadly 
rounded  tip. 

^^  "The  Aphididae  of  Nebraska,"  University  of  Nebraska  Studies,  X,  no.  2, 
p.  73. 


H.    F.    WILSOX  97 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.11  mm.;  width,  0.95  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.86  mm.;  IV,  0.75  mm.;  V,  0.73  mm.;  VI,  0.15-i  mm.; 
spur,  .122  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.644  mm.;  length  of  Cauda,  0.154  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  3.11  mm.;  width,  1.11  mm. 

Macrosiphum  artemesiae  Boyer  ^^  (Plate  VIII,  figs.  6  to  10.) 
Siphonaphora  frigidae  Oestlund.^'' 
Nectarophora  artemesiae  Cowen.  ^^ 
Nectarophora  coiceni  Hunter. " 

This  species  is  found  in  all  sections  of  Oregon  where  Artemesia 
tridentata  grows.  It  has  been  collected  in  a  very  isolated  patch 
of  this  plant  on  top  of  Grays  Peak,  Grant  County,  Oregon,  eleva- 
tion about  7000  feet.  It  apparently  does  not  occur  in  the  Wil- 
lamette valley.  Two  forms  of  this  species  are  generally  found, 
one  a  dark  shining  green  and  the  other  a  light  moss  green.  Both 
forms  are  found  together  on  the  same  plant,  and  in  late  July 
colonies  of  the  lighter  form  may  be  found  separate  from  the 
others.     The  following  description  is  made  from  the  dark  form: 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  dark  metallic  green;  legs  and 
antennal  black  except  the  basal  parts  of  the  femora,  and  the  first,  second  and 
a  part  of  the  third  antennal  segments.  Eyes,  nectaries  and  cauda  black. 
Antennae  longer  than  the  body,  third  segment  with  from  six  to  nine  irregular 
round  sensoria.  Nectaries  long,  stout,  tapering,  and  reaching  bej^ond  the  tip 
of  the  Cauda.  Each  nectary  with  about  four  capitate  setae.  Cauda  long, 
heavy,  broadly  pointed  and  ensiform.  Nectaries  reticulated  for  a  very  short 
distance  back  of  the  tip.  The  chief  character  of  this  species  is  the  capitate 
hairs  which  are  found  sparsely  over  the  body. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2  mm.;  width,  at  widest  part  of  abdomen, 
1.25  mm.  Length  of  antennal  segments:  III,  0.74  mm.;  IV,  0.6  mm.;  V,  0.5 
mm.;  VI,  0.154  mm.;  spur,  0.8  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.73  mm.;  length  of 
Cauda,  0.30  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color,  head  and  thorax  shining  black. 
Abdomen  shining  dark  green.  Antennae  except  base  of  third  segment  and 
legs  except  base  of  femora  black;  eyes,  nectaries  and  cauda  also  black.  Anten- 
nae longer  than  the  body  and  on  strong  gibbous  tubercles.  Third  segment 
with  11  to  15  visible  round  irregular  sized  sensoria,  fourth  with  about  seven 
and  fifth  and  sixth  with  usual  number.  It  is  impossible  to  make  out  all  of  the 
sensoria  on  the  third  and  fourth  segments  without  clearing.     Wing  venation 

"Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  France,  X,  p.  162,  1841. 

^  Fourteenth  Ann.  Rcpt.  Geol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Survey  Minn.,  18S6,  p.  20. 

"  Colo.  Agl.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  31,  Tec.  Ser.  1,  p.  123,  1895  (Mr.  L.  C.  Bragg 
wTites  me  that  Cowen's  species  is  the  same  as  that  of  Oestlund.) 

1^  Iowa  Ex.  Sta.  Bull.  60,  1901,  p.  114,  A  new  name  for  N.  artemesiae 
Cowen,  which  is  preoccupied. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


98  APHID    NOTES 

normal.  Nectaries  thick,  long  and  almost  cylindrical  but  with  a  slight  taper. 
They  reach  to  about  the  tip  of  the  cauda,  which  is  similar  in  shape  to  that  of 
the  apterous  form. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal  segments:  III,  0.75  mm.;  IV,  0.51  mm.;  V,  0.47  mm.;  VI,  0.154  mm.;  spur, 
0.75  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.52  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.27  mm.;  length  of 
wing,  4  mm.;  width,  1.34  mm. 

Macrosiphum  ludovicianiae  Oestlund  (Plate  VIII,  figs.  1  to  5.) 

Collected  at  Corvallis,  Oregon,  July  2,  1911.  On  Artemesia 
vulgaris  and  on  the  same  plant  at  Salisbury,  Oregon,  July  26, 
1914.  A  very  large  greyish  green  species  feeding  mostly  on  the 
stems. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  pale  green,  entire  body  covered 
with  a  fine  white  powder,  eyes  reddish.  Antennae  longer  than  the  body  and 
black  except  the  first  and  second  segments  and  the  basal  half  of  the  third  which 
are  dusky.  Legs  black  except  the  basal  part  of  the  femora.  Nectaries  black 
and  cauda  yellow.  Third  segment  of  antennae  with  9  to  12  visible  irregular 
sensoria,  which  are  more  or  less  roundish  in  shape.  Nectaries  and  cauda  as 
in  the  alate  form. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.5  mm.;  width,  1.1  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal  segments:  III,  1.11  mm.;  IV,  1.07  mm.;  V,  0.86  mm.;  VI,  0.3  mm.;  spur, 
1.25  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.86  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.53  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  light  green;  abdomen  and  legs 
covered  with  a  white  powder  which  gives  them  about  the  color  of  the  plants 
upon  which  they  are  found.  Eyes  red.  Antennae  deep  black  except  the  two 
basal  segments  and  a  part  of  the  third.  Legs  dusky  to  black  except  the  basal 
one-third  of  the  femora  which  is  fighter.  Nectaries  black,  cauda  yellowish 
green.  Antennae  longer  than  the  body  and  on  strong  tubercles.  Third 
segment  with  about  55  visible  sensoria,  variable  in  size  and  oval  to  round  in 
shape;  the  fourth  segment  apparently  has  none  and  the  fifth  bears  one  large 
one  near  the  distal  end.  Sixth  with  the  usual  sensoria  at  the  base  of  the  spur. 
Nectaries  somewhat  slender  and  tapering;  thickest  at  the  base  and  flanged  at 
the  tip ;  the  distal  half  distinctly  different  in  appearance  from  the  basal  half 
on  account  of  the  reticulated  surface.  Cauda  nearly  as  long  as  the  nectaries 
and  shaped  like  a  spear  head  with  the  broadest  part  in  the  middle. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  3  mm.;  width,  1  mm.  Length  of  antennal 
segments:  III,  1.22  mm.;  IV,  1.08  mm.;  V,  0.9  mm.;  VI,  0.3  mm.;  spur,  1.24 
mm.  Length  of  wing,  4  mm.;  width  at  widest  part,  1.31  mm.  Length  of  necta- 
ries, 0.71  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.51  mm. 


H.    F.    WILSON  99 

III.   NEW  SPECIES  OF  APHIDS 

Amphorophora  subterrans  new  species  (Plate  IX,  figs.  1  to  4.) 

Collected  on  roots  of  Dactylis  glomerata  Linn,  at  Corvallis, 
Oregon,  April  6,  1912.  Very  abundant  6  to  8  inches  below  the 
surface  of  the  ground  in  loose  soil.  Apterous,  alate  and  pupae 
forms  found. 

Apterous  iriviparmis  female:  General  color  dark  green  with  a  bro^sTiish  tinge- 
Antennae  black,  eyes  dark  red.  Legs  j^ellow  except  at  the  tips  of  femora  and 
tibiae  and  tarsi,  which  parts  are  black.  Nectaries  and  cauda  black.  Body 
sparsely  set  with  short  haii-s.  Antennae  reaching  beyond  the  tip  of  the  cauda, 
third  segment  with  two  circular  sensoria  near  the  Ijase.  Nectaries  reaching 
to  the  base  of  the  cauda  and  swollen  in  the  middle.  Cauda  tapering  and 
blunt  at  the  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.95  mm.;  width,  1  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments;  III,  0.56  mm.;  IV,  0.42  mm.;  V,  0.3  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.; 
spur,  0.67  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.46  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.154  mm. 

Alate  mviparous  female:  General  color  head  and  thorax  dark  green  or  black; 
abdomen  moss  gi-een  with  a  dorsal  dark  green  spot  which  is  slightly  narrower 
behind.  Antennae  black;  legs  dusky  or  black  except  femora,  which  have  the 
basal  part  dusky  yellow.  Nectaries  black;  cauda  black  at  the  tip.  Antennae 
longer  than  the  body  and  on  distinct  antennal  tubercles,  third  segment  with 
8  to  11  large  circular  sensoria.  In  some  species  an  occasional  small  sensorium 
may  be  found  adjacent  to  one  of  the  larger  ones.  Body,  antennae  and  femora 
sparsely  set  with  short  hau-s.  A  distinguishing  characteristic  of  this  species 
is  found  in  the  ocular  tubercles  which  themselves  bear  two  or  three  smaller 
tubercles.  Wing  venation  normal.  Nectaries  as  in  the  apterous  forms  and 
semi-annulated  just  back  of  the  tip  which  is  strongly  flanged.  Cauda  ensi- 
form  and  tapering  to  a  blunt  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.9  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.53  mm.;  IV,  0.42  mm.;  V,  0.38  mm.;  VI,  0.176  mm.; 
spur,  0.73  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.4  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.16  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  3  mm.;  width  at  widest  part,  1.22  mm. 

Macrosiphum  mentzeliae  new  species  (Plate  IX,  figs.  5  to  9.) 

Collected  on  Mentzelia  at  Monclova,  Mexico,  Nov.  23,  1909. 
This  aphid  was  sent  to  me  by  Mr.  F.  C.  Bishopp  of  the  U.  S. 
Bureau  of  Entomology.  The  specimens  obtained  are  in  alcohol 
but  from  the  general  light  color  they  must  have  been  of  a  pale 
green  color.  The  color  markings  are  not  necessary  for  the  easy 
determination  of  this  species,  however,  as  the  entire  body,  legs 
and  antennae  bear  short  curved,  capitate  hairs. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  Antennae  longer  than  the  luxly,  dark  at  the 
tips  and  rather  slender.     Third  segment  with  two  small  sensoria.     Abdomen 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.   SOC,    XLI. 


100  APHID    NOTES 

long  and  slender.  Nectaries  reaching  beyond  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  and 
long  and  slender.     Cauda  long  and  unusually  broad. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  not  including  cauda,  1.8  mm.;  width,  0.67 
mm.  Length  of  antennal  segments:  III,  0.5  mm.;  IV,  0.48  mm.;  V,  0.4  mm.; 
VI,  0.135  mm.;  spur,  0.75  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.55  mm.;  length  of 
Cauda,  0.31  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  Antennae  reaching  beyond  the  tips  of  the  nec- 
taries, dark  at  the  tips  and  the  third  segment  with  about  10  to  12  round  sen- 
soria.  Nectaries  long  and  slender  and  reaching  beyond  the  tip  of  the  cauda. 
Cauda  as  in  the  apterous  form. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2  mm.;  width,  0.75  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal segments:  III,  0.6  mm.;  IV,  0.48  mm.;  V,  0.4  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.;  spur, 
0.8  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.6  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.3  mm.;  length  of 
wing,  3  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm. 

Aphis  lithospermii  new  species  (Plate  IX,  figs.  10  to  14.) 

A  very  common  species  on  Lithospermum  pilosiim  Nuttall  in 
the  southeastern  part  of  Oregon  during  June  and  July. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  dark  green  with  4  or  5  black 
transverse  bars  on  the  forepart  of  the  abdomen  and  one  at  the  base  of  the 
nectaries;  head  black  and  thorax  dusky.  Antennae  black  except  at  the  base, 
tibia  black  at  the  ends  and  light  in  the  middle.  Nectaries  and  cauda  black. 
Body  robust  and  broadly  oval.  Nectaries  reaching  to  about  one-third  the 
length  of  the  body.  Pro  thorax  with  one  large  finger-like  tubercle.  Abdomen 
with  two  tubercles  on  each  side.  One  pair  is  found  not  quite  half  way  from 
the  thorax  to  the  nectaries  and  the  other  pair  is  foimd  between  the  base  of  the 
cauda  and  the  nectaries.  Nectaries  short,  about  the  same  length  as  the  cauda 
and  tapering.  Cauda  short  and  tapering  to  a  bluntly  rounded  tip.  Entire 
body  with  a  sparse  pruinose  covering. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.1  mm.;  width,  1.38  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.3  mm.;  IV,  0.134  mm.;  V,  0.154  mm.;  VI,  0.11  mm.; 
spur,  0.198  mm.     Length  of  nectaries,  0.176  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.176  mm, 

Alale  viviparous  female:  General  color  head  and  thorax  black;  abdomen 
green  with  three  transverse  black  bands  just  in  front  of  the  base  of  the  cauda. 
Antennae  black  except  at  the  base,  and  legs  black  except  the  middle  part  of 
the  tibiae.  Body  stout,  antennae  about  half  as  long  as  the  body;  third  seg- 
ment with  about  9  to  12  irregular  sensoria,  and  the  fourth  with  two  on  the 
distal  half  of  the  segment.  Thorax  apparently  without  tubercles.  Abdomen 
with  two  pairs  of  tubercles  as  in  the  apterous  form  but  it  is  necessary  to  have 
the  specimen  turned  slightly  sidewise  in  order  to  make  them  out.  Nectaries 
short  and  tapering  and  about  as  long  as  the  cauda,  which  is  short,  tapering 
and  with  a  blunt,  rounded  tip. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.67  mm.;  width,  0.84  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.31  mm.;  IV,  0.156  mm.;  V,  0.135  nun.;  VI,  0.135  nun.; 
spur,  0.242  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.154  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.15  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  2.62  mm.;  width,  0.95  mm. 


H.    F.    WILSON  101 

Aphis  chrysothamni  new  species  (Plate  IX,  figs.  15  to  IS.) 

Collected  at  Salisbury,  Oregon,  during  July,  1912  and  1914, 
on  Chrysothamnns  lanceoJatvs  Gr.  This  aphis  is  very  abundant 
on  side  hills  along  the  canyons.  General  color  green  to  red. 
The  young  lice  are  green  and  the  mature  forms  are  red. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color:  head  dark  wine  red,  pro- 
thorax  a  lighter  red  and  segment  corresponding  to  metathorax  greyish  green; 
abdomen  light  green,  mottled  with  darker  green  and  with  a  large  dark  green 
spot  in  the  center  of  the  dorsum;  last  two  segments  covered  with  a  greyish 
powder.  .  In  other  stages  the  entire  body  assumes  a  pinkish  tinge.  Other 
mature  forms  are  wine  red  mottled  with  dark  green.  Antennae  light 
colored  at  the  base,  darker  toward  the  tip;  nectaries  and  cauda  black.  Body 
broadly  ovate.  Antennae  less  than  half  as  long  as  the  body  and  apparently 
without  tubercles;  thoracic  segments  with  two  pairs  of  lateral  tubercles,  the 
front  pair  broad  and  rounded,  the  second  pair  more  slender  tind  thumb-like 
in  shape.  Abdomen  with  only  one  pair  of  apparent  tubercles,  which  are 
rather  .short  and  are  situated  between  the  nectaries  and  the  cauda.  Nectaries 
short  and  slightly  tapering.  In  some  cases  they  appear  very  slightly  con- 
stricted just  back  of  the  tip.     Cauda  very  short  and  broadly  pointed. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.35  mm.;  width,  1.62  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.33  mm.;  0.242  mm.;  IV,  0.198  mm.;  V,  0.198  mm.; 
VI,  0.11  mm.;  spur,  0.154  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.242  mm.;  length  of 
cauda,  0.1  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color:  antennae,  head  and  thorax  black; 
abdomen  green  mottled  with  darker  green ;  legs  black  with  tibiae  dusky.  Body 
elongate  and  broad  for  its  length.  Antennae  about  two-thu-ds  as  long  as  the 
body,  the  third  segment  with  4  to  6  large  sensoria  in  more  or  less  of  a  straight 
line  with  each  other;  fourth  with  4  to  7  sensoria.  Wings  with  veins  hairy  and 
dusky.  Veins  m^  and  m^  form  a  fork  rather  shorter  and  smaller  than  usual. 
Nectaries  short  and  cylindrical.  Cauda  short,  and  ahnost  triangular,  tip 
rather  sharp. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.55  mm.;  width,  0.8  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.33  mm.;  IV,  0.242  mm.;  V,  0.22  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm.; 
spur  0.198  mm.  Length  of  nectary,  0.242  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.11  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  2.22  mm.;  width,  0.8  mm. 

Macros! phum  pteridis  new  species  (Plate  IX,  figs.  19a  to  19c.) 

Found  throughout  western  Oregon  on  the  fronds  of  Pteris 
aquilina  Linn.  Very  common  but  disappears  almost  entirely 
from  open  places  during  heat  of  summer.  Can  be  found  in 
shaded  spots  along  hillsides  at  all  times. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  yellowish  white;  legs  dusky  white 
and  antennae  white  except  sixth  segment  and  spur.  Body  long  and  medium 
slender;  antennae  exceedingly  long  and  slender;  nectaries  long,  slender  and 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC.    XLI. 


102  APHID    NOTES 

tip  curved  outward  as  in  Myzus.  Cauda  short  and  ensiform.  Entire  body 
with  medium  length  capitate  hairs. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.77  mm.;  width,  1.22  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  1.2  mm.;  IV,  0.88  mm.;  V,  0.73  mm.;  VI,  0.154  mm.; 
spur,  1.2  mm.    Length  of  nectaries,  1.2  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.3  mm. 

Alale  viviparous  female:  General  color  green  with  the  head  and  thorax 
orange  brown.  Antennae  black  except  the  first  two  segments,  which  are 
dusky  green  or  browTi.  Legs  with  base  of  femora  yellowish,  nectaries  dusky 
orange  at  the  tip,  green  at  the  base.  Cauda  green.  Antennae  long  and 
slender  and  thu-d  segment  with  from  20  to  26  regular  round  sensoria  in  straight 
ahgnment.  Wing  venation  normal.  Antennae  long,  slender  and  with  the 
distal  half  strongly  curved  outward.  Cauda  short  and  ensiform.  Entire 
body  except  cauda  and  nectaries  set  with  short  capitate  hairs.  Cauda  and 
caudal  plate  with  pointed  hairs. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.5  mm.;  width,  0.9  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  1  mm.;  IV,  0.84  mm.;  V,  0.777  mm.;  VI,  0.242  mm.; 
spur,  1.33  mm.  Length  of  nectaries,  0.67  mm.;  length  of  cauda,  0.27  mm.; 
length  of  wing,  4.4  mm.;  width,  1.66  mm. 

Lachnus  laricifoliae  new  species  (Plate  X,  figs.  9  to  14.) 

Collected  on  Larix  occidentalis  in  Baker  and  Grant  Counties, 
Oregon.  The  apterous  forms  are  rather  easy  to  find  but  not 
exceedingly  numerous,  while  the  alate  forms  are  scarcer  and  harder 
to  find.  They  are  for  the  most  part  found  about  the  base  of  the 
needle  clusters. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  black  with  a  covering  of  white 
powder  and  with  a  hght  streak  down  the  center  of  the  dorsum.  The  antennae 
are  dusky  yellow  at  the  base  and  black  toward  the  tip.  The  legs  are  black 
except  the  basal  portions  of  the  femora  and  the  center  of  the  tibiae,  which  are 
dusky  yeUow.  Cauda  black.  Body  broadly  oval  and  elongate.  Antennae 
rea(!hing  to  the  base  of  the  middle  pair  of  legs  and  beak  reaching  to  base  of 
hind  pair.  Nectaries  of  medium  diameter  at  the  base  and  narrowly  tapering 
to  a  wide  funnel-shaped  mouth.  Cauda  short  and  broadly  rounded  at  the 
tip.     Entire  body,  legs,  nectaries  and  antennae  covered  with  hairs. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  4.23  mm.;  width,  2.22  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.73  mm.;  IV,  0.27  mm.;  V,  0.31  mm.;  VI,  0.154  mm.; 
length  of  cauda,  0.154  mm.;  width  at  base,  0.42  mm.  Length  of  hind  tibiae, 
2.22  mm.;  length  of  hind  tarsus,  0.35  mm.;  length  of  hind  metatarsus,  0.13  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color  black  covered  with  a  white  powder 
and  with  a  light  streak  down  the  center  of  the  abdomen.  Antennae  and  legs 
the  same  as  in  the  apterous  form.  Head  and  thorax  shining  black.  Nectaries 
black,  with  a  large  white  spot  at  the  base  of  the  nectaries  and  which  does  not 
become  conspicuous  until  the  specimens  have  been  put  in  alcohol.  Cauda  as 
in  the  apterous  form.  Antennae  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  wings  and  the 
third  segment  with  from  8  to  11  regular  small  sensoria;  fourth  segment  with 


H.    F.    WILSON  103 

one  or  two  near  the  distal  end  and  fifth  with  two  large  ones  near  the  distal 
end.  Spur  of  sixth  short  and  ending  in  a  thick  short  spine.  Wings  normal 
and  with  the  median  vein  distinct  and  with  two  branches.  Abdomen  with  a 
row  of  six  blunt  tubercles  on  each  side.  Nectaries  and  cauda  as  in  the  apterous 
form.     Entire  body,  antennae,  legs  and  nectaries  covered  with  hairs. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  4.78  ram.;  width,  2.1  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.69  mm.;  IV,  0.27  mm.;  V,  0.35  mm.;  VI,  0.135  mm. 
Length  of  hind  tibia,  3.22  mm.;  hind  tarsi,  first  segment,  0.135  mm.;  second 
segment,  0.35  mm.;  length  of  beak,  1.9  mm.;  length  of  wing,  5.33  mm.;  width, 
2.55  mm. 

Lachnus  oregonensis  new  species  (Plate  X,  figs.  1  to  8.) 

Collected  on  Pmus  sp.,  Fort  Klamath,  Oregon,  July  G,  1914. 
Found  only  on  the  cones.  Mate  and  apterous  forms.  Possibly 
this  species  extends  its  feeding  to  the  shoots  later  in  the  season. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color  shining  brown,  with  the  dorsum 
dusky  to  black.  (In  balsam  immediately  after  mounting,  there  appears  to 
be  a  slight  streak  down  the  center  of  the  back  with  a  dark  black  band  extending 
from  the  base  of  the  al^domen  to  the  cauda.)  Antennae  yellowish  at  the  base 
and  black  toward  the  tip.  Legs  dusky  yeUow  at  the  base  and  black  toward 
the  tips;  cauda  black,  nectaries  black.  Body  obovate,  robust  and  set  with 
numerous  fine  hairs.  Antennae  slender  and  reaching  to  the  middle  of  the 
mesothoracic  segment;  fifth  segment  with  one  or  two  large  sensoria.  Legs 
and  antennae  set  with  fine  hairs,  rather  more  plentiful  on  tibiae  than  on  the 
femora.  Nectaries  broad  and  sHghtly  tapering  toward  the  central  tube  which 
is  flanged  at  the  tip.  Cauda  broadly  rounded.  The  beak  reaches  beyond  the 
tip  of  the  abdomen. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  3  mm.;  width,  1.5  mm.  Length  of  antennal 
segments:  III,  0.35  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V,  0.135  mm.;  VI,  and  spur,  0.135 
mm.  Length  of  hind  tibia,  1.84  mm.;  length  of  hind  tarsus,  0.35  mm.;  length 
of  hind  metatarsus,  0.09  mm. 

Alale  viviparous  female:  General  color  dark  brown  to  black;  abdomen  with 
the  dorsum  of  each  segment  black.  Antennae  light  at  the  base,  shading  to 
black  at  the  tip.  Legs  dusky  yellow  at  the  base  of  the  femora  and  tibia  and 
black  at  the  tips;  tarsi  black.  Antennae  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  wings, 
the  third  segment  with  about  3  to  6  irregular  sized  round  sensoria  of  medium 
size;  fourth  with  one  or  two  large  sensoria;  fifth  with  two  and  the  sixth  with  the 
usual  large  and  small  sensoria.  Abdomen  with  a  row  of  fine  tubercles  along 
each  side  and  on  a  line  below  the  nectaries.  Nectaries  broadly  cone-shaped. 
The  beak  reaches  to  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  or  slightly  beyond.  \Mng  vena- 
tion complete.     Median  vein  entire  but  appearing  as  an  outline. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  2.4  mm. ;  width,  1  mm.  Length  of  antennal 
segments:  III,  0.38  mm.;  IV,  0.154  mm.;  V,  0.2  mm.;  VI  and  spur,  0.154  mm. 
Length  of  wing,  3.8  mm.;  width,  1.22  mm.;  length  of  hind  tibia,  1.86  mm.; 
length  of  hind  tarsus,  0.4  mm.;  length  of  hind  metatarsus,  0.09  mm.;  length 
of  beak,  2.58  mm. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


104  APHID    NOTES 

Lachnus  rubicundus  new  species  (Plate  XI,  figs.  8  to  14.) 

Found  on  Juniperus  occidentalis  along  the  dry  ridges  of  eastern 
Oregon.  Specimens  not  very  abundant  and  would  probably 
escape  being  seen  if  it  were  not  for  the  ants  running  about  over 
the  infested  twigs.     Only  two  alate  forms  taken  in  a  half  day's 

search. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  General  color,  when  young,  light  brown  or  pink; 
later  they  become  covered  with  powder  except  a  thin  streak  do\ra  the  center 
of  the  back.  Along  each  side  of  the  abdomen  and  dorsally  placed  may  be 
found  a  row  of  black  dots,  one  to  each  segment.  The  first  and  largest  are 
found  on  the  prothoracic  segment,  the  others  growing  smaller  toward  the  end 
of  the  body.  Below  these  and  on  the  side  may  be  found  still  another  row  of 
dots.  As  the  aphids  grow  larger  the  spots  become  hidden  under  a  fine  white 
or  pinkish  pruinose  covering.  This  powder  with  the  browai  body  of  the  insect 
gives  a  decided  pinkish  appearance.  Other  stages  or  forms  are  dark  brown 
mottled  with  black. 

The  body  is  exceedingly  robust  and  globose.  The  antennae  reach  to  about 
the  second  pair  of  legs  and  both  legs  and  antennae  are  set  with  fine  short 
hairs.  The  third  and  foiu-th  antennal  segments  appear  to  be  without  sensoria; 
the  fifth  and  sixth  segments  bear  one  each.  The  nectaries  are  broad  and 
rounded  without  much  depth.     The  cauda  is  broadly  rounded. 

Measm-ements :  Length  of  body  3.55  mm. ;  width,  2  mm.  Length  of  anten- 
nal segments:  III,  0.44  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V,  0.22  mm.;  VI,  and  spur,  0.135 
mm.  Length  of  hind  tibia,  1.51  mm.;  length  of  huad  tarsus,  0.27  mm.;  hind 
metatarsus,  0.09  mm.;  length  of  beak,  1.74  mm. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  General  color:  head  nearly  black,  thorax  dark 
brown,  abdomen  light  brown  mottled  with  dark  brown  to  black  splotches, 
body  more  or  less  pruinose.  Antennae  and  legs  hght  at  the  base  and  dark 
toward  the  ends.  The  former  are  somewhat  stout  and  reach  to  the  base  of 
the  metathorax;  the  third  segment  bears  5  to  7  large  sensoria  (sometimes  less) ; 
the  fourth,  one  or  two;  and  the  fifth,  one  large  one  at  the  distal  end.  The 
wings  are  long  and  wide  with  the  median  vein  three  branched.  The  stigma  is 
long  and  narrow.  Beak  slender  and  sharp,  reaching  to  within  a  short  distance 
of  the  base  of  the  cauda.  Nectaries  broad,  cone-shaped  and  of  medium  thick- 
ness.    Cauda  broadly  rounded. 

Measurements:  Length  of  abdomen,  2.9  mm.;  width,  1.45  mm.  Length 
of  antennal  segments:  III,  0.4  mm.;  IV,  0.176  mm.;  V,  0.23  mm.;  VI  and  spur, 
0.154  mm.  Length  of  wing,  3.8mm.;  width,  1.3  mm.;  length  of  hind  tibia, 
1.9  mm.;  length  of  hind  tarsus,  0.242  mm.;  length  of  hind  metatarsus,  0.09 
mm.;  length  of  beak,  1.9  mm. 

Lachnus  parvus  new  species  (Plate  XI,  figs,  l.to  7.) 

Collected  at  Washington,  D.  C,  July  4,  September  15  and 
October  21,  1909.  This  species  is  quite  distinct  from  all  others 
collected  l)y  myself  in  the  vicinity  of  Washington  in  that  it  is 


H.    F.    WILSON  105 

covered  with  very  fine  waxy  threads,  and  was  found  in  rows 
along  the  needles  of  Pinus  virginiana  and  Pinus  rigida.  This 
species  was  taken  while  collecting  with  Prof.  C.  P.  Gillette,  who 
has  already  indicated  the  species  in  the  Journal  of  Economic 
Entomology,  II,  p.  385,  1909.  This  is  the  smallest  species  of  this 
group  known  to  me. 

General  color  beneath  the  waxy  threads,  browTiish  tinged  with  green.  These 
waxy  threads  are  also  spread  about  over  the  needles  causing  them  to  appear 
as  if  covered  with  a  bluish  powder.     No  other  color  notes  were  taken. 

Apterous  viviparous  female:  Body  more  robust  than  that  of  the  alate  form, 
antennae  reaching  to  the  third  pair  of  coxae  and  the  beak  reaching  to  the 
second  pair.  Beak  broad  and  blunt  at  the  tip.  Legs  and  antennae  with 
numerous  long  and  slender  hairs.  Third  and  fourth  antennal  segments  ap- 
parently without  sensoria,  fifth  and  sixth  segments  with  one  each.  Nectaries 
small  and  cone-shaped  with  a  sUght  inchnation  to  bell-shaped.  The  opening 
rather  large  for  the  base.     Cauda  bluntly  angled. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.7  mm.;  width,  0.84  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.32  mm.;  IV,  0.135  mm.;  V,  0.14  mm.;  VI  and  spur, 
0.12  mm.  Length  of  hind  tibia,  0.94  mm.;  length  of  hind  tarsus,  0.33  mm.; 
length  of  hind  metatarsus,  0.066  mm.     Length  of  beak,  0.44  mm. 

Alate  males  and  ovoviparous  females  taken  the  last  of  October. 

Alate  viviparous  female:  Body  elongate  and  slender,  antennae  and  legs 
medium  slender  and  thickly  covered  with  long  slender  hairs.  Antennae  rea(5h- 
ing  to  the  third  pair  of  coxae  and  the  beak  reaching  to  the  second  pair;  beak 
broad  and  blunt  at  the  tip.  The  third  antennal  segment  bears  about  eight 
small  sensoria;  the  fourth  two  and  the  fifth  a  single  large  one  near  the  distal 
end;  sixth  with  the  usual  large  one  near  the  base  of  the  antennal  spur.  Wings 
hyaline  and  the  median  vein  but  a  very  indistinct  single  piece  as  indicated  in 
the  accompanying  figure.  Nectaries  small  and  more  or  less  bell-shaped.  The 
opening  rather  large  for  the  base.     Cauda  bluntly  angled. 

Measurements:  Length  of  body,  1.48  mm.;  width,  0.6  mm.  Length  of 
antennal  segments:  III,  0.32  mm.;  IV,  0.154  mm.;  V,  0.176  mm.;  VI  and  spur 
0.154  mm.  Length  of  wing,  2.5  mm.;  length  of  hind  tibia,  0.92  mm.;  length  of 
hind  tarsus,  0.3  mm.;  length  of  hind  metatarsus,  0.066  mm.;  length  of  beak, 
0.49  mm. 

The  writer  is  making  an  attempt  to  prepare  a  contri})ution 
toward  a  monograph  of  the  Lachninae,  and  would  appreciate 
receiving  material  from  all  sections  of  the  world.  Specimens 
may  be  mounted  on  slides  but  specimens  in  70%  alcohol  are 
preferred.  In  either  case,  include  such  color  notes  as  are  obtain- 
able. If  specimens  are  sent  in  alcohol,  put  a  small  amount  of 
cotton  in  the  vial  and  push  down  until  the  material  is  held  firmly 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI, 


106  APHID    NOTES 

against  the  bottom;   otherwise   the  specimens   may   lose  their 
appendages.     Credit  will  be  given  in  all  cases. 

Note. — In  the  June,  1914,  number  of  the  Entomological  News, 
an  aphis  from  sugar  cane  was  described  as  new  by  myself.  Mr. 
T.  E.  HoUoway,  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Entomology,  should  have 
received  credit  for  collecting  the  specimens. 

EXPLANATION    OF    PLATES 

Plate  V 

Fig.  1. — Prociphilus  fraxini-dipelalae  Essig.  Antenna  and  wings  of  spring 
migrant  from  ash. 

Fig.  2.— Prociphilus  fraxini-dipelalae  Essig.  Antenna  and  wings  of  fall 
migrant  from  Douglas  fir. 

Plate  VI 

Microsiphum  canadensis  Williams,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1,  an- 
tenna; fig.  2,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  4,  nectary  (enlarged) ; 
fig.  5,  Cauda.  Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  3,  third  antennal  segment 
(much  enlarged) ;  fig.  6,  specialized  setae  on  frons;  figs.  7,  setae  on  body. 

Microsiphum  artemesiae  Gillette,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  8,  antenna; 
fig.  9,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged),  Colo,  specimens;  fig.  13,  do., 
Oregon  specimens;  fig.  11,  nectary;  fig.  12,  setae;  fig.  15,  frons;  fig.  16,  cauda. 
Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  10,  third  antennal  segment,  Colorado  speci- 
mens; fig.  14,  do.,  Oregon  specimens. 

Microsiphum  oregonensis  new  species  ?,  apterous  viviparous  female:  fig. 
17,  antenna;  fig.  18,  third  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  19,  two  views  of  body 
setae;  fig.  20,  frons;  fig.  21,  portion  of  abdomen  showing  nectaries  and  cau  a. 

Chaitophorus  tridentatae  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female :  fig.  22,  head 
with  antenna  and  a  diagrammatic  sketch  of  the  arrangement  of  the  special- 
ized setae;  fig.  23,  nectary;  fig.  24,  speciahzed  seta  (much  enlarged);  fig.  25, 
Cauda. 

Plate  VII 

Aphis  reticulata  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1,  antenna;  fig. 
2,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  5,  nectary;  fig.  6,  cauda.  Apte- 
rous viviparous  female:  fig.  3,  prothoracic  tubercle;  fig.  4,  nectary;  fig.  7, 
reticulations  on  body. 

Aphis  oregonensis  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  8,  antenna; 
fig.  9,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  10,  tubercles  on  abdomen 
between  cauda  and  nectaries;  fig.  12,  cauda;  fig.  14,  prothoracic  tubercle;  fig. 

16,  nectary.      Apterous  viviparous  female:    fig.  11,  abdominal  tubercles  be- 
tween cauda  and  nectaries;  fig.  13,  cauda;  fig.  15,  prothoracic  tubercle;  fig. 

17,  nectary. 


H.    F.    WILSON  107 

Aphis  hermistonii  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  18,  antenna; 
fig.  19,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  20,  prothoracic  tubercles; 
fig.  21,  nectary;  fig.  23,  cauda.  Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  22,  nectary; 
fig.  24,  Cauda;  fig.  25,  tubercles  along  the  side  of  the  abdomen. 

Aphis  tridentatae  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  26,  antenna; 
fig.  27,  speciahzed  seta;  fig.  28,  frons;  fig.  29,  cauda;  fig.  30,  nectary, 

Plate  VIII 

Macrosiphum  ludovidanae  Oestlund,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1, 
antenna;  fig.  2,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  4,  nectary;  fig.  5, 
cauda.  Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  3,  third  antennal  segment  (much 
enlarged) . 

Macrosiphum  artemesiae  Boyer,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  6,  antenna; 
fig.  7,  third  antennal  segment  much  enlarged  and  showing  specialized  setae; 
fig.  8,  nectary;  fig.  10,  cauda.  Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  9,  third  anten- 
nal segment  (much  enlarged). 

Macrosiphum  artemesicola  Williams,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  11, 
antenna;  fig.  12,  nectary;  fig.  13,  frons;  fig.  14,  speciahzed  setae;  fig.  15,  cauda. 

Aphis  artemesicola  Williams,  apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  16,  antenna; 
fig  17,  third  antennal  segment  (much  enlarged) ;  fig.  18,  nectary;  fig.  19,  cauda. 

Aphis  frigidae  Oestlund,  apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  20,  antenna; 
fig.  21,  nectary;  fig.  22,  frons;  fig.  23,  specialized  seta;  fig.  24,  cauda. 

Plate  IX 

Amphorophora  subterrans  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1, 
antenna;  fig.  2,  nectary;  fig.  4,  cauda.  Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  3, 
third  antennal  segment. 

Macrosiphum  menlzeliae  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  5, 
antenna;  fig.  6,  nectary;  fig.  8,  cauda;  fig.  9,  capitate  hair.  Apterous  vivi- 
parous female :  fig.  7,  third  antennal  segment. 

Aphis  lithospermi  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  10,  antenna; 
fig.  11,  nectary;  fig.  12,  cauda;  fig.  14,  abdominal  tubercles.  Apterous  vivi- 
parous female:  fig.  13,  nectary. 

Aphis  chrysothamnii  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  15,  antenna; 
fig.  16,  nectary;  fig.  17,  cauda.     Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  18,  nectary. 

Macrosiphum  pteridis  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig,  19a, 
antennae;  fig.  19b,  cauda;  fig.  19c,  nectary. 

Plate  X 

Lachnus  oregonensis  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1,  wing; 
fig.  2,  beak;  fig.  3,  hind  leg;  fig.  4,  nectary ;  fig.  5,  antenna;  fig.  7,  tip  of  abdomen; 
fig.  8,  prothoracic  segment.     Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  6,  antenna. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


108  APHID   NOTES 

Lachnus  laricifoliae  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  9,  wing; 
fig.  10,  beak;  fig.  11,  hind  leg;  fig.  12,  nectary;  fig.  14,  antenna.  Apterous 
viviparous  female:  fig.  13,  antenna. 

Plate  XI 

Lachnus  parvus  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  1,  wing;  fig.  2, 
hind  leg;  fig.  3,  antenna;  fig.  5,  nectary;  fig.  6,  cauda;  fig.  7,  beak.  Apterous 
viviparous  female:  fig.  4,  antenna. 

Lachnus  ruhicundus  new  species,  alate  viviparous  female:  fig.  8,  wing; 
fig.  9,  hind  leg;  fig.  10,  antenna;  fig.  12,  nectary;  fig.  13,  cauda;  fig.  14,  beak. 
Apterous  viviparous  female:  fig.  11,  antenna. 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Hoc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  V 


WILSON      APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am    Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  Vl. 


/AM. 


WILSON      APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  Vll 


~S3  17 C7 


WILSON      APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Sor.,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  VIII. 


:]  /ex  J  p 


WILSON      APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PL  IX. 


c 


WILSON— APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Sue,   \'ol.  XLl. 


PI.  X. 


WILSON'    APHIDIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  XI 


WILSON  — APH I DI  DAE 


J.    H.    MERRILL  109 

ON  SOME  GENERA  OF  THE  PIMPLINE 
ICHNEUMONIDAE 

by  j.  h.  merrill,  ph.d.  ^ 

Introduction 

This  paper  is  the  result  of  three  years'  work  done  at  the  Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural  College  as  a  partial  requirement  for  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy. 

I  wish  to  acknowledge  my  obligations  to  Dr.  H.  T.  Fernald, 
under  whose  direction  this  work  was  carried  on,  to  C.  H.  Fernald 
for  his  kindly  suggestions,  to  Dr.  G.  C.  Crampton  for  valuable 
advice  and  criticism,  to  W.  S.  Regan  for  the  valuable  assistance 
rendered  me  l)y  securing  specimens  for  study  from  the  museums 
at  Philadelphia,  Washington,  and  New  York,  and  making  notes 
on  the  comparisons  of  these  insects  with  their  types,  and  to  Dr. 
C.  Gordon  Hewitt  for  the  loan  of  a  large  number  of  specimens. 

Mr.  F.  A.  Johnston  began  work  on  this  group  and  had  brought 
together  copies  of  the  descriptions  of  nearly  all  the  insects  treated 
here,  when  he  accepted  a  position  with  the  Bureau  of  Entomology, 
and  the  subject  was  given  to  me  to  continue. 

Fourteen  species  and  four  genera  are  treated  here.  Of  these, 
one  genus  and  one  species  are  described  for  the  first  time.  Most 
of  the  other  North  American  species  are  redescribed,  wherever  it 
was  possible  to  obtain  specimens  from  which  to  make  the  descrip- 
tions. The  genus  Epirhyssa  has  been  abandoned,  as  it  did  not 
seem  to  have  enough  distinctive  generic  characteristics  to  sepa- 
rate it  from  Rhyssa.  A  new  genus  Pseudorhyssa  has  been  estab- 
lished. Its  transversely  wrinkled  mesonotum  places  it  within 
the  scope  of  the  genera  treated  here;  the  entire  sternal  plates 
of  its  abdomen,  however,  separate  it  from  the  other  genera. 
The  type  of  this  genus,  Pseurhrhyssa  sternata  is  here  described. 
The  description  of  Thalessa  histrio,  an  unlocated  species,  is  also 
included. 

Probably  the  largest  and  most  valuable  collection  in  this 
country  of  the  insects  treated  here  is  at  the  Academy  of  Natural 

'  Contribution  from  the  Entomological  Laboratorj'  of  the  Massachusetts 
Agricultural  College,  Amherst,  Mass. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,  XLI. 


110  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Sciences  in  Philadelphia.  Other  collections  from  which  material 
used  in  the  preparation  of  this  paper  was  borrowed,  were  those 
at  the  National  Museum  in  Washington,  the  American  Museum 
in  New  York,  the  Museum  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural 
History  in  Boston,  the  Children's  Museum  in  Brooklyn  and  the 
collection  of  the  Dominion  Entomologist  of  Canada.  The 
collections  at  the  Museum  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences 
of  Philadelphia  and  the  National  Museum  in  Washington  are 
especially  valuable,  in  that  a  number  of  type  specimens  are 
located  there. 

Historical 

Linnaeus  was  the  first  to  describe  insects  in  this  group.  From 
his  time  down  to  the  present,  there  have  been  numerous  workers, 
but  beyond  synoptic  tables  to  the  genera,  they  have  done 
nothing  except  to  describe  some  of  the  species. 

Holmgren-  called  the  genus  Megarhyssa,  Thalessa,  in  1859, 
but  Adams  had  used  this  name  in  1858  for  a  genus  of  mollusks. 
Ashmead^  proposed  the  name  Megarhyssa  on  account  of  the 
name  Thalessa  being  preoccupied  in  another  branch  of  zoology. 
Dalla  Torre  ^  places  "non  Adams  1858"  after  the  reference  to 
Ashmead;  this  should  have  been  placed  after  the  reference  to 
Holmgren. 

The  chief  workers  in  this  group  have  been  Linnaeus,  Fabricius, 
Kriechbaumer,  Cameron,  Cresson  and  Viereck.  Both  Cresson 
and  Kriechbaumer  not  only  described  and  named  several  new 
species  but  each  established  a  new  genus. 

In  the  Proceedings  of  the  United  States  National  Museum 
for  1901,  vol.  xxiii,  Ashmead  divides  the  sub-family  Pimplinae 
into  tribes  and  establishes  among  others  the  tribe  Pimplini. 
Up  to  this  point  his  synoptic  tables  may  be  made  use  of,  but 
when  it  is  desired  to  determine  the  genera  treated  here  it  will 
be  necessary  to  use  a  new  key,  because  other  generic  values 
have  been  given  to  some  characters,  while  the  value  of  others 
has  been  lessened.  The  62nd  fascicle  of  the  Genera  Insectorum 
uses  a  key  similar  to  the  one  used  by  Ashmead  and  the  same 
criticism  applies  to  it.     In  Cresson's  Synopsis  of  the  Ilymen- 

=  5fver.s.  Svensk.  Vet.-Akad.  Forh.,  xvi,  18.59,  p.  122. 
'  Canadian  Entomologist,  xxxii,  1900,  p.  3G8. 
■•  Catalof^us  Hymenoptororuni,  viii,  j).  479. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  111 

optera,  no  division  of  the  sub-family  is  attempted  but  the  key 
is  similar  to  the  two  preceding  ones  in  the  generic  characters  used. 
The  genus  Alegarhyssa  is  fairly  constant  in  both  color  and 
structural  characteristics,  while  the  genus  Rhyssa  exhibits  con- 
siderable variation  in  both.  For  that  reason  it  would  seem  unsafe 
to  describe  a  new  species  from  a  single  specimen  in  Rhyssa. 

External  Anatomy 

The  following  description  is  taken  mainly  from  Megarhyssa 
lunator.  Certain  modifications  have  been  made  to  describe 
such  differences  as  may  occur  in  different  species  of  the  group 
treated  here. 

Head 

The  head  is  hypognathous,  broader  than  long.  Its  general 
shape  when  viewed  from  in  front  is  rounded-triangular.  The 
compound  eyes  are  large,  extending  from  the  top  of  the  head  to 
the  clypeus.  They  are  broad,  together  constituting  one-half 
the  width  of  the  head  when  viewed  from  in  front  and  when  viewed 
from  the  side,  at  their  widest  part,  forming  a  little  more  than 
half  the  width  of  the  head.  The  inner  margins  of  the  compound 
eyes  are  slightly  emarginated  on  its  upper  third,  but  nearly 
form  two  parallel  lines  with  each  other.  The  posterior  margins 
are  entire.     The  eyes  are  naked. 

The  clypeus  occupies  the  lower  portion  of  the  front  of  the  head 
and  extends  up  to  the  lower  borders  of  the  compound  eyes. 
The  clypeus  is  narrow  and  elongated  transversely.  Laterally 
below  the  eyes  it  has  fused  with  the  cheeks.  There  is  an  impres- 
sion reaching  from  the  eyes  to  about  the  middle  of  the  mandibles 
which  suggests  that  it  was  a  suture  marking  the  division  between 
the  clypeus  and  the  cheeks.  If  this  is  true,  then  the  clypeus 
and  cheeks  together  form  the  basal  support  of  the  mandibles. 
The  lower  border  of  the  clypeus  between  the  mandibles  varies 
in  outline,  in  different  genera,  from  concave  to  convex.  This 
fact  is  made  use  of  in  the  determination  of  genera. 

The  frons,  vertex,  occiput  and  upper  ends  of  the  genae  are 
fused,  but  the  occiput  and  genae  are  fused  dorsally,  while  later- 
ally they  are  separated  by  a  suture,  and  ventrally  by  a  ridge. 
The  occiput  may  be  considered  as  that  portion  of  the  back  of 
the  head  which  is  nearly  vertical.  It  is  concave  from  side  to 
side,  and  the  prothorax  attaches  at  about  its  center. 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


112  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

The  lack  of  definite  sutures  separating  the  plates  of  the  head, 
necessitates  the  establishment  of  artificial  boundaries.  The 
vertex  will  be  considered  as  extending  from  a  line  drawn  through 
the  posterior  ocelli,  back  to  a  line  from  the  ends  of  the  sutures 
separating  the  genae  from  the  occiput.  The  lateral  limits  of 
the  vertex  can  be  definitely  fixed,  but  will  be  considered  as 
extending  to  the  compound  eyes. 

The  portion  of  the  head  behind  the  compound  eyes,  extending 
from  the  vertex  to  the  clypeus  and  back  to  the  occiput,  will 
be  considered  as  the  genae.  The  greatest  width  of  the  genae 
is  at  the  lower  border  of  the  compound  eyes.  They  gradually 
become  narrower  towards  the  top  of  the  head. 

The  labrum  is  attached  to  the  clypeus  between  the  front 
borders  of  the  mandibles.  Being  attached  to  the  lower  and 
inner  side  of  the  clypeus,  it  leaves  the  anterior  borders  of  the 
latter  clearly  defined.  The  labrum  bears  a  thick  row  of  long 
spines  on  its  outer  edge. 

The  mandibles  are  situated  on  either  side  of  the  labrum. 
They  are  broad  at  the  base,  taper  gradually  toward  the  apex 
and  the  tip  is  slightly  incurved.  They  have  two  teeth,  the 
anterior  one  being  blunt,  while  the  posterior  one  is  produced 
to  a  point.  The  maxillae  lie  behind  the  mandibles  and  each 
has  a  five-segmented  palpus.  The  labium  is  so  well  concealed 
by  the  maxillae  that  it  was  impossible  to  separate  it  for  careful 
study  in  the  time  at  my  disposal. 

The  antennae  are  filiform,  long,  slender  and  composed  of  about 
forty  segments.  They  are  covered  by  a  large  number  of  minute 
spines.  The  main  portion  of  the  scape  is  bluntly  spindle-shaped 
when  viewed  from  the  mid  line  of  the  body,  or  from  somewhat 
below  the  point  of  attachment.  From  this  angle,  the  fact  that 
the  upper,  outer  side  of  this  spindle  has  quite  a  deep,  oval  exca- 
vation from  which  the  pedicel  arises,  is  not  perceptible.  At 
its  widest  part,  the  scape  is  about  twice  as  wide  as  the  other 
segments.  The  bulb  below  the  constriction  enlarges  so  that 
its  outline  is  triangular.  The  first  segment  of  the  antenna  is 
globular  and  very  much  differentiated  from  the  others.  It  is 
broader  than  long  and  about  one-fifth  the  length  of  the  second 
segment.  The  remaining  segments  are  cylindrical  and  a  gradual 
decrease  in  size  appears  on  the  outer  half  of  the  antenna.     The 


J.    H.    MERRILL  113 

last  segment  is  nearly  twice  as  long  as  the  preceding  segment 
and  narrows  rather  suddenly  towards  the  tip. 

Thorax 

The  prothorax  consists  of  four  visible  plates;  the  notum,  two 
episterna,  and  a  sternum.  Each  episternum  (Eps.i)  at  its  an- 
terior end,  articulates  with  the  head  by  a  hooked  process  which 
is  the  remains  of  the  cervical  sclerite.  The  episterna  are  sepa- 
rated ventrally  by  a  median  longitudinal  suture.  At  the  point 
of  articulation  with  the  head,  each  is  quite  slender,  Imt  posteriorly 
it  enlarges  and  flattens  out  into  a  lobe  which  passes  downward 
and  backward  below  the  pronotum  and  articulates  at  its  posterior 
end  with  the  procoxa  (Cx.i)  of  an  anterior  leg.  As  in  most 
Hymenoptera,  the  episternum  constitutes  the  greater  part  of 
the  pleural  portion  of  the  prothorax,  the  epimeron  being  reduced 
to  a  strip  so  narrow  that  it  is  almost  negligible,  on  the  posterior 
border  of  the  episternum  and  is  hidden  under  the  pronotum. 

The  pronotum  (N.i)  is  very  broad  laterally,  its  anterior  face, 
being  narrowed,  forms  a  connection  between  the  lateral  plates. 
The  sides  are  highly  polished.  The  pronotum  reaches  the  base 
of  the  tegulae  (Tg.)  and  is  produced  downward  to  the  episternum, 
coxae  and  sternum  ventrally.  The  pronotal  lobe  (Pnl.)  is  dis- 
tinct, though  small,  forming  a  peritremal  sclerite  overlapping 
the  first  thoracic  spiracle  (Tsp.).  The  sternum  is  overlapped 
and  largely  concealed  by  the  approximated  lobes  of  the  episterna. 

In  the  mesonotum,  the  prescutum,  scutum  and  scutellum  are 
plainly  distinguishable.  The  postscutellum  is  small  and  for 
the  most  part  is  a  phragma  or  internal  process. 

Near  the  upper,  posterior  corner  of  the  pronotum,  on  each 
side  and  just  below  the  anterior  end  of  the  attachment  of  the 
fore  wing  to  the  body  is  the  first  thoracic  spiracle  (Tsp.). 

The  prescutum  (Psc.2)  is  a  triangular  shaped  plate,  above  the 
pronotum  and  separated  from  the  scutum  by  two  sutures  which 
posteriorly  converge  and  become  transformed  into  flattened 
grooves.  The  front  portion  of  the  prescutum  is  nearty  vertical 
and  forms  almost  a  right  angle  with  its  hinder  portion,  when 
viewed  from  the  side. 

Medially,  the  scutum  (Set. 2)  extends  to  the  raised  median 
portion   of  the   scutellum.     Posteriorly   the   scutum   is  sunken 

TKANS.    AM.    ENl,    SOC,    XLI. 


114  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

between  the  lateral  plates  of  the  scutellum  (Scl.2),  so  that  its 
lateral  margins  are  concealed.  Both  the  prescutum  and  scutum 
are  transversely  rugose.  The  lateral  margin  of  the  prescutum 
is  deflexed.  The  anterior  portion  of  this  deflexed  margin  is 
overlapped  by  the  dorsal  border  of  the  pronotum.  From  the 
top  of  the  pronotal  lobe,  just  above  the  first  thoracic  spiracle, 
is  a  ridge  extending  to  the  anterior  corner  of  the  lateral  lobe 
of  the  scutellum,  behind  which  point,  the  margin  of  the  scutum 
is  concealed  by  this  lobe,  as  already  stated.  Below  and  behind 
this  ridge,  the  scutum  bends  abruptly  and  is  somewhat  hollowed, 
the  lower  margin  of  this  portion  of  the  plate  extending  backward 
until  opposite  the  front  end  of  the  lateral  lobe  of  the  scutellum. 
The  margin  now  turns  upward  and  forms  a  suture  with  the  front 
margin  of  the  lateral  lobe  of  the  scutellum. 

The  scutellum  (Scl.2)  consists  of  a  median  raised  portion  and 
two  deflexed  regions.  From  the  front  of  the  median  portion  of 
the  scutellum  a  ridge  runs  downward  on  the  side  of  the  body 
toward  the  lower,  hinder  angle  of  the  plate,  and  may  be  considered 
as  marking  the  line  between  the  median  portion  and  the  lateral 
lobe.  The  lateral  lobe,  as  thus  indicated,  is  approximately 
rectangular,  its  lower,  hinder  angle  being  somewhat  drawn  out 
and  its  lower  border  somewhat  emarginated.  The  hinder  margin 
of  the  median  portion  of  the  scutellum  is  practically  a  straight 
line,  running  obliquely  backward  on  either  side. 

The  fore  wing  has  a  much  elongated  attachment  to  the  body, 
its  humeral  angle  appearing  just  behind  the  pronotal  lobe,  and 
its  internal  margin  near  the  lower,  posterior  corner  of  the  lateral 
lobe  of  the  scutellum.  Beneath  this  wing  attachment  lies  the 
upper  margin  of  the  mesoepisternum  (Eps.2). 

The  tegula  (Tg.)  which  lies  over  the  anterior  portion  of  the 
base  of  the  wing  is  a  small  chitinous  plate,  which  appears  to  be 
attached  medially  to  the  front  end  of  the  hollowed  portion  of  the 
scutum,  just  below  the  front  edge  of  the  ridge  already  described. 
Its  real  attachment  and  relation  to  the  wing  are  considered  under 
a  separate  heading  elsewhere  in  this  paper.  Two  tiny  basal  wing 
sclerites  lie  beneath  the  costal  and  anal  regions  of  the  wing. 

As  in  the  prothorax,  the  episternum  (Eps.2)  constitutes  the 
greater  part  of  the  pleural  region.  It  is  fused  with  the  sternum 
(S.)  which  has  a  narrow,  deep,  mid-ventral  groove  extending 


J.    H.    MERRILL  115 

longitudinally  throughout  its  whole  length.  On  the  cpisternuni, 
a  short  distance  behind  its  front  margin,  is  a  nearly  vertical 
suture  extending  about  half  way  up  to  the  dorsal  margin  of  the 
plate,  crossing  it  beneath  and  continuous  with  the  corresponding 
suture  of  the  other  side,  separating  the  lower,  anterior  portion  of 
each  episternum  from  the  remainder.  This  portion  is  called  the 
prepectus  (Ppct.o).  The  epimeron  (Epm.2)  is  a  narrow  band 
separated  from  the  episternum  by  a  suture  extending  in  a  straight 
line  from  the  hinder  base  of  the  fore  wing  downward  and  back- 
ward to  the  mesocoxa  (Cx.2).  The  sternal  area  is  flat  beneath, 
punctured  and  sometimes  striated. 

The  distinguishable  plates  of  the  metanotum  are  the  scutum, 
scutellum  and  postscutellum.  The  region  here  called  metanotum 
is  the  one  which  has  been  usually  termed  the  postscutellum  of 
the  mesothorax  by  the  systematists.  The  metascutum  (Sct.2) 
lies  immediately  behind  the  scutellum  of  the  mesothorax.  Its 
narrow  dorsal  surface  is  sunken  below  the  surfaces  of  both  the 
mesoscutellum  and  the  metascutellum.  Laterally  it  consists  of 
two  deflexed  regions.  The  hind  wings  are  dorsally  attached 
by  a  membrane,  to  the  scutum,  and  behind  and  below  are  simi- 
larly attached  by  a  forward  projecting  process  of  the  metapleuron. 
In  the  anal  and  humeral  angles  are  borne  the  small,  sub-alar 
basal  wing  sclerites.  The  scutellum  (Scl.3)  consists  of  a  raised 
median  portion.  Immediately  posterior  to  the  scutellum  lies 
the  postscutellum  (Pscl.3)  which  is  a  sunken,  narrow,  transverse 
bank-like  region  fusing  laterally  with  the  metaepimeron. 

The  pleurum  consists  of  an  episternal  and  epimeral  region, 
of  which  the  former  is  much  the  larger.  That  portion  of  the 
pleurum  which  is  fused  with  the  metapostscutellum  is  epimeral 
(Epm.3).  The  suture  which  separates  the  epimeron  from  the 
first  abdominal  segment  becomes  lost  for  most  of  the  distance 
along  the  ventral  margin  of  the  latter  segment,  reappearing 
again  for  a  short  distance  at  its  hinder,  ventral  portion.  The 
main  part  of  the  episternum  (Eps.3)  lies  beneath  the  metae- 
pimeron and  its  hinder  margin  articulates  with  the  metacoxa 
(Cx.3).  The  upper,  anterior  corner  is  prolonged  into  a  narrow 
bank-like  region  lying  betwecni  the  mesoepimeron  and  the  fused 
metapostscutellum,  and  metaepimei-on.  It  is  separated  from 
each  by  sutures.     The  pleura  are  fused  with  the  sternum  which 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


116  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

is  marked  by  a  longitudinal  mid-ventral  groove,  as  in  the  meso- 
thorax,  and  is  continuous  with  it. 

Wings 

The  wings  are  long  and  narrow,  quite  large,  usually  hyaline* 
marked  more  or  less  with  dark  spots.  In  some  species  the  wings 
are  entirely  cloudy.  The  fore  and  hind  wings  are  connected 
when  in  flight,  by  a  row  of  frenal  hooks  on  the  hind  wing  hooking 
into  the  frenal  fold  of  the  front  wing. 

In  describing  the  veins  and  cells,  the  terminology  used  by 
Cresson  in  his  "Synopsis  of  the  Hymenoptera  of  North  America," 
will  be  followed  here. 

In  the  fore  wing,  the  costal  and  subcostal  veins  are  blended, 
therefore  the  costal  cell  is  absent.  They  extend  to  a  point  a 
little  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing,  where  there  is  a  slight 
notch  in  the  costa.  From  this  notch,  to  a  point  about  half 
way  from  it  to  the  apex,  is  a  thickened,  darker  strip  which  may 
be  regarded  as  the  stigma.  Behind  the  blended  costa  and  sub- 
costa,  lie  the  externo-medial  and  anal  nervures.  The  externo- 
medial  nervure  at  its  outer  end,  meets  the  basal  nerve  obliquely; 
this  basal  nervure  joins  the  subcosta  at  a  point  a  little  before  the 
stigma.  The  cell  outlined  by  these  nervures  is  called  the  sub- 
median  or  interno-medial  cell.  The  anal  nervure  lies  behind 
the  externo-medial  nervure  and  extends  outward  until  it  joins 
the  anal  margin  at  a  point  nearly  two-thirds  the  length  of  the 
wing  from  the  base.  At  the  junction  of  the  basal  nervure  with 
the  externo-medial  nervure,  the  transverse-medial  nervure 
extends  at  nearly  a  right  angle  with  the  latter,  to  the  anal  nerv- 
ure; thus  outlining  the  sub-median  or  interno-medial  cell. 
Behind  the  anal  vein  and  in  front  of  the  anal  margin  lies  the 
long,  narrow,  anal  cell.  The  marginal  or  radial  nervure  appar- 
ently arises  from  the  hinder  edge  of  the  stigma  and  extends 
toward  the  apex,  but  before  reaching  it,  turns  forward  to  the 
front  margin,  thus  enclosing  the  marginal  or  radial  cell.  The 
cliscoidal  nervure  extends  from  the  junction  of  the  externo- 
medial,  basal,  and  transverse-medial  nervures,  outward  until 
it  joins  the  cubital  nervure,  where  it  bends  abruptly  backward 
and  joins  the  anal  nervure  just  before  the  latter  reaches  the  anal 
margin.     The  cell  outlined   by  the   transverse-medial   nervure 


J.    H.    MERRILL  117 

on  its  inner  margin,  the  discoidal  nervure  on  its  front  and  outer 
margins,  and  the  anal  nervure  on  its  hinder  margin,  is  the  second 
discoidal  cell.  The  cubital  nervure  extends  outward  from  the 
point  where  the  discoidal  nervure  bends  abruptly  backward,  and 
becomes  lost  a  short  distance  before  the  outer  margin.  About 
the  middle  of  the  marginal  nervure  arises  a  cross  nervure  which 
passes  backward  and  joins  the  cubital  at  about  its  middle.  This 
nervure  has  been  termed  the  first  transverse  cubital,  and  forms 
the  outer  margin  of  the  very  large,  somewhat  triangular  cell 
lying  behind  the  base  of  the  stigma,  called  the  cubito-discoidal 
cell.  A  short  stump  of  a  nervure  projecting  from  the  cubital 
into  the  cubito-discoidal  cell  is  called  by  Cresson  an  ''abbreviated 
cubital  nervure."  The  real  significance  of  this  nervure  will  be 
discussed  later.  A  short  distance  external  to  the  first  transverse 
cubital  is  another  cross  nervure,  the  second  transverse  cubital. 
The  relation  of  these  two  nervures  differs  greatly,  their  anterior 
ends  may  be  close  together  on  the  marginal  nervure,  while  their 
posterior  ends  are  some  distance  apart.  These  nervures  enclose 
the  areolet  or  second  submarginal  cell.  In  some  cases,  the  anterior 
ends  of  the  two  transverse-cubital  nervures  are  united  for  about 
half  their  length.  In  this  case,  the  areolet  is  said  to  be  petio- 
lated.  Occasionally,  the  second  transverse  cubital  is  lost  or 
reduced  to  an  abbreviated  stub,  in  which  case,  the  areolet  is 
absent.  The  presence  or  absence  of  an  areolet  which  has  here- 
tofore been  used  as  a  generic  character,  is  not  even  a  specific 
one,  as  both  conditions  have  been  found  to  occur  in  the  same 
species. 

The  second  transverse  cubital  nervure  forms  the  inner  margin 
of  the  third  submarginal  cell  which  extends  outward  to  the  outer 
margin  of  the  wing.  Its  front  border  is  formed  by  the  outer 
half  of  the  marginal  or  radial  nervure,  and  its  hinder  border 
by  the  outer  portion  of  the  cubital  nervures.  Between  the 
cubital  nervure  and  the  internal  margin  of  the  wing,  extending 
nearly  to  the  outer  margin  from  about  the  middle  of  the  back- 
wardly  turned  portion  of  the  discoidal  nervure,  is  the  subdiscoidal 
nervure.  That  portion  of  the  discoidal  nervure  between  the 
cubital  and  subdiscoidal  nervures  is  the  first  recurrent  nervure, 
according  to  Cresson,  though  here  described  as  part  of  the  dis- 
coidal.    The  second  recurrent  is  a  somewhat  curved  nervure 

TRANS.    AM,   ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


lis  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

extending  backward  from  the  middle  of  the  areolet  to  near 
the  outer  end  of  the  subdiscoidal.  The  recurrent  nervures 
form  the  inner  and  outer  margin  of  the  third  discoidal  cell,  with 
the  cubital  forming  its  front  and  the  subdiscoidal  joining 
its  hinder  borders.  The  subdiscoidal  nervure  forms  the  front 
margin  of  the  first  apical  cell,  while  its  inner  margin  is  formed 
by  the  outer  part  of  the  discoidal  nervure  and  behind  it  is  bounded 
by  a  small  portion  of  the  anal  nervure,  the  outer  part  of  the 
internal  margin,  the  anal  angle  and  the  hinder  portion  of  the 
outer  margin  of  the  wing.  Between  the  cubital  and  subdiscoidal 
nervures  and  extending  from  the  second  recurrent  nervure  to 
the  outer  margin,  lies  the  second  apical  cell.  The  frenal  fold 
is  near  the  outer  end  of  the  anal  cell. 

The  writer  is  inclined  to  agree  with  Snodgrass^  in  his  inter- 
pretation of  the  venation  of  an  Ichneumonid  wing,  as  indicated 
by  his  Figure  76,  rather  than  with  that  used  by  Cresson.^ 

The  two  systems  agree  in  the  main,  the  points  of  disagreement 
being  the  discoidal  and  first  recurrent  nervures.  According  to 
the  system  used  by  Cresson,  the  first  recurrent  nervure  (1.)  sep- 
arates the  two  parts  of  the  discoidal  nervure  (j.). 

In  the  fore  wing  of  Mellinus  which  Cresson  ^  uses  as  a  typical 
Hymenopteron  wing,  the  two  recurrent  nervures  are  very  distinct 
and  there  can  be  no  question  raised  as  to  their  identity.  Here, 
the  first  recurrent  nervure  extends  from  the  discoidal  nervure 
(j.)  to  the  cubital  nervure  (k.).  In  the  fore  wing  of  Megarhyssa 
lunator,  the  cubital  nervure  at  its  anterior  end  is  but  an  abbre- 
viated stump.  According  to  Snodgrass,  the  vein  from  (j.)  to 
(k.)  forms  the  first  recurrent  nervure  (No.  16,  fig.  76).  This  agrees 
with  the  condition  found  in  Mellinus  and  seems  to  be  a  more 
plausible  explanation  than  calling  it  part  of  the  discoidal  nervure 
(1.)  with  parts  of  the  latter  on  either  side  of  it  (j.).  If  Snod- 
grass's  interpretation  is  accepted,  then  the  discoidal  nervure 
remains  as  such  from  beginning  to  end. 

In  Mellinus  the  first  transverse  cubital  nervure  extends  for- 
ward from  the  point  where  the  first  recurrent  nervure  joins  the 
cubital,  to  the  marginal  or  radial  nervure,  but  in  the  fore  wing 

5  'Thorax  of  Hymenoptera,'  1910,  pi.  G,  fig.  76. 

^  Synopsis  of  the  Hymenoptera  of  North  America,  p.  38,  fig.  9. 

^  Synopsis  of  the  Hymenoptera  of  North  America,  p.  5,  fig.  4. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  119 

of  Megarhyssa  lunator,  the  transverse  cubital  nervure  is  lost. 
As  a  result  of  this,  the  so-called  cubito-discoidal  cell  includes 
not  only  the  first,  but  the  second  cubital  cell,  and  the  cells  spoken 
of  by  Cresson  as  the  second  and  third  cubital  cells  are  in  reality 
the  third  and  fourth  cubital  cells.  The  nervures  (f.)  and  (g.) 
though  called  the  first  and  second  transverse  cubitals  are  actually 
the  second  and  third. 

In  the  hind  wing  the  nervures  and  cells  are  fewer  in  number 
than  in  the  fore  wing.  The  subcostal  nervure  runs  outward 
from  the  base  of  the  wing  for  nearly  two-thirds  the  length  of 
the  latter,  joining  the  costa  at  a  small  notch  in  the  costal  margin. 
From  this  point  the  radial  or  marginal  nervure  passes  obliquely 
outward  and  backward  to  the  outer  margin  some  little  distance 
behind  the  apex.  Behind  the  subcostal  lies  the  externo-medial 
nervure,  which  passes  outward,  gradually  diverging  from  the 
former  till  intersected  by  two  cross  nervures.  Bej'ond  the  inter- 
section it  continues  to  the  hinder  margin,  this  portion  being 
termed  the  discoidal  nervure.  Behind  the  externo-medial 
nervure  is  a  third  longitudinal  nervure  w^hich  extends  from  the 
base  of  the  wing  to  its  hinder  margin,  which  it  reaches  a  short 
distance  before  the  middle  of  the  margin.  The  externo-medial 
nervure  is  intersected  in  front  by  the  cubital  nervure,  the  two 
uniting  at  nearly  right  angles.  The  latter  abruptly  turns  out- 
ward, however,  and  gradually  backward  and  reaches  the  hinder 
margin  of  the  wing  about  half  w^ay  between  the  ends  of  the  dis- 
coidal and  marginal  nervures.  At  about  its  middle,  it  is  joined 
by  the  hinder  end  of  the  transverse  cubital  nervure  which  passes 
forward,  then  outward,  then  forward  and  unites  with  the  mar- 
ginal nervure  near  its  middle.  From  the  point  of  intersection 
of  the  externo-medial  and  cubital  nervures  the  transverse  medial 
originates,  extending  backward  and  inward  and  joins  the  anal 
nervure  a  short  distance  before  the  latter  reaches  the  wing 
margin. 

The  cell  lying  between  the  costa  and  the  subcostal  nervure  is 
known  as  the  costal  cell:  that  in  front  of  the  marginal  or  radial 
nervure,  as  the  marginal  or  radial  cell :  that  bounded  in  front  by 
the  costal  and  part  of  the  radial  nervures,  behind  by  the  externo- 
medial  and  the  inner  part  of  the  cubital  nervures,  and  externally 
by  the  transverse  cubital  nervure — the  largest  cell  of  the  wing — 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


120  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

is  the  median  ceU.  Between  the  outer  parts  of  the  marginal  and 
cubital  nervures,  external  to  the  transverse  cubital  nervure  is 
the  submarginal  or  cubital  cell.  Behind  this,  between  the 
cubital  and  discoidal  nervures  lies  the  first  discoidal  cell.  Be- 
tween the  externo-medial  and  anal  nervures  and  extending  from 
the  base  of  the  wing  to  the  transverse  medial  nervure,  lies  the 
submedian  cell,  external  to  which  and  separated  from  it  by  the 
transverse  medial  nervure  lies  the  second  discoidal  cell.  The 
area  behind  the  anal  nervure  is  known  as  the  anal  cell. 

Legs 

The  legs  are  long  and  slender,  the  coxa  being  the  stoutest 
part  of  each  leg.  The  coxae,  trochanters,  femora  and  tibiae, 
which  are  clothed  with  minute  hairs  or  spines,  are  sometimes 
almost  pubescent.  At  the  outer  end  of  each  tibia  are  two  long 
spines  of  unequal  length,  on  the  sides  towards  the  body.  The 
tarsi  are  covered  with  short  spines  becoming  longer  at  the  end 
of  each  segment. 

On  the  fore  legs,  the  coxae  are  large,  but  are  the  shortest  ones 
of  the  three  sets.  Each  is  sub-conical  in  form,  with  the  tro- 
chanter articulating  at  its  apex.  The  trochanter  is  well  devel- 
oped and  composed  of  two  segments,  the  first  being  the  larger. 
Its  base  is  cylindrical,  but  at  the  tip  of  the  second  section  where 
it  articulates  with  the  femur  it  is  flattened. 

The  fore  femur  is  the  shortest  of  any.  At  its  articulation  with 
the  trochanter,  it  is  flattened  and  for  a  short  distance  it  decreases 
in  width.  It  then  begins  to  widen  and  thicken,  becoming  sub- 
cylindrical  just  before  articulating  with  the  tibia. 

The  fore  tibia  is  the  only  one  which  is  shorter  than  its  femur. 
It  is  narrow  and  cylindrical  at  its  base  of  articulation,  but 
gradually  increases  in  size  to  its  outer  end.  Its  outer  side  is 
clothed  with  short  spines. 

The  tarsus  is  composed  of  five  segments,  all  of  which  are 
cylindrical  and  slightly  enlarged  at  their  outer  ends.  They 
decrease  in  length  from  the  tibia  outward  to  the  fifth  segment 
which  is  slightly  longer  than  the  fourth.  On  that  portion  of 
the  tarsus  overlapped  by  the  tibial  spurs  is  a  raised  area,  which 
together  with  the  latter,  forms  a  cleaning  apparatus.  The 
longest  spines  of  the  tarsus  are  found  at  the  tip  of  the  fourth 


J.    H.    MERRILL  121 

segment.  At  the  tip  of  the  fifth  is  a  pair  of  strong,  well-developed, 
incurved  claws,  between  which  is  a  large  pulvillus. 

The  middle  coxa  is  larger  than  the  fore  coxa  and  is  more  cylin- 
drical than  conical.  The  middle  femur  is  straighter  and  longer 
than  the  foi'e  femur.  At  its  base  it  is  narrow,  but  soon  broadens 
out  and  remains  the  same  width  for  the  rest  of  its  length.  The 
middle  tibia  is  longer  than  the  fore  tibia  and  also  longer  than 
the  middle  femur.  In  all  other  respects  the  middle  leg  is  like 
the  fore  leg. 

The  hind  legs  are  the  longest  and  in  all  respects  they  resemble 
the  middle  legs  rather  than  the  fore  legs. 

.4  bdomen 

The  abdomen  consists  of  nine  visible  segments.  It  is  depressed 
behind  the  propodeum  but  towards  the  end  is  mostly  compressed. 
It  has  lateral  impressed  lines  on  segments  three  to  six,  which 
converge  toward  the  middle  of  the  base.  The  abdomen  is  some- 
times finely,  transversely-  aciculated.  The  dorsal  portion  is 
coriaceous. 

The  first  segment  of  the  abdomen  is  the  median  segment  or 
propodeum,  and  has  often  been  considered  to  be  part  of  the 
metathorax.  Anteriorly  it  articulates  with  the  metapostscu- 
tellum  and  the  metaepimeron.  The  latter  extends  along  its 
lower  border.  The  sternum  of  this  segment  is  either  lost  or 
has  fused  with  the  metasternum.  The  pleural  elements  have 
fused  with  the  notum  forming  a  single  continuous  plate.  It  is 
usually  smooth,  but  in  some  cases  has  a  channeled  groove  along 
its  mid-dorsal  line  and  may  even  be  areolated.  The  presence 
or  absence  of  these  areolations  is  used  for  generic  distinction. 
On  either  side  it  bears  a  large  spiracle,  these  forming  the  largest 
spiracles  found  in  the  abdomen. 

The  actual  second  segment,  usually  rated  as  the  first  by  sys- 
tematists,  is  constricted  at  its  base,  joining  the  true  first  segment 
or  propodeum  as  by  a  stem.  Its  attachment  is  such  that  it  is 
enabled  to  articulate  freely.  Here  as  in  all  the  rest  of  the  seg- 
ments, the  pleura  are  fused  with  the  notum.  It  is  straight,  with 
its  spiracles  placed  before  the  middle  and  closer  to  each  other 
than  to  the  apical  margin.  These  facts  are  made  use  of  in 
classifying  to  the  tribe.     At  the  base  of  this  segment,  the  fused 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


122  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

notum  and  pleura  become  fused  with  the  sternum  for  a  greater 
or  lesser  distance.  The  amount  of  this  fusion  is  used  in  classi- 
fication to  species,  and  the  presence  or  absence  of  it  is  made  use 
of  for  generic  distinction.  The  sternum  is  divided  into  an  anterior 
and  a  posterior  portion  by  a  transverse  groove.  The  latter 
portion  is  again  divided  into  two  parts  by  a  longitudinal  mid- 
ventral  groove. 

Considerable  variation  from  the  typical  form  in  regard  to  the 
construction  of  the  sternal  plate  has  been  found.  A  large  part, 
often  as  much  as  half  of  the  posterior  portions  of  this  plate  may 
be  membranous  in  place  of  being  mainly  composed  of  chitin, 
as  is  the  case  in  some  species.  It  is  impossible  to  determine 
whether  this  characteristic  is  the  primitive  condition  or  is  a 
degeneration,  though  the  weight  of  evidence  would  point  towards 
the  latter,  as  the  few  species  possessing  this  modification  are  in 
other  respects  the  most  highly  developed  of  this  group. 

The  third  segment,  like  the  second,  is  truncate  at  its  apex, 
while  the  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth  segments  are  prolonged  laterally 
at  the  apex.  There  is  a  gradual  increase  in  size  in  these  segments, 
otherwise  their  structures  closely  resemble  each  other.  In  each, 
the  notum  and  pleura  are  fused,  but  the  sternum  is  a  separate 
plate.  On  the  pleura  are  laterally  impressed  lines  converging 
toward  the  base.  The  sternal  plates  of  these  segments  are 
separated  by  a  mid-ventral  longitudinal  groove.  On  eithej*  side 
of  this  groove  is  a  small  projection,  the  tips  of  which  point  toward 
each  other.  The  size  and  position  of  these  projections  vary  in 
different  genera.     This  character  is  used  for  generic  classification. 

In  the  female  the  last  three  segments  of  the  abdomen  are 
highly  specialized.  Ventrally  they  are  plow-share  shaped. 
The  seventh  is  the  deepest  segment  of  the  abdomen.  Its  ventral 
plate,  however,  is  very  small.  Between  the  dorsal  portions  of 
the  seventh  and  eighth  segments  is  the  membrane  used  by  the 
female  for  coiling  up  the  ovipositor,  before  thrusting  it  into  the 
tree  in  which  she  desires  to  oviposit.  The  ovipositor  becomes 
external  on  the  ventral  side  between  the  seventh  and  eighth 
segments.  It  is  long  and  slender,  varying  in  length;  in  some 
species  attaining  a  length  of  five  or  six  inches  and  is  always 
longer  than  the  body  of  the  insect.  It  is  composed  of  three 
lateral  sections  which  interlock.     The  ventral  plates  of  the  eighth 


J.    H.    MERRILL  123 

and  ninth  segments  are  for  the  most  part  membranous.  The 
base  of  the  sheaths  of  the  ovipositor  arises  in  these  ventral 
plates  and  extends  thus  nearly  to  the  apex  of  the  abdomen. 
Near  the  apex  comes  a  decided  break  where  the  sheaths  proper 
are  articulated.  These  are  long  and  slender,  equalling  the  ovi- 
positor in  length.  They  are  concaved  inwardly  and  convex 
with  ridged  rings  outwardly.  The  nota  of  the  eighth  and  ninth 
segments  are  small,  but  their  pleura  extend  backward  and  are 
overlapped  and  partially  concealed  by  those  of  the  seventh 
segment.  On  the  apex  of  the  ninth  segment  is  a  small,  blunt, 
rod-like  projection,  and  beneath  on  either  side  of  the  groove 
which  receives  the  sheaths  is  a  small  cercus.  Both  of  these 
parts  are  probably  tactile  in  their  nature. 

Sex  Distinction 

The  presence  or  absence  of  the  ovipositor  anil  its  sheaths  is 
the  most  readily  noticed  sex  distinction,  but  there  are  others 
not  so  easily  noticed.  The  sternal  plates  of  the  female  are  longi- 
tudinally divided  and  the  small  projections  described  above 
are  usually  present,  while  in  the  males,  the  sternal  plates  are 
entire  and  the  projections  are  absent.  The  abdomen  of  the 
female  increases  in  size  towards  its  apex  while  that  of  the  male 
is  long,  slender,  and  approximately  of  the  same  width  throughout. 
The  small  rod-like  projections  on  the  ninth  segment  of  the  female 
are,  of  course,  lacking  in  the  male,  their  positions  being  occupied 
by  the  male  external  genital  organ.  The  ventral  cerci  of  the 
female  are  absent  in  the  male  but  the  male  has  a  pair  of  small 
cerci  on  the  dorsal  apex  of  the  eighth  segment  which  are  not 
found  in  the  female. 

Classification 

Tribe  Pimplini 

Ashmead,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.,  iii,  p.  278,  (1895). 
Schmiedeknecht,  Genera  Insectorum,  62nd  fascicle,  p.  18,  (1907). 

On  May  3,  1895,  Ashmead  read  a  paper  before  the  Entomolog- 
ical Society  of  Washington,  which  was  later  published  in  the 
Proceedings  of  that  society,  in  which  he  proposed  the  breaking 
up  of  the  sub-family  Pitnplinae  into  a  number  of  tribes,  one  of 
which  was  to  be  called  Pimplini. 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


124  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

The  following  synoptic  table  leading  to  the  tribe  Pimplini  is 
taken  from  the  ()2nd  fascicle  of  the  Genera  Insectorum. 

1.  Head  more  or  less  cubical,  more  rarely  globular.     Mandibles  extended, 

and  with  the  clypeus  downwardly  bent  at  the  tip,  as  a  rule,  forming  the 

mouth  opening.    Antennae  and  legs  mostly  long  and  thin,  Tribe  Xoridini 

Head  transverse,  rarely  somewhat  elevated.     Mandibles  with  the  clypeus 

fonning  no  apparent  mouth  opening 2 

2.  Abdomen  depressed,  rarely  somewhat  compressed  at  the  tip.     The  last 

abdominal  segment  not  large.    Hind  legs,  particularly,  not  the  hind  coxae, 
neither  strikingly  long  nor  stout.     Antennae  almost  entirely  long  and 

slender 3 

Abdomen  behind  more  or  less  laterally  compressed.  The  last  ventral 
segment,  generally  plow-share  shaped  and  standing  out,  sometimes  very 
large,  lancet-shaped,  very  rarely  small  and  transverse.  Hind  legs  or 
at  least  hind  coxae  strongly  lengthened  and  generally  strongly  thickened. 

Antennae  more  or  less  short  and  stout, 

(Tribes  not  included  in  this  paper) 

3.  Abdomen  with  more  or  less  distinct  impressions,  mostly  also  strongly 

punctured.     When  smoother   and   without    elevations,   then   segments 
2  to  5  have  deep  impressed,  obhque  lines  on  both  sides  which  converge 

toward  the  middle  of  the  base Tribe  Pimplini 

Abdomen  without,  or  with  entirely  indistinct  impressions,  and  without 
coarse  sculpturing,  more  or  less  smooth  or  finely  punctured  or  leather- 
like Tribe  Lissonotini 

The  characters  of  the  tribe  Pimplini  are:  Head  transverse, 
rarely  somewhat  elevated.  Abdomen  depressed,  only  toward 
the  end  mostly  compressed,  with  more  or  less  distinct  impressions 
or  elevations,  usually  punctured,  rarely  smooth,  if  smooth 
alutaceous  or  coriaceous,  always  with  lateral  impressed  lines 
on  segments  2  to  5  which  converge  toward  the  middle  of  the 
base.  Mandibles  with  front  border  of  clypeus  not  forming  a 
mouth-opening.  Hind  legs  not  conspicuously  lengthened  and 
thickened. 

Synoptic  Table  to  Genera  Here  Treated 

Females 

1;  Mesonotum  transversely  rugose 2 

Mesonotum  not  transversely  rugose (Genera  not  tnnited.) 

2.  Head  with  carina  between  the  antennae Apechoneura 

Head  with  a  carina  between  the  antennae 3 

3.  Sternal  plates  of  abdomen  entire Pseudorhyssa 

Sternal  plates  of  abdomen  divided  by  a  median-longitudinal  groove 4 


J.    H.    MERRILL  125 

4.  Projections  along  groove  of  the  sternal  plate  nearer  the  base  of  each  seg- 
ment than  its  apex Megarhyssa 

Projections  on  sternal  plate  situated  about  mid-way  between  base  and 
apex  of  each  segment Rhyssa 

Males 

1.  Propodeum  areolated:  head  without  a  carina  between  the  antennae 

Pseudorhyssa 

Propodeum  not  areolated 2 

2.  Pleura  and  sternum  of  second  abdominal  segment  fused  for  a  short  dis- 

tance     Megarhyssa 

Pleura  and  sternum  of  second  abdominal  segment  not  fused Rhyssa 

Genus  MEGARHYSSA  Ashmead 

Thalessa  Holmgren,  Ofvers.  Svensk.  Vet.-Akad.  Forh.,  xvi,  1859,  p.  132. 

Megarhyssa  Ashmead,  Can.  Ent.,  xxxii,  1900,  p.  369. 

Megarhyssa  Dalla  Torre,  Cat.  Hym.,  iii,  1901-2,  p.  479. 

Thalessa  Schmiedeknecht,  Gen.  Ins.  Fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  63. 

Genotype:  {Ichneumon  clavator  Fahricms) .  [Sic]=  (Ichneumon)  Megarhyssa 
clavatus  (Fabricius)  =  (7c/mewmori)  Megarhyssa  Superbus  (Schrank).  (Vide 
Viereck,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  Bull.  S3,  p.  144,  (1914).) 

In  Megarhyssa  the  clypeus  is  usually  anteriorly  truncate,  the 
abdominal  segments  in  the  male  are  smooth,  with  segments 
3  to  7  at  the  apex  emarginate  or  deeplj^  excavated.  The  sternal 
plate  of  the  second  abdominal  segment  is  for  a  greater  or  lesser 
distance  fused  with  the  pleura  at  its  anterior  end.  The  amount 
of  fusion  varies  with  the  species.  The  sternal  plate  of  this 
segment  is  largely  membranous,  the  chitin  being  apparently 
degenerated.  Between  the  seventh  and  eighth  segments,  issues 
the  membrane  used  by  the  female  in  ovipositing,  as  already 
described.  The  projections  of  the  sternal  plates  of  segments 
3  to  6,  on  either  side  of  the  mid-ventral  groove  are  longer  than 
in  Rhyssa,  and  are  situated  nearer  the  base  than  the  apex  of 
each  segment. 

Table  to  Females 

1.  Insects  black  or  fnostly  black 2 

Insects  yellow  or  yellowish  red 4 

2.  Black  with  white  spots  on  the  abdomen humida  (Sa}-)  (p.  126) 

Black  without  white  spots  on  the  abdomen 3 

3.  Ovipositor  at  least  twice  as  long  as  the  body atrata  (Fabr.)  (p.  128) 

Ovipositor  not  twice  as  long  as  the  body canadensis  (Cress.)  (p.  129) 

4.  Areolet  in  fore-wings  absent mesdcana  (Cress.)  (p.  131) 

Areolet  in  fore-wings  present 5 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


126  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

5.  Rounded  spots  on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen.  .  .nortonii  (Cress.)  (p.  131) 
No  rounded  spots  on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen 6 

6.  Yellow  band  behind  the  eyes   bordered    posteriorly  with  a  black  band. 

In  second  abdominal  segment,  pleura  and  sternum  fused  as  far  as  or 

but  shghtly  l^eyond  the  spiracles,  wings  clouded  at  their  tips 

lunator  (Fabr.)  (p.  133) 

Yellow  band  behind  the  eyes  not  bordered  posteriorly  with  a  black  band. 
Fusion  of  pleura  and  sternimi  extending  twice  the  distance  from  base 
of  segment  to  spiracles,  wings  not  clouded  at  tips .  greenei  (Vier.)  (p.  136) 

Table  to  Males 

1.  Black  or  mostly  black 2 

Xot  black 3 

2.  Abdomen  with  white  spots  on  its  sides nitida  (Cress.)  (p.  137) 

Abdomen  without  white  spots  on  its  sides canadensis  (Cress.)  (p.  129) 

3.  Recurrent  nervure  interstitial  with  outer  transverse  cubital 

nortonii  (Cress.)   (p.  131) 

Recurrent  nervure  not  interstitial 4 

4.  Wings  fuscous atrata  (Fabr.)  (p.  128) 

Wings  not  fuscous 5 

5.  Yellow  behind  the  eyes  bordered  by  a  black  band  extending  around  the 

head  nearly  to  the  mandibles,  wings  clouded  at  tips 

lunator   (Fabr.)  (p.  133) 

Yellow  behind  the  eyes  merging  into  a  hght  brown  band,  wings  not  clouded 
at  tips greenei  (Vier.)   (p.  136) 

Megarhyssa  humida  (Say) 

Pimpla  humida  Say,  Boston  Journ.  Nat.  Hist.,  i,  pt.  3,  1836,  p.  224,  n.  1,  $  . 
Pivipla  humida  LeConte,  Writings  of  Thos.  Say,  ii,  1859,  p.  683. 
Rhyssa  humida  DaUa  Torre,  Cat.  Hym.,  iii,  1901-2,  p.  483. 

Type.  As  this  species  was  named  by  Say,  the  type  cannot  be 
located. 

The  female  of  this  species  is  about  half  an  inch  long  with  an  ovipositor 
slightly  longer  than  the  body.  The  head  is  yellowish-white  with  the  vertex 
and  a  broad  central  band  extending  to  the  base  of  the  insertion  of  the  antennae 
dark,  as  is  also  the  clypeus.  There  is  a  large  dark  spot  in  the  middle  of  the 
lower  margin  of  the  frons  from  which  a  dark  band  extends  to  the  antennae. 
The  mandibles  are  black  but  the  palpi  are  white.  The  antennae  are  brownish- 
black. 

A  broad  yeUowish-white  band  extends  forward  along  the  upper  bordcn-  of  the 
prothorax  from  the  tegula  nearly  to  the  middle  line  in  front  and  downward 
at  its  posterior  end,  making  the  spot  somewhat  L-shaped.  Beneath  this  band 
is  a  broad  dark  band  running  parallel  to  it,  which  occupies  almost  all  of  the 
remaining  portion  of  the  prothorax.  Just  below  this  dark  band  and  above 
the  procoxa  is  a  pale  rufous  streak.  The  prosternum  is  pale  rufous.  The 
mcsonotum  is  darlc  as  is  the  prescutum.     This  dark  color  from  the  prcscutum 


J.    H.    MERRILL  127 

extends  backward  between  two  parallel,  longitudinal,  yellowish-white  bands 
on  the  mesonotum  to  the  mesoscutellum.  The  center  of  the  rnesoscutellum 
has  a  square  yellowish-white  spot  on  it,  and  is  interrupted  at  its  front  margin 
by  a  dark  one.  The  posterior  margin  of  the  entire  plate  has  a  narrow  white 
line,  the  remainder  of  the  plate  is  black.  On  the  metascutellum  (generally 
called  postscutellum)  is  an  oblong  yellowish-white  spot.  Both  front  and 
rear  margins  of  this  plate  have  a  yellowish-white  Une,  each  side  is  black  and 
a  black  line  crosses  from  one  side  to  the  other  just  in  front  of  the  oblong  spot. 
The  mesosternum  and  metasternum  as  well  as  their  pleura  are  pale  rufous. 
The  tegula,  a  raised  spot  beneath  the  fore  wing  and  another  spot  below  this 
are  yellowish-white.  The  uotum  of  the  propodeum  is  dark  with  a  yellowish- 
whitre  spot  separating  it  from  the  rufous  pleura  at  its  posterior  end.  The  legs 
are  pale  rufous,  with  the  knees,  tibiae  and  tarsi  whitish.  The  exterior  surface 
of  the  middle  tibiae  and  tarsi  as  well  as  the  tarsal  tips  and  sutures  are  darker. 
In  the  posterior  tibiae  the  outer  extremitj'  is  darkened  and  the  tarsal  segments 
become  darker  toward  the  tarsal  claws,  which  are  brownish-black.  The  wings 
are  hyaline  with  dark  brown  nervures.  The  stigma  is  pale  fuscous  at  its 
base  but  becomes  darker  towards  its  apex.  The  areolet  is  petiolated  and  the 
recurrent  nerv'ure  enters  it  in  the  middle. 

The  abdomen  is  dark  brown,  pohshed  and  transversely  aciculated  above, 
and  obhquely  aciculated  at  the  sides.  On  the  notum  of  the  second  segment 
is  a  broad,  dorsal  depression  extending  from  the  base  nearly  to  its  tip.  On 
the  third,  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  seventh  and  eighth  segments  are  roundish, 
3'ello wish-white  spots,  which  on  the  last  two  segments  become  elongated, 
with  their  axis  at  right  angles  to  that  of  the  bod3^  The  venter  is  yellowish- 
white  with  brown  bands.  The  ovipositor  is  of  a  reddish-brown  with  darker 
colored  sheaths. 

]Male  unknown. 

Megarhyssa  humida  is  more  apt  to  be  confused  with  Rhyssa 
persuasoria  than  with  any  other  species,  yet  an  examination  of 
the  sternal  plates  will  show  a  marked  difference.  The  fact 
that  the  pleura  and  sternum  of  the  second  abdominal  segment 
are  fused  for  a  short  distance  will  serve  to  distinguish  it  from 
Rhyssa  persuasoria.  The  fact  that  the  mesosternum  and  meta- 
sternum of  M.  humida  are  rufous  and  not  l^lack  is  another  dis- 
tinguishing character.  It  can  be  distinguished  from  M.  atrata 
by  the  absence  of  the  yellowish-white  markings  found  on  the 
latter.  It  can  be  distinguished  from  Megarhyssa  norionii, 
canadensis,  lunator,  greenei,  and  mexicana  by  the  presence  of  its 
yellowish-white  orbits. 

This  species  was  described  by  Saj-  as  Pimpla  humida  and  was 
later  put  into  the  genus  Rhyssa  by  Walsh,  but  the  structural 
characters  of  the  sternal  plates,  the  fusion  of  the  pleura  and 
sternum  of  the  second  abdominal  segment,  the  ends   of    the 

TRANS.    .VM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


128  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

abdominal  segments  being  acute  instead  of  truncate,  would  seem 
to  place  it  in  Megarhyssa.  It  would  also  seem  that  this  might 
be  the  female  of  M.  nitida  on  account  of  the  similarity  of  color- 
markings,  size,  and  its  petiolated  areolet.  If  this  should  prove 
true  the  name  M.  nitida  would  fall  into  synonj-my. 

Megarhyssa  atrata  (Fabricius) 

Ichneumon  nirula  Fabricius,  Spec.  Insect.,  i,  1781,  p.  436. 

The  following  references  are  in  addition  to  those  given  by  Dalla  Torre: 

Lintner,  Country  Gentleman,  July,  1883,  p.  561. 

Harrington,  Can.  Ent.,  xix,  1887,  p.  206. 

Riley,  Insect  Life,  i,  1888-89,  p.  168  et  seq. 

Smith,  Insects  of  New  Jersey,  1909,  p.  627. 

This  species  varies  from  about  an  inch  to  an  inch  and  three-quarters  in 
length,  with  a  very  long,  dark-browni  ovipositor,  which  in  some  cases  attains  a 
length  of  five  or  six  inches.  The  head  and  antennae  are  yeUow.  The  ocelli 
are  embedded  in  a  transverse  dark  band  extending  between  the  compound 
eyes.  There  is  another  transverse  dark  band  at  the  point  of  insertion  of  the  an- 
tennae, not  quite  reaching  the  compound  eyes,  and  a  black  spot  on  the  face  just 
above  the  clypeus.  The  ground  color  of  the  thorax  is  a  glossy  black  with  a 
yellow  spot  in  the  prothorax  just  in  front  of  the  fore  wing,  one  beneath  the  fore 
wing,  and  one  on  each  side  of  the  propodeum  near  where  it  articulates  with  the 
second  abdominal  segment.  On  each  side  of  the  mesoscutellum  is  a  short,  longi- 
tudinal dash,  while  in  the  center  of  the  metascutellum  (generally  called  post- 
scutellum)  is  a  transverse  yellow  dash.  The  legs  are  yellow  with  the  coxae, 
middle  and  hind  trochanters,  black  and  the  fore-trochanters  partly  yellow. 
The  procoxae  each  bear  a  more  or  less  indistinguishable  yellow  spot.  The 
middle  and  posterior  femora  are  black  with  yellow  tips.  The  tibiae  are  yellow, 
but  the  tarsal  segments  are  darker  at  their  outer  extremities  and  the  tips  of 
the  tarsal  claws  are  black.  The  wings  are  fusco-hyaline  and  show  an  irides- 
cence in  some  lights.  The  stigma  is  pale  ferruginous  at  its  base  becoming 
darker  toward  its  apex.  The  abdomen  is  brownish-black,  some  parts  being 
slightly  hghter  than  others. 

M.  atrata  may  be  distinguished  from  M.  lunator,  greenei, 
and  mexicana  by  its  very  dark  abdomen.  Its  yellow  antennae 
will  distinguish  it  from  nitida,  canadensis,  and  humida.  Its 
larger  size  would  also  serve  to  distinguish  it  as  well  as  the  length 
of  the  ovipositor,  which  is  several  times  the  length  of  the  body. 

Its  life  history  is  similar  to  that  of  M.  lunator  and  M.  greenei 
with  which  it  is  commonly  found  associated.  The  dates  of  cap- 
ture of  specimens  seen  range  from  June  2  to  September  15. 

The  male  of  M.  atrata  differs  from  the  female  very  markedly 
in  its  color  markings.  The  structural  sex  differences  are  the 
same  in  M.  atrata  as  in  M.  lunator.     In  general  the  male  has 


J.    H.    MERRILL  129 

more  yellow  upon  it  than  the  female.  The  dark  spot  on  the 
face  just  above  the  clypeus  may  or  may  not  be  present.  The 
antennae  are  dark-brown  but  lighter  beneath  toward  their  tips. 
The  upper  margin  of  the  prothorax  is  marked  by  yellow  and 
this  color  may  in  some  instances  form  a  border  around  it,  leaving 
a  polished  black  spot  in  the  center.  Beneath  the  fore-wing  is 
a  raised  yellow  spot.  Just  below  it  and  extending  backward 
to  the  mesoepimeron  and  nearly  down  to  the  sternum  is  a  yellow 
area.  This  area  maj^  be  partly  divided  into  two  by  a  darker 
stain  running  through  it.  The  prescutum  is  yelloAvish-brown 
and  from  it  two  bands  of  yellow  or  light  brown  pass  backward 
over  the  mesonotum  throughout  its  whole  length,  and  it  may  be 
also  more  or  less  completely  margined  by  the  same  color.  A  large 
yellow  spot  starts  on  each  side  of  the  metathorax  at  its  upper 
margin  and  extends  dorsally,  covering  the  pleura  of  the  propo- 
deum  and  nearly  meeting  the  other  on  the  notum.  Jast  before 
the  hinder  margin  of  the  notum  of  the  second  and  sometimes 
of  the  third  abdominal  segment  is  a  narrow  transverse  yellow 
band.  The  rest  of  the  abdomen  is  brownish-black,  lighter  in 
spots.  M.  atrata  may  be  distinguished  from  lunator  by  the 
absence  of  clouded  areas  in  the  fore-wings,  from  M.  greenei  by 
its  fusco-hyaline  wings,  and  from  nortonii  by  receiving  the  recur- 
rent nervure  in  the  middle  of  the  areolet. 

Megarhyssa  canadensis  (Cresson) 

(Rhyssa  canadensis  Cresson,  Can.  Ent.,  i,  1885,  p.  35,  9  . 

Location  of  type.— In  the  collection  of  the  American  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  Philadelphia. 

The  female  of  this  species  is  about  half  an  inch  long  with  an  ovipositor 
slightly  longer  than  the  body.  The  head  is  dark  bro^\-n  to  black.  The  facial 
orbits  are  marked  with  a  yellowish-white  band  interrupted  at  the  point  of 
insertion  of  the  antennae  and  ending  at  the  vertex.  The  posterior  orbits 
in  the  hghter  colored  specimens  are  marked  by  a  lighter  broNvTi.  The  palpi 
are  whitish.  The  dark  portion  below  the  antennae  is  slightly  raised  medially 
and  the  whole  is  irregularly,  transversely,  striated.  The  antennae  are  dark 
brown  becoming  lighter  and  somewhat  larger  toward  their  tips. 

The  thorax  is  dark  brown  to  black  and  its  sides  are  clothed  with  numerous 
short,  erect,  whitish  hairs.  The  tegulae  are  yellowish -white.  The  meso- 
scutellum  and  metascuteUum  (or  postscutellum)  are  transversely  striated. 
The  sides  of  the  t*horax  are  highly  poUshed  and  in  the  mesothorax  are  densely 
punctured.     In  the  hghter  specimens  the  prothorax  is  marked  with  a  hghter 

TRANS.   AM.   ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


130  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

brown  similar  to  that  of  the  posterior  orbits.  In  the  hghter  specimens  the 
rear  margin  of  the  mesoscutellum,  an  oblong  spot  in  the  centre  of  the  meta- 
Bcutellum  and  a  line  on  its  rear  margin  are  rufous.  In  the  darker  specimens 
these  plates  show  no  color  markings.  The  propodeum  is  transversely  striated 
above,  punctured  below,  with  a  median  longitudinal  depression  extending  ' 
nearly  to  its  posterior  margin.  The  wings  are  fusco-hyaUne  tinged  with  yellow, 
and  shghtly  more  fuscous  nervures  and  stigma  except  at  their  base  where 
they  are  lighter.  The  areolet  is  small,  petiolated,  with  the  recurrent  nervure 
entering  at  its  middle.  The  legs  are  pale  rufous.  The  fifth  segment  of  the 
anterior  and  middle  tarsi,  and  the  claws  are  dark.  The  posterior  femur 
bears  a  dark  spot  at  its  extremity  as  does  the  tibia  near  its  base.  The  tibia  is 
darker  along  its  external  surface  completely  enveloping  its  outer  half.  The 
posterior  tarsal  segments  are  darker  on  their  external  surface,  this  dark  color 
increasing  towards  the  claws,  which  are  all  dark. 

The  abdomen  is  dark  brown  to  black,  transversely  aciculated  above,  these 
aciculations  bending  forward  at  the  sides.  The  ovipositor  is  dark  brown 
with  darker  sheaths. 

The  male  of  this  species,  from  the  collection  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum 
(here  described  for  the  first  time),  is  shghtly  less  than  half  an  inch  long.  The 
head  is  black.  The  antennae  are  black  at  their  base  but  become  lighter  and 
somewhat  larger  toward  their  tips.  From  the  base  of  the  antennae  down 
to  the  clypeus  the  face  is  yellowish-white.  This  spot  is  prolonged  to  the  ver- 
tex in  the  form  of  bands  margining  the  compound  eyes. 

The  thorax  is  black  and  poUshed.  The  sides  of  the  mesothorax  and  meta- 
thorax  are  densely  punctured.  The  mesoscutellum  and  metascutellum  are 
transversely  striated.  The  propodeum  is  transversely  striated  except  along 
the  median,  longitudinal  depression,  which  extends  nearly  to  its  posterior 
margin.  Its  sides  are  punctured.  Nimierous  short,  erect,  whitish  hairs  clothe 
the  thorax. 

The  wings,  legs  and  abdomen  are  as  in  the  female. 

In  size  and  general  appearance  M.  canadensis  resembles  humida 
more  closely  than  the  other  Megarhyssae  but  the  absence  of  white 
spots  on  the  side  of  the  abdomen  would  serve  to  distinguish 
it  from  humida  as  well  as  from  atrata.  Its  dark  brown  to  black 
color  with  whitish  color  markings  would  distinguish  it  from 
lunator,  greenei,  nortonii  and  mexicana. 

This  species  was  originally  described  by  Cresson  as  Rhyssa 
canadensis,  but  the  structure  of  its  sternal  plates,  the  fusion  of 
the  pleura  and  sternum  of  the  second  abdominal  segment,  and  the 
acutely  angled  tip  of  the  abdominal  segments  would  seem  to 
place  it  in  Megarhyssa. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  131 

Megarhyssa  mexicana   (Cresson) 
Epirhyssa  mexicaiia  Cresson,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1893,  p.  394,   9  . 

No  statement  about  the  types  accompanies  the  description, 
but  a  range  in  length  measurement  impHes  that  more  than  one 
specimen  was  examined  and  there  are  two  specimens  labeled, 
"Type  No.  599,"  from  Mexico,  in  the  collection  of  the  American 
Entomological  Society  of  Philadelphia. 

9  ,  This  species  is  about  an  inch  long,  with  an  ovipositor  a  httle  longer 
than  the  body.  The  head  is  yellow  but  the  mandibles  are  black.  The  region 
in  which  the  ocelh  are  imbedded  and  extending  between  the  compound  eyes 
is  slightly  darker  than  the  ground  color  of  the  head.  Parallel  and  posterior 
to  this  darkened  area  is  a  dark  band  which  nearly  encircles  the  head.  The 
sutm-e  from  the  compound  eyes  to  the  mandibles  and  extending  across  the 
upper  part  of  the  clypeus  is  also  dark.  The  antemiae  are  dark  brown,  except 
the  under  side  of  the  scape  which  is  Ughter  colored  than  the  flageUum. 

The  gromid  color  of  the  thorax  is  pale  yellow.  The  sutures  separating  the 
mesonotum  from  the  prescutum,  prothorax  and  mesoscutellum  are  dark. 
A  dark  band  runs  along  the  center  of  the  prescutum  and  another  on  each  side 
of  the  mesonotum  runs  from  the  prescutum  back  to  the  mesoscutellum.  The 
suture  separating  the  mesothorax  from  the  metathorax  and  the  propodeum 
is  also  dark.  The  legs  are  yellow  and  the  tarsi  become  darker  toward  the 
tarsal  claws  which  are  dark  brown  or  black.  The  suture  dividing  the  posterior 
femur  from  its  trochanter  is  dark.  The  wings  are  faintly  yellow-hyaline, 
clouded  at  theii-  tips  and  without  an  areolet  in  the  specimens  examined. 

The  abdomen  is  yellow,  smooth,  and  ghstening.  The  tips  of  the  second, 
third,  fourth,  fifth  and  sLxth  segments  are  each  bordered  with  a  black  band. 
In  the  remaining  segments  these  bands  are  nearly  obsolete.  The  ovipositor 
is  dark  brown. 

Male  unknown. 

Distinguishing  characters. — Mexicana  may  be  distinguished 
from  the  other  species  of  Megarhyssa  by  its  yellow  abdomen 
without  spots  and  probably  by  the  absence  of  the  areolet  in  its 
fore  wings. 

This  species  was  placed  in  Epirhyssa  by  Cresson,  but  the  struc- 
ture of  its  sternal  plates  agrees  with  those  of  Megarhyssa  and  the 
presence  of  the  areolet  seems  to  be  a  variable  character  in  thip 
group. 

Megarhyssa  nortonii  (Cresson) 

Rhyssa  nortonii  Cresson,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.,  iii,  p.  317,   9  . 

Thalessa  quebecensis  Provancher,  Natural  Canad.,  v,  1873,  p.  317,    9   cT. 

Thalessa  nortonii  Provancher,  Faun.  Ent.  Canad.;  H\'men.,  1SS3,  p.  445. 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


132  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Type. — In  the  collection  of  the  American  Entomological 
Society  of  Philadelphia. 

The  female  of  this  species  varies  from  about  an  inch  to  an  inch  and  a  haK  in 
length,  with  an  ovipositor  about  twice  the  length  of  the  body.  The  head  is 
yellow,  marked  with  dark-brown  or  black.  There  is  a  dark  band  extending 
across  the  upper  part  of  the  head  between  the  front  margins  of  the  compound 
eyes,  in  which  the  ocelli  are  embedded.  From  this  dark  band  back  to  the 
occiput  extends  a  dark  brown  to  black  area,  slightly  lighter  in  color  than  the 
transverse  band.  From  the  latter,  a  dark  band  extends  down  to  the  labrum, 
where  it  broadens  out,  extending  to  the  lower  margins  of  the  compound  eyes, 
and  thence  downward  covering  all  of  the  lower  part  of  the  head  in  front. 
The  antennae  are  dark  brown  to  black  with  the  scape  and  pedicel  more  glis- 
tening than  the  flagellum .  The  ground  color  of  the  thorax  varies  from  brown 
to  black.  There  is  a  yellow  spot  on  the  side  of  the  prothorax,  another  beneath 
the  wing,  on  the  side  of  the  metathorax,  and  on  the  propodeum  just  above. 
In  the  lighter  specimens  these  propodeal  spots  may  be  confluent  over  the 
dorsum.  The  mesonotmn  may  be  brown  with  black  markings,  black  with 
ferruginous  markings,  or  entirely  black.  The  mesoscutellum  has  a  square 
yellow  spot  in  its  center  and  the  metascutelliun  (generally  called  postscutellum) 
has  an  oblong  yellow  spot.  The  wings  are  hyaUne,  tinged  with  yellow,  giving 
a  faint  violet  reflection  in  some  hghts.  The  stigma  is  pale-ferruginous.  The 
legs  arg  yellow  varying  with  darker  shades  of  the  same  color.  The  coxae 
vary  from  dark  brown  to  black.  The  middle  and  posterior  femora  are  dark 
with  their  tips  yellow,  as  are  also  the  tibiae.  The  tips  of  the  tarsal  claws  are 
black.  The  abdomen  is  slightly  hghter  in  color  than  the  thorax.  Just  before 
the  hinder  margin  of  the  notum  of  the  second  and  also  of  the  third  abdominal 
segments  is  a  small  transverse  yellow  band.  In  the  darker  colored  specimens, 
reddish-yellow  spots  are  found  on  the  sides  of  the  segments.  The  spots  on  the 
anterior  portion  of  the  abdomen  are  about  in  the  middle  of  each  segment, 
but  they  gradually  move  forward,  so  that  in  the  posterior  segments  they  are 
found  on  the  anterior  margins.  In  the  lighter  colored  specimens  they  are 
not  distinct  and  form  spots  only  a  little  Hghter  than  their  surroundings.  On 
each  side  of  the  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  seventh,  and  eighth  segments  is  a  yellow 
spot,  more  or  less  oval  in  form.  The  long  axis  of  the  spot  on  the  last  two 
segments  is  nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  body  axis. 

In  M.  nortonii  the  yellow  spots  on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen 
are  rounded-oval,  while  in  the  closely  related  M.  lunator  and 
M.  greenei  they  form  angled  bands.  In  M.  nortonii  there  is  a 
dark  stripe  extending  from  the  vertex  to  and  including  the  man- 
dibles, in  M.  lunator  there  are  two  dark  lines  running  from  the 
antennae  to  the  mandibles,  and  in  M.  greenei  these  lines  are 
absent.  M.  nortonii  can  be  distinguished  from  M.  mexicana 
in  that  the  latter  has  a  pale-yellow  ground  color,  with  black 
markings  on  the  abdomen.      The  wings  of  the  latter  are  clouded 


J.    H.    MERRILL  133 

at  the  tips,  and  possess  no  areolet,  neither  are  there  any  dark 
markings  on  the  face.  M.  nortonii  may  be  distinguished  from 
M.  atrata,  humida,  canadensis  and  nitida  by  the  fact  that  in  these 
latter  forms  the  greater  part  of  the  surface  of  the  bod}'  is  black, 
with  white,  yellow,  or  fuscous  body  markings. 

Megarhyssa  nortonii  is  widely  distributed  throughout  the 
United  States,  Canada,  and  Alaska.  Specimens  taken  from  the 
Pacific  coast  ranging  from  Alaska  down  through  California, 
exhiljit  in  general  much  darker  color  markings  than  those  taken 
east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

Provancher  described  M.  nortonii  as  Thalessa  quehecensis  in 
1873,  but  as  he  applied  the  identical  description  to  Thalessa 
nortonii  in  1883,  it  shows  that  he  recognized  that  the  two  were 
identical.  The  dates  of  capture  of  specimens  seen  range  from 
May  20  to  Aug.  7. 

Male.  Not  having  seen  what  he  would  consider  a  bona-fide 
specimen  of  a  male  nortonii,  the  writer  will  use  a  translation  of 
Provancher's  description  of  a  male.^ 

Male.  Length  one  and  one-tenth  inches.  Differ  little  from  the  female. 
The  poUshed  plaque  of  the  two  sides  of  the  prothorax  is  without  yeUow  spots. 
The  metathorax  is  clearer  towards  its  extremity,  without  spots  on  the  sides 
and  flanks  are  of  a  uniform,  shiny  red.  Segments  one  and  two  have  a  yeUow 
band  towards  the  summit.  The  second  segment  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
female,  bordered  with  black  at  both  ends  and  on  the  sides.  The  recurrent 
nervure  is  interstitial  with  the  outer  transverse  cubital. 

Megarhyssa  lunator  (Fabricius) 

Idineumon  lunator  Fabricius,  Spec.  Insect.,  i,  1781,  p.  4.30,  n.  64. 

The  following  references  are  additions  to  the  Hst  given  by  Dalla  Torre: 

Lintner,  Country  Gentleman,  July  1883,  p.  561. 

Harrington,  Canadian  Entomologist,  xix,  1887,  p.  206. 

Riley,  Insect  Life,  i,  1888-89,  p.  168  et  seq. 

Smith,  Insects  of  New  Jersey,  1909,  p.  627. 

There  seems  to  be  no  record  of  the  present  location  of  the  type 
of  this  species. 

9 .  The  individuals  of  this  sex  vary  in  length  from  three-quarters  of  an 
inch  to  an  inch  and  a  half,  and  the  ovipositor  from  an  inch  and  a  half  to  three 
and  three-quarters  inches.  The  head  is  yellow  with  a  transverse  dark  band 
on  its  vertex,  in  which  are  inserted  the  three  ocelli.  Another  dark  band  behind 
the  former  and  running  parallel  to  it,  ahiiost  encircles  the  head.  A  dark  line 
runs  from  the  base  of  each  antenna  to  the  labrum.  The  mandibles  are  dark 
brown,  stout  and  bidentate.     The  antennae  are  dark  brown  and  slender, 

*Le  Naturaliste  Canadien,  v,  1873,  p.  445. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


134  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMOXIDAE 

The  ground  color  of  the  thorax  and  propodeum  is  j^ellow,  varying  somewhat 
in  shade  but  generally  rather  Ught.  The  markings  range  from  yellowish- 
brown  to  black  and  seem  in  some  places  to  be  situated  on  the  margin  of  the 
scleritcs  to  quite  an  extent.  The  ground  color  of  the  legs  is  yellow,  like  the 
thorax,  becoming  darker  toward  the  tips.  Spots  and  streaks  of  brown  occur 
here  and  there. 

The  prescutum  which  is  practically  circular  in  outline  is  margined  with 
brown  or  black,  and  from  its  hinder  margin  a  band  of  this  color  extends  to 
the  hinder  end  of  the  mesoscutum  and  a  broader  band  narrowing  posteriorly, 
extends  backward  on  either  side.  The  ground  color  of  the  mesoscutum 
appears  as  a  pair  of  longitudinal  bands  and  a  narrow  margin  above  the 
tegula  at  each  side. 

In  the  fore  wing  there  is  a  brown,  sometimes  almost  blackish,  area  covering 
the  stigma  and  extending  backward  across  the  radial  cell,  the  tip  of  the  cubito- 
discoidal  cell  and  frequently  more  or  less  involving  the  areolet.  The  tip  of  the 
third  submarginal  cell  is  also  covered  by  a  spot  of  this  kind,  less  pronounced, 
however,  than  the  other. 

The  abdomen  is  browTi,  varying  considerably  in  shade,  with  bands  and  Unes 
of  yellow.  Just  in  front  of  the  hinder  margin  of  the  notum  of  the  second  and 
also  of  the  third  segments  is  a  transverse  yeUow  band,  shghtly  bent  forward 
•  at  its  ends.  These  yellow  bands  in  the  hghter  forms  are  margined  with  bro\\Ti 
distinctly  darker  than  that  of  the  segments  as  a  whole.  In  the  darker  form 
these  margins  are  not  in  evidence  On  the  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth  segments, 
these  bands  are  extended  forward  almost  to  the  spiracles, then  toward  the  hinder 
end  and  upward,  following  the  general  outline  of  the  end  of  the  segments, 
the  two  parts  of  the  band  forming  an  acute  angle.  These  bands  are  not  con- 
tinuous across  the  dorsum,  nor  are  the  dark  bands  which  margin  them,  but 
in  the  eighth  segment  the  yellow  band  is  continuous. 

The  fusion  of  the  pleura  with  the  sternum  of  the  second  abdominal  segment 
extends  from  the  base  of  that  segment  out  to,  or  but  shghtly  beyond  the  spira- 
cles. 

The  male  lunator  differs  from  the  female  only  in  the  following  respects: 
the  abdomen  of  the  male  is  sub-cylindrical  throughout  and  not  plow-share 
shaped  as, in  the  female.  The  pleura  are  extended  downward  completely 
enveloping  the  sterna  of  aU  but  the  second,  third  and  a  small  portion  of  the 
fourth  segments.  The  sterna  are  not  longitudinally  divided  by  a  groove  and 
therefore  cannot  show  the  median-sternal  projections  which  may  be  seen  in 
the  female.  There  is  more  variation  in  the  color  markings  of  the  male,  some 
specimens  showing  a  dark  spot  on  the  face  above  the  clypeus:  just  before  the 
apex  of  the  second  and  also  of  the  third  abdominal  segments  is  a  short  trans- 
verse yellow  band,  slightly  notched  at  the  center  of  its  inner  margin.  These 
bands  are  the  only  color  markings  on  the  abdomen.  This  sex  may  be  distin- 
guished from  the  male  atrata  by  the  spotted  wings,  and  from  nortonii  by  the 
recurrent  nervure  entering  at  the  middle  of  the  areolet. 

Distinguishing  Characters. — Lunator  may  be  distinguished  from 
greenei  by  the  following  differences.  It  has  dark  lines  from  the 
base  of  the  antennae  to  the  labrum,  a  dark  band  parallel  to  the 


J.    H.    MERRILL  135 

one  in  which  the  ocelli  are  imbedded,  dark  patches  on  the  tips 
of  its  wings,  which  characters  are  absent  in  greeyiei.  In  lunator 
the  fusion  of  the  pleura  with  the  sternum  of  the  second  abdominal 
segment  extends  to  or  but  slightly  beyond  the  spiracle,  while 
in  greenei  it  extends  as  far  beyond  the  spiracle  as  the  distance 
between  the  spiracle  and  base  of  the  segment.  In  lunator  the 
dark  bands  on  the  abdominal  segments  are  not  continuous 
over  the  dorsum,  while  they  are  in  greenei.  On  the  eighth  seg- 
ment of  lunator  the  yellow  band  is  continuous  but  this  condition 
does  not  occur  in  greenei.  In  lunator  the  ovipositors  are  relatively 
longer  than  in  greenei,  being  from  two  to  two  and  a  half  times 
the  length  of  the  body,  and  in  greenei  from  one  to  one  and  a 
half  times. 

Lunator  may  be  distinguished  from  nortonii  by  the  shape  of 
the  markings  on  the  4th,  5th  and  6th  abdominal  segments. 
In  lunator  they  are  acutely  angulated  bands,  while  in  nortonii 
they  are  roundish  spots.  The  wings  of  lunator  are  hyaline,  with 
dark  spots,  while  in  nortonii  they  are  transparent,  fuscous  and 
with  no  dark  patches.  It  can  be  distinguished  from  mexicana 
in  that  the  latter  is  bright  yellow  marked  with  black.  The 
apical  margins  of  the  abdominal  segments  of  mexicana  are  bor- 
dered with  black  bands  continuous  over  the  dorsum.  The 
areolet  of  the  fore  wings  of  mexicana  is  absent.  It  also  has  a 
dark  patch  on  the  tip  of  the  fore  wing  but  none  in  the  region  of 
the  stigma.  Mexicana  has  no  dark  lines  from  the  base  of  the 
antennae  to  the  labrum. 

Lunator  may  be  distinguished  from  atrata,  humida,  canadensis 
and  nitida  by  the  fact  that  in  these  forms  the  greater  part  of 
the  surface  of  the  body  is  black  with  white,  yellow  or  fuscous 
body  markings. 

This  species  is  widely  distributed  throughout  the  United 
States  and  Canada.  It  is  found  in  abundance  on  trees  and  logs 
which  are  infested  with  Tremex,  working  in  company  with  M. 
atrata  and  M.  greenei.  They  appear  earlj'-  in  the  summer  and 
throughout  the  whole  season  may  be  seen  crawling  about,  seeking 
a  favorable  spot  for  ovipositions.  After  laying  its  egg  the  insect 
is  often  unable  to  extricate  its  ovipositor  and  is  held  a  prisoner 
by  it  until  death.  Mr.  C.  W.  Johnson,  Curator  of  the  Boston 
Society  of  Natural  History,  observed  a  large  number  of  males 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


136  PIMPLTXE    ICHXEUMONIDAE 

massed  together  on  a  log  in  Maine.  He  attempted  to  cap- 
ture them  with  his  net,  but  they  all  flew  away.  Returning 
to  the  same  spot  later,  he  found  the  males  again  assembled  there. 
This  time  he  reached  out  and  caught  a  number  with  his  hand. 
Upon  being  examined  they  were  found  to  be  males  of  both 
M.  lunator  and  M.  greenei.  The  female,  which  later  emerged, 
proved  to  be  a  specimen  of  M.  lunator.  Whether  there  was  a 
female  of  M.  greenei  about  to  emerge  near  where  the  M.  lunator 
came  out,  or  whether  the  males  are  unable  to  know  in  advance, 
the  species  to  which  the  emerging  insect  belongs,  is  a  question. 

The  dates  of  capture  of  the  specimens  of  this  species  which 
have  come  under  my  observation  range  from  May  13  to  Sep- 
tember 30,  although  these  are  very  probably  not  the  outside 
limits. 

Megarhyssa  greenei  Viereck 

Megarhyssa  greenei  Viereck,  Proe.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  xl,  p.  191,    9    cf . 
Smith,  Insects  of  New  Jersey,  1909,  p.  627. 
Viereck,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.,  xiii,  no.  2,  p.  96. 

Type.— Cat.  No.  13,499,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  locality:  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania;  female,  June  25, 
male,  August  22,  1908. 

Megarhyssa  greenei  agrees  with  M.  lunator  except  in  the 
following  details.  It  has  no  dark  lines  extending  from  the 
base  of  the  antennae  to  the  labrum.  The  band  parallel  to 
the  one  in  which  the  ocelli  are  imbedded,  which  in  M.  lunator 
is  dark  brown  or  black,  in  M.  greenei  is  but  slightly  darker 
than  the  yellow  ground  color  of  the  head.  There  is  no 
dark  patch  on  the  tip  of  the  wings.  The  fusion  of  the  sternum 
and  pleura  extends  about  twice  as  far  from  the  base  of  the  second 
abdominal  segment  as  it  does  in  M.  lunator,  reaching  as  far 
beyond  the  spiracles  as  the  distance  from  the  base  of  the  segment 
to  the  spiracles.  On  the  abdomen,  the  black  bands  which  border 
the  yellow  markings  are  continuous  over  the  dorsum,  but  the 
yellow  band  on  the  eighth  segment  is  not  continuous.  The  ovi- 
positors are  relatively  shorter,  being  only  from  one  to  one  and 
a  half  times  the  length  of  the  body. 

The  description  of  M.  lunator  applies  to  the  male  of  M.  greenei 
in  all  respects  except  those  named  above. 

For  characters  distinguishing  this  species  from  others  in  the 
same  genus,  see  list  of  distinguishing  characters  given  after 
the  description  of  M.  lunator. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  137 

The  dates  of  capture  of  specimens  seen,  range  from  June  2 
to  September  25. 

The  male  of  M.  greenei  differs  from  the  female  (jreenei  in  the 
same  respects  as  found  in  lunator,  although  the  color  markings 
more  closely  resemble  each  other  in  the  two  sexes  than  in  lunator. 
It  may  be  distinguished  from  the  male  of  lunator  by  the  absence 
of  the  clouded  spots  in  the  wing. 

Megarhyssa  nitida  (Cresson) 

Rhyssa  nitida  Cresson,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.,  iii,  p.  319,   d^ . 

Type. — There  is  one  type  specimen  from  Virginia,  in  the 
collection  of  the  American  Entomological  Society  of  Philadelphia. 

The  male  of  this  species  is  about  half  an  inch  long.  The  head  is  black. 
The  antennae  are  dark,  the  scape  is  yellowish-white  beneath,  and  the  flagellum 
becomes  lighter  towards  its  tip.  The  mandibles  are  black  but  the  palpi  are 
yellowish-white.  The  clypeus  is  yellowish-white  and  this  color  extends 
upwards  over  the  face,  spreading  to  the  compound  eyes;  to  the  base  of  the  in- 
sertion of  the  antennae  where  it  is  interrupted,  and  sometimes  to  the  vertex, 
as  two  yellowish-white  bands  margining  the  compound  eyes.  Behind  the 
compound  eyes  are  yellowish  white  bands,  stopping  just  short  of  the  mandibles 
and  the  vertex.  The  thorax  is  black.  Beginning  at  the  tegula  a  triangular 
shaped  white  band,  which  later  becomes  reduced  to  a  line,  passes  forward 
along  the  upper  border  of  the  prothorax  nearly  to  its  middle  line.  A  white 
streak  appears  just  above  the  procoxa.  The  prescutum  and  mesonotum  are 
black,  the  latter  with  a  pair  of  fine  longitudinal  A-ellowish-white  lines  near 
its  center.  The  center  of  the  mesoscutellum  has  a  large  yellowish-white 
spot  on  it,  nearly  divided  at  its  front  margin  by  a  dark  one.  The  posterior 
margin  of  the  entire  plate  has  a  narrow  white  line.  On  the  metascutellum 
(postscutellum)  is  an  oblong  white  spot.  The  rear  margin  of  the  plate  bears 
a  yellowish-white  line.  The  tegulae  and  a  raised  spot  beneath  the  fore  wing 
are  yellowish-white.  The  metapleurae  are  pale  rufous.  The  wings  are  hyaline, 
iridescent,  with  fuscous  nervures  which  are  pale  at  their  base.  The  stigma 
is  fuscous  except  its  base,  which  is  pale.  The  areolet  is  small  and  petiolated. 
The  anterior  legs  are  yellowish-white,  on  the  outer  side  of  the  tibiae  are  slightly 
darker  markings.  The  extremities  of  the  tarsal  segments  are  darker  than 
their  bases  and  the  claws  are  dark.  The  middle  coxae  are  pale  rufous,  the 
trochanters,  femora,  tibiae,  and  tarsi  are  yellowish-white.  The  tip  and  a 
spot  at  the  base  of  the  femora  are  dark.  The  extremities  of  the  tarsal  claws 
are  much  darker  than  in  the  anterior  legs,  the  last  four  segments  being  almost 
completely  dark,  as  are  the  tarsal  claws.  The  posterior  coxae  aie  i^ale  rufous, 
the  trochanters  are  yellowish-white,  with  their  extremities  dark.  The  femora 
are  rufous  with  a  dark  spot  on  their  outer  extremities.  The  tibiae  are  lighter 
but  each  has  a  dark  spot  on  its  extremity,  and  another  fainter  one  near  its 
base.  The  first  two  tarsal  segments  are  yellowish-white,  their  tips  dark,  the 
third,  fourth,  and  fifth  are  dark,  the  claws  are  rufous.     The  abdomen  is  black 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


138  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

and  polished.     On  each  side  of  the  third  segment  is  a  small  yellowish-white 
spot:  similar  spots  are  found  on  the  remaining  segments,  increasing  in  size 
up  to  the  fifth,  after  which  they  decrease. 
$   Unknown. 

M.  nitida  may  be  distinguished  from  the  rest  of  the  Megar- 
hyssae  by  means  of  its  dark  abdomen  with  the  yellowish-white 
markings. 

In  all  probability  M.  nitida  is  the  male  form  of  M.  humida  as 
previously  stated. 

Habits  of  Megarhyssa 

The  following  extracts  are  taken  from  an  article  by  C.  V, 
Riley,''  because  he  gives  the  best  description  of  the  habits  of 
Megarhyssa. 

"  .  .  .  In  preparing  for  the  act  (oviposition)  the  position 
is  generally  longitudinal  or  in  a  line  with  the  axis  of  the  trunk  or 
branch,  the  head  either  up  or  down.  With  the  abdomen  raised 
in  the  air  the  ovipositor  is  taken  and  managed  with  the  hind  legs, 
and  the  tip  guided  by  the  front  tarsi.  The  two  outer  sheaths 
are  used  as  props  and  do  not  enter  the  wood  with  the  ovipositor 
proper.  They  are  generally  crossed — a  position  which  gives 
additional  strength  and  securit}^  to  them.  Now,  by  a  movement 
from  side  to  side,  and  by  arching  the  abdomen  and  bearing  upon 
the  ovipositor  she  gradually  forces  this  back  through  the  tip 
of  the  abdomen  into  a  membrane  which  issues  from  between 
the  sixth  and  seventh  joints  dorsally.  There  is  a  wonderful 
muscular  power  in  the  anal  joints,  and  the  ovipositor  is  forced 
back  until  it  forms  a  perfect  coil,  so  that  when  the  abdomen  is 
stretched  in  a  straight  line  to  its  utmost  the  ovipositor  within 
the  membrane  makes  a  circle  almost  as  large  as  a  quarter  of  a 
dollar,  the  anal  joint  having  made  a  three-fourths  turn  within 
the  membrane.  In  this  manner  the  ovipositor  under  the  venter 
has  been  sufficiently  shortened  to  bring  its  tip  against  the  bark. 
During  this  operation,  however,  the  outer  sheaths,  which  have 
not  followed  the  ovipositor  within  the  menibrane,  have  been 
obliged  to  make  a  more  or  less  irregular  coil  opposite  to  and  in 
front  of  the  membrane  on  the  ventral  side.  Now  commences 
the  operation  of  boring,  and  with  the  wonderful  muscular  power 
in  the  anal  joint  and  the  elasticity  of  the  membrane,  the  insertion 
of  the  ovipositor  goes  on  quite  steadily  if  the  wood  be  in  the 

» Insect  Life,  i,  1888-89,  p.  168. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  139 

least  soft.  As  the  borer  enters,  the  sheaths  make  a  larger  and 
larger  loop  on  one  side  of  the  body,  or  even  a  valve  on  each  side. 
.  .  .  In  withdrawing  the  ovipositor  the  reverse  action  takes 
place  and  the  loops  of  the  outer  sheaths  gradually  become 
smaller  and  smaller;  the  ovipositor  is  again  forced  back  into  the 
tough  bladder-like  membrane  between  the  sixth  and  seventh 
joints  dorsally  and  we  have  a  repetition  of  the  appearance." 

The  old  idea  was  that  the  Megarhyssa  probed  a  burrow  with 
her  ovipositor  until  she  came  in  contact  with  the  larva  of  a 
Tremex,  which  she  pierced  and  deposited  an  egg  therein.  The 
observation  has  also  been  made  that  the  insect  is  lignivorous  and 
not  parasitic.  Both  of  these  conclusions  have  been  shown  to 
be  false.     Riley  quotes  J.  A.  Lintner,^''  as  follows: 

".  .  .  In  all  instances  wdiere  I  have  found  the  female 
depositing,  it  has  been  in  trees  infested  with  Tremex  columha, 
and  I  have  found  her  more  numerous  on  badly  affected  or  injured 
trees,  or  even  on  stumps  or  broken  trunks  already  partly  decayed. 
The  instinct  to  reach  the  egg  or  larva  of  Tremex,  so  dwelt  upon 
in  popular  accounts,  is  imaginary.  She  bores  directly  through 
the  outer  parts  of  the  tree,  and  doubtless  probes  for  a  burrow; 
but  her  egg  is  consigned  anywhere  in  the  burrow;  the  young  larva 
seeks  its  prey,  and  lives  and  develops  without  penetrating  the 
body  of  its  victim,  but  fastened  to  the  exterior.  This  habit 
among  parasites  is  much  more  common  than  is  generally  sup- 
posed. A  great  many  Rhyssa  (i.  e.  Megarhyssa)  larvae  doubtless 
perish  without  finding  food,  and  a  great  many  females  die  in 
probing  for  a  burrow,  especially  when  they  burrow  through  wood 
that  is  sound  and  hard. " 

In  this  same  paper,  Riley  in  speaking  of  some  personal  observa- 
tions, says,  ''.  .  .  We  examined  the  burrows  very  carefully 
and  found  Thalessa  (i.  e.  Megarhyssa)  in  all  stages  at  that  time — 
larvae,  pupae  of  both  sexes,  and  imagines  of  both  sexes  within 
the  tree — the  larvae  being  of  various  sizes  and  invariably  external 
to  the  Tremex:  i.  e.  not  within,  but  holding  on  to  its  victim  and 
sucking  the  latter's  life  away,  without  in  any  case  entering  the 
body." 

The  insect  remains  within  the  tree  until  it  becomes  adult,  then 
it  gnaws  its  way  to  the  surface  and  escapes.     The  males  usually 

"  Country  Gentleman,  xlix,  1S84,  p.  331. 

« 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


140  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

appear  first.  W.  H.  Harrington"  has  given  a  series  of  obser- 
vations made  in  June,  1887,  in  which  he  showed  that  the  males 
having  issued  first,  awaited  the  females,  and  were  able  to  locate 
the  spot  at  which  a  given  female  would  emerge,  some  time  before 
she  made  her  appearance.  In  one  instance  which  he  records, 
a  particular  spot  was  crowded  with  males  for  two  days  before 
the  female  emerged,  and  even  then,  she  was  assisted  by  the 
removal  of  the  bark  by  the  observer.  The  males,  in  waiting, 
make  every  effort  to  reach  the  female,  inserting  the  tips  of  their 
abdomen  into  crevices  in  the  bark.  On  emerging  the  female 
is  instantly  seized,  the  legs  of  the  male  clasping  the  yet  unused 
wings  and  abdomen,  thus  preventing  her  from  flying. 

Genus  RHYSSA  Gravenhorst 

Rhyssa  Gravenhorst,  Ichneum.  Europ.,  iii,  1829,  p.  260. 

Epirhyssa  Cresson,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.,  iv,  1865,  p.  39. 

Pararhyssa  Walsh,  Trans.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Louis,  v,  1873,  p.  109. 

Rhyssa  Riley,  Ins.  Life,  i,  1888-9,  p.  169  (habits). 

Rhyssa  Dalla  Torre,  Cat.  Hym.,  iii,  1901-2,  p.  482. 

Epirhyssa  Schmiedeknecht,  Gen.  Ins.,  fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  59. 

Rhyssa  Schmiedeknecht,  Gen.  Ins.,  fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  62. 

Rhyssa  Ramsey,  The  Entom.,  xlvii,  1914,  ]■>.  20  (habits). 

Genotype:  Ichneumon  persuasorms  Linn. 

Rhyssa,  a  primitive  and  widespread  genus,  occurs  both  in 
America  and  Europe.  In  North  America  it  is  found  from 
Alaska  to  Mexico  and  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic  coast, 
and  is  also  found  on  the  island  of  Cuba.  There  are  two  records 
of  fossil  Rhyssae  being  found,  one  in  the  Lower  Miocene  and  the 
other  in  the  Oligocene.^^  It  occurs  under  such  a  variety  of 
climates  and  conditions  that  considerable  variation  both  in 
color  and  structural  characters  is  found.  It  would  seem  as  though 
it  were  trying  to  break  up  into  a  number  of  races  and  thence 
to  species,  but  its  variations  have  not  become  fixed  to  such  an 
extent  that  they  may  be  considered  as  permanent.  Rhyssa 
persuasoria,  the  oldest  described  species  of  this  genus,  was  de- 
scribed by  Linnaeus;  since  there  have  been  several  new  species 
described,  in  some  instances  from  a  single  specimen,  but  the 
amount  of  variation  is  so  great  that  it  does  not  seem  safe  to 
accept  as  a  new  species,  one  described  from  a  single  specimen. 

"  Can.  Ent.  xix,  1887,  p.  206. 

'2  Scudder,  Tert.  Insect,  t.  10,  1890,  p.  19. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  141 

In  1864,  Cresson  described  Rhyssa  alhomaculata.  He  separated 
this  species  from  R.  persuasoria  on  the  grounds  that  the  former 
had  a  white  band  on  its  antennae,  a  slight  difference  in  color 
markings  and  a  small  petiolated  areolet,  but  as  specimens  occur 
with  white  banded  antennae  and  areolets  similar  to  those  with 
black  antennae  and  vice  versa,  and  as  there  is  a  great  range  in 
both  thoracic  and  abdominal  markings  which  do  not  adhere 
always  to  the  antennal  or  areolet  differences,  it  would  seem  that 
R.  alhomaculata  is  really  R.  persuasoria.  R.  skinneri  Viereck 
is  described  from  one  specimen,  mainly  upon  structural  characters, 
with  some  difference  in  color  markings,  but  in  R.  persuasoria 
there  is  a  marked  variability  in  structural  as  well  as  in  color 
markings.  The  clypeus  may  range  from  pointed  to  truncate, 
the  face  may  be  medially  elevated  and  smooth  or  striated  or 
the  whole  face  may  be  elevated.  There  is  considerable  variation 
'  in  the  puncturing  and  rugulose  characters  of  the  thorax.  The 
notum  of  the  propodeum  may  or  may  not  have  a  medial-longi- 
tudinal depression.  As  for  the  differences  in  color  it  would 
seem  that  no  dependence  could  be  placed  upon  them,  and  that 
Rhyssa  skinneri  will  probably  prove  to  be  a  synonym.  Rhyssa 
ala&kensis  was  described  by  Ashmead  from  one  specimen.  The 
description  of  this  species  will  apply  equally  well  to  Rhyssa 
persuasoria  and  it  will  probably  prove  to  belong  to  the  latter 
species. 

Table  to  Species  of  Rhyssa 

1 .  Face  elevation  longitudinally  rugulose skinneri  Viereck 

2.  Face  elevation  not  longitudinally  rugulose persuasoria  Linnaeus 

Rhyssa  skinneri  Viereck 

Rhyssa  skinneri  Viereck,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xxix,  1903,  p.  87,   9. 

Type. — In  collection  of  Acad,  of  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  from  Beulah, 
New  Mexico,  Aug.  17,  1901,  (H.  Skinner). 

"Face  rugulose;  mesonotum  almost  uniformly  transversely  striate,  the 
striae  not  apparently  gibbose.  Raised  line  separating  metanotum  and  pleura 
poorly  defined,  being  obsolete  below  the  spiracles.  Length,  23  mm.,  face 
somewhat  elevated  medially,  the  elevation  rather  longitudinally  rugulose, 
sides  and  anterior  margins  of  the  face,  polished  and  moderately  sparsely  jjunc- 
tured.  Clypeus  highly  pohshed,  distinctly  produced  to  a  point  medially,  and 
with  a  row  of  deep  punctures.  Cheeks  polished,  almost  impunctate.  Dor- 
sulum  transversely  striate,  the  striae  delicate  but  well  defined  posteriorly. 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


142  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Carina  on  anterior  haK  of  mesopleura  becoming  indistinct  half  way  upon  the 
pleura,  strongly  striato-punctate,  the  superior  half,  highly  polished.  Scutellum 
flattened,  transversely  striate.  ^Sletanotum  with  a  sUght  median  longitudinal 
impression,  deUcately,  transversely  sculptured,  laterally  shining,  rugulose;  me- 
tapleura  pohshed,  sparsely  punctured,  rugulose  on  the  superior  margin.  Wings 
hyaline,  with  a  brown  cast,  nervures  and  stigma  dark  brown,  second  recurrent 
nervure  interstitial  with  the  second  transverse  cubitus.  Dorsal  abdominal 
segments  finely  transversely  sculptured,  having  a  satiny  luster.  Ovipositor 
about  29  mm.  in  length.  Black,  a  line  from  malar  space  to  apex  of  the  eye, 
a  band  on  the  superior  border  of  the  propleurae,  a  spot  below  on  the  tubercle, 
a  spot  on  the  anterior  coxae,  greater  part  of  the  tegulae,  a  large  spot  beneath, 
a  small  spot  on  the  mesopleurae,  a  spot  on  the  medial  coxae,  a  short  line  to 
the  sides  and  apex  of  first,  second,  third,  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth,  and  a  lateral 
line  on  the  seventh  dorsal  segments,  white.  Greater  part  of  four  anterior 
legs  (excluding  coxae)  ochraceous.  Apex  of  first,  all  of  second  trochanters  and 
the  femora  of  posterior  legs  ferruginous;  the  tibiae  and  tarsi  dark  brown. 
Described  from  one  female  specimen  "closely  related  to  R.  persuasoria  but 
distinguished  by  the  difference  in  sculpture,  very  distinct  in  coloration." 

As  the  writer  has  never  seen  the  type  of  this  species,  the  original 
description  by  Viereck  is  here  given. 

Rhyssa  persuasoria  (Linnaeus) 

Ichneumon  persuasoria  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.,  Ed.  x,  1758,  p.  256,  n.  67. 
Cryptocentrum  lineolatum  Kirby,  Fauna  Bor.  Amer.,  iv,  1837,  p.  260. 
Rhyssa  albomaculata  Cresson,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Phila.,  iii,  1864,  p.  318. 
Rhyssa  (Pararhyssa)  albimaculata  Walsh,  Trans.  Acad.  St.  Louis,  iii,  1873, 

p. 109. 
Cryptocentrum  lineolatum  Kirby,  Can.  Ent.,  ix,  1877,  p.  150. 
Epirhyssa  crevieri  Provancher,  Nat.  Canad.,  xii,  1880,  p.  17. 
Rhyssa  persuasoria  Riley,  Insect  Life,  i,  1888-89,  p.  169. 
Rhyssa  albomaculata  Hopkins,  Bull.  32,  West  Va.  Exp.  Sta.,  1893,  p.  217. 
Rhyssa  persuasoria  Morley,  The  Entomologist,  xhi,  1909,  p.  133,  note. 
Rhyssa  persuasoria  Morley,  The  Entomologist,  xliii,  1910,  p.  243. 
.^  Rhyssa  alaskensis  Ashmead,  Harr.  Alaska  Exp.,  ix,  1910,  p.  205. 

Type. — Location  unknown.  Type  of  Cryptocentrum  lineo- 
latum in  British  Museum. 

The  female  of  this  species  is  from  about  half  an  inch  to  nearly  an  inch  in 
length.  Its  color  markings  are  also  very  variable.  The  head  is  dark  brown 
to  black.  In  most  instances  the  orbits  of  the  compound  eyes  are  white, 
rarely  interrupted  at  the  vertex,  and  extending  downward  as  far  as  the  clypeus 
on  each  side  of  the  eye.  In  some  specimens  there  is  a  white  band  just  above 
the  clypeus  connecting  the  lower  ends  of  the  bands  of  the  facial  orbits,  in 
others  the  lower  part  of  the  face  below  the  antennae  and  above  the  clypeus 
is  white.  The  clypeus  may  be  pointed  or  vary  toward  truncate.  Below  the 
antennae  the  face  may  be  raised  centrally  or  entirely,  and  its  surface  may  be 


J.    H.    MERRILL  143 

smooth  or  striated.  The  antennae  are  dark  brown  to  black.  Some  are  all 
black,  some  have  a  suggestion  of  white,  some  one  or  two  segments  that  are 
white,  while  in  others  there  may  be  a  number  of  distinct,  white  segments 
forming  a  band  on  the  antennae.  The  individuals  having  this  last-named 
characteristic  have  been  regarded  by  some  as  forming  a  separate  species, 
Rhyssa  albomamdata. 

The  thorax  is  dark  brown  to  black.  There  is  a  variable  amount  of  thoracic 
punctures  and  striations.  The  prothorax  is  bordered  above  and  below  with 
a  varying  amount  of  white.  In  some  the  sides  of  the  prothorax  have  such  an 
amount  of  white  that  the  dark  ground  color  only  shows  as  a  spot  in  the  center. 
The  mesonotum  is  immaculate.  On  the  center  of  the  mesoscutellum  is  a 
square  white  spot,  and  usually  there  is  a  white  Une  on  the  rear  margin  of  the 
entire  plate.  There  is  an  oblong  white  spot  on  the  center  of  the  metascutellum 
(postscutellmn)  and  this  plate  may  or  may  not  have  its  rear  margin  marked 
by  a  white  line.  The  tegulae  and  a  raised  spot  beneath  the  fore  wings  are 
always  white.  On  the  mesopleuron  just  below  the  attachment  of  hind  wing 
is  a  white  spot  and  another  just  above  and  in  front  of  the  middle  coxae.  The 
size  of  these  spots  is  variable  and  they  may  even  coalesce,  margming  the  post- 
erior border  of  the  mesopleuron.  There  is  a  variable  white  spot  on  the  side 
of  the  metathorax  and  another  just  above  it  on  the  propodeum.  In  some 
specimens  there  is  a  median  longitudinal  depression  on  the  notum  of  the  pro- 
podeum; in  others  it  is  suggested,  while  in  some  it  is  absent.  The  wings  are 
hyaUne  sometimes  tinged  with  yellow.  The  nervures  and  stigma  are  fuscous 
except  at  their  base,  where  they  are  paler.  The  shape,  size,  and  even  the  pres- 
ence of  the  areolet  are  variable.  The  recurrent  nervure  is  usually  interstitial 
with  the  outer  transverse  cubital  nervure.  In  some  the  latter  nervure  is 
present  and  assists  in  forming  the  areolet,  in  others  but  a  stub  of  it  remains 
while  in  some  cases  it  is  absent.  In  some  cases  the  areolet  is  petiolated, 
receiving  the  recurrent  nervure  in  its  middle.  The  legs  vary  from  light  yellow 
to  rufous,  the  coxae  from  white  to  black  with  white  spots.  In  general  the 
posterior  legs  are  darker  than  the  others.  The  color  is  even  more  variable 
in  the  legs  than  in  the  thorax.  The  abdomen  is  dark  brown  to  black,  lustrous, 
and  finely,  transversely  aciculated  above.  The  lower  borders  of  the  pleura 
of  the  second  segment  are  each  margined  with  a  white  band,  which  bends 
upward  at  its  posterior  margin  and  usually  meets  its  fellow  of  the  opposite 
side,  above.  The  third  segment  is  sunilarly  marked  except  that  the  bands  do 
not  quite  meet  above.  Usually  on  the  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  seg- 
ments these  bands  are  interrupted  so  that  a  spot  is  formed  on  the  upper 
side  of  the  pleuron,  while  its  lower  border  remains  marked  with  a  white  band. 
In  some,  the  spot  and  band  are  connected  on  the  seventh  segment.  On  the 
last  segment  the  white  marking  is  continuous  along  the  posterior  margin  but 
does  not  meet  its  fellow  above.  This  line  is  not  always  continuous.  The 
ovipositor  is  shghtly  longer  than  the  body,  dark  brown  to  black,  with  darker 
colored  sheaths. 

The  male  differs  from  the  female  in  that  the  face  below  the  antennae  is 
whiter  and  the  anterior  coxae  and  femora  are  lighter  colored. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


144  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

I  have  not  seen  the  type  of  Rhyssa  skinneri  Viereck,  as  already- 
stated,  but  from  the  description,  it  does  not  seem  impossible 
that  it  may  be  a  form  of  this  species. 

Habits  of  Rhyssa 

The  Rhyssae  by  means  of  their  ovipositors  bore  into  trees 
infested  with  borers  and  there  deposit  their  eggs.  They  are 
primary  parasites  on  Sirex,  Monohammus  and  Urocerus  cyaneus. 
As  their  life  from  hatching  to  adult  is  spent  within  the  trunks 
of  trees,  it  has  made  a  study  of  their  history  practically  impossible. 
It  has  been  generally  assumed  that  they  were  external  parasites, 
but  H.  J.  Erne  ^^  gives  an  account  of  raising  Rhyssa  from  Sirex. 
According  to  him  the  eggs  were  laid  within  the  larvae.  It  has 
been  clearly  shown  that  in  the  closely  related  genus  Megarhyssa, 
the  eggs  are  external  to  the  larvae.  The  tip  of  the  ovipositor 
is  constructed  for  sawing  into  wood  and  not  for  piercing  other 
insects.  It  does  not  seem  probable  that  the  members  of  one 
genus  live  as  external  while  those  of  so  similar  a  genus  should  live 
as  internal  parasites.  Yet  the  only  published  evidence  that  has 
been  found  asserts  that  Rhyssa  live  as  internal  parasites.  Erne's 
observations  will  be  given  here  though  their  accuracy  is  doubted. 

"In  studying  Serropalpiis  I  had  an  opportunity  to  observe 
Pimpla  persuasoria.  The  eggs  of  Pimpla  were  usually  laid  in 
the  larva  of  a  species  of  Sirex,  which  were  very  inactive  on  that 
account,  and  did  not  put  up  any  resistance.  After  they  hatched 
the  little  larva  remained  in  the  Sirex  larva  until  the  latter  died. 
The  larva  of  Pimpla  had  by  this  time  attained  a  size  of  two  or 
three  lines. 

"They  left  the  Sirex  larva  after  it  was  dead,  and  from  time 
to  time  fed  on  the  remains.  If  the  Sirex  larva  is  large  the  Pimpla 
larva  has  food  enough,  but  if  it  is  small,  the  food  supply  is  not 
sufficient,  and  since  the  Pimpla  does  not  try  any  other  nourish- 
ment it  dies  in  the  wood.  Frequently  the  Sirex  larva  with  the 
parasite  larva  in  its  body,  penetrates  deeply  into  the  wood,  so 
that  the  developed  Pimpla  has  to  bite  its  way  out  of  the  wood 
from  a  depth  of  two  lines  in  order  to  get  free.  For  a  space  of 
three  days  it  thus  works  itself  forward;  if  it  does  not  get  free 
in  three  days  its  strength'  becomes  weakened  and  it  dies  in  the 

"  Mittheil.  Schweiz.  Entom.  Gesell.,  iv,  1876,  p.  9,  p.  518. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  145 

wood.  If  one  would  rear  the  larva  of  a  Pwipla  persuasoria,  one 
must  give  it  the  remains  of  the  same  larva  for  nourishment  in 
which  it  was  hatched." 

Riley  says  ^•^  that  Ratzeburg  states  that  both  Nordlinger  and 
himself  raised  Rhyssa  persuasoria  from  Sirex  spectrum,  but  does 
not  give  any  details  of  his  observations  nor  does  he  state  that 
the  parasite  in  ovipositing  pierces  the  wood-boring  grub. 

The  subject  of  the  habits  of  Rhyssa  is  by  no  means  a  clear 
one,  and  it  awaits  some  worker  who  will  be  fortunate  enough 
to  observe  its  complete  life  history. 

The  genus  Rhyssa  Gravenhorst,  has  its  clypeus  medially 
lengthened  or  unidentate  and  its  abdominal  segments  rounded 
at  the  apices.  The  sternal  plate  of  the  second  abdominal 
segment  is  not  fused  with  the  pleura.  The  projections  of  the 
sternal  plates  on  either  side  of  the  mid-ventral  groove  are  placed 
about  mid-way  between  the  base  and  apex  of  each  segment. 
The  sternal  plate  of  the  second  abdominal  segment  is  composed 
almost  wholly  of  chitin.  The  ovipositors  of  Rhyssa  are  but 
little  longer  than  the  body,  consequently  they  do  not  need  the 
membrane  which  is  used  by  Megarhyssa  in  forcing  its  long  ovi- 
positor into  the  wood. 

Since  the  above  was  written  an  article  has  appeared  on  the 
habits  of  oviposition  by  Rhyssa  by  L.  N.  G.  Ramsay,^-''  as  follows: 

"The  remarkable  insects  of  the  genus  Rhyssa  have  for  long 
been  known  to  prey  on  the  wood-boring  larvae  of  Siricidae, 
introducing  their  eggs  into  the  tunnels  of  the  latter  by  means  of 
their  enormously  elongated  ovipositor.  The  ovipositor  is  some- 
times even  found  sticking  in  a  »S/re.r-infested  log  (as,  for  example, 
the  specimens  exhibited  in  the  insect  gallery  at  South  Kensing- 
ton), but,  I  understand,  the  manner  in  which  the  insect  contrives 
to  insert  this  unwieldy  appliance  into  the  tree-trunk  has  not 
hitherto  been  fully  described.  I  hope,  therefore,  that  the  follow- 
ing account  may  be  of  interest  to  entomologists. 

"The  event  described  was  witnessed  in  the  summer  of  1909, 
while  I  was  staying  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Black  Forest, 
to  the  west  of  the  Wehratal.     On  the  afternoon  of  August  29th, 

"  Insect  Life,  i,  1888-89,  p.  1G9. 

15  The  Entomologist,  xlvii,  p.  20,  f.  U,  (1914). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


146  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

while  skirting  a  wood — the  very  finest  conifers  of  the  Black 
Forest  flourish  in  this  locality — I  happened  to  pause  beside  a  pile 
of  small  pine  logs,  and  as  I  stood  there  one  of  these  extraordinary 
insects  appeared  and  settled  on  one  of  the  logs.  I  will  quote 
verbatim  from  my  notes  written  the  same  day: —  'It  sat  still  for 
some  time,  and  then  began  to  walk  about,  feeling  every  hole 
and  (p.  21)  corner  in  the  rough  bark  with  its  long  antennae. 
After  a  minute  or  two  of  this  it  stopped,  and  drew  up  its  long 
body,  doubling  the  long  black  ovipositor  underneath  itself; 
it  had  to  hitch  itself  up  several  times  before  it  got  the  long  needle 
into  position  underneath,  with  the  tip  in  a  crevice.  Then  it 
gripped  the  bark  with  its  claws  and  gradually  thrust  the  ovipositor 
about  half  an  inch  into  the  bark,  then  suddenly  flew  away,  per- 
haps because  it  had  completed  laying  the  eggs,  perhaps  because 
I  had  gone  too  close.     .     .     . 

"Immediately  after,  I  made  the  rough  sketches  of  the  beast 
which  accompany  this  note.  These  are  probably  a  little  larger 
than  life,  although  the  insect  was  a  very  large  one.  I  noted  that 
the  abdomen  was  black  and  white,  the  legs  pale,  and  the  antennae 
black. 

"At  the  time  I  was  unaware  of  the  insect's  identity,  but  on 
seeing  the  specimens  of  Rhyssa  exhibited  at  the  Natural  History 
Museum  this  year,  I  at  once  recognized  my  old  acquaintance, 
and  comparison  of  the  other  species  of  the  genus  in  the  cabinet 
collections  there  leaves  little,  if  any  doubt,  that  this  was  R. 
persuasoria. 

"The  figures  will  help  to  indicate  the  manner  in  which  the 
insect  succeeded  in  bringing  its  unwieldy  ovipositor  to  bear  on 
the  log.  As  mentioned  above,  these  were  drawn  before  I  left 
the  spot  (with  the  exception  of  the  second,  which  I  have  added 
now  to  make  the  action  clearer),  and  they  are  reproduced  without 
any  change  from  my  original  rough  drawings.  As  the  insect 
had  already  taken  its  departure,  they  are  necessarily  crude,  as 
it  was  the  only  example  of  its  kind  on  which  I  had  ever  set  eyes. 
For  this  and  for  their  obvious  artistic  defects  I  shall  make  no 
further  apology,  as  they  are  merely  intended  to  convey  the 
manner  in  which  the  insect  accomplished  its  object." 

Sharp  ^^  figures  (after  Riley)  the  allied  genus  Thalessa  (now 

'^  Cambridge  Natural  History,  Insects,  pt.  i,  p.  554,  1895. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  147 

Megarhijssa)  in  the  act  of  oviposition,  and  states  that  in  both 
these  genera  the  ovipositor  is  ''brought  into  use  by  being  bent 
on  itself  over  the  back  of  the  insect,  so  as  to  bring  the  tip  ver- 
tically clown  onto  the  wood,  through  which  it  is  then  forced  by 
a  series  of  efforts;  the  sheaths  do  not  enter  the  wood." 

It  is  evident  that  this  description  does  not  tally  with  the 
foregoing  observations  on  Rhyssa.  The  insect  figured  by  Sharp 
follow^s  his  statements  in  having  its  long  ovipositor  bent  on  itself, 
out  of  its  normal  and  approximately  straight  form,  into  an  almost 
complete  circle.  From  purely  physical  considerations,  is  it  not 
a  little  difficult  to  understand  how  a  non-muscular  structure 
could  be  curved  at  will  in  this  way?  The  possibility  suggests 
itself  to  the  present  writer  that  the  insect  there  figured,  after 
having  inserted  its  ovipositor  in  the  manner  described  in  this 
note  for  Rhyssa,  may  have  pivoted  its  body  through  an  angle 
of  180°  around  the  flexible  fixed  ovipositor,  in  its  efforts  to  thrust 
the  latter  into  an  unusually  resistant  piece  of  wood.  This  might 
easily  happen  through  the  insect's  shifting  its  feet  again  and 
again  to  obtain  a  better  purchase,  and  would  explain  the  whole 
matter  very  simply,  as  the  ovipositor  in  such  a  case  would  natu- 
rally assume  the  position  figured. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  at  all  that  Mr.  Ramsay's  notes  refer 
to  R.  persuasoria  (Linnaeus),  which  has  an  extremely  wide  dis- 
tribution through  Europe  to  Canada  and  the  United  States  in 
the  West,  and  the  Himalayas  in  the  East,  since  it  is  to  the  best 
of  my  knowledge  the  only  species  attacking  phytophagous  larvae. 
R,  approximator  (Fabricius),  is  said  by  Holmgren  to  attack 
Xyphydria  prolongata,  which  feeds  in  oaks;  and  there  are  several 
interesting  accounts  of  the  American  species'  economy  ^^  and  Har- 
rington has^^  put  on  record  "The  Nuptials  of  Thalessa."  jMr. 
Ramsay  appears  to  take  it  for  granted  that  these  insects  bore 
for  themselves  an  egg-passage  through  the  solid  wood;  but  it  is 
by  no  means  proved  that  they  do  not  oftener  introduce  them 
along  the  tunnel  of  the  host  larva. ^^ 

"  Canad.  Entom.,  xi,  1879,  p.  15  etc. 

18  L.  c.  xLx,  p.  206. 

19  Cf.  Morley,  Ichn.  Brit.,  iii,  p.  25,  and  Revision  Ichn.  Brit.  Mus.  ii,  p.  10 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


148  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Genus  APECHONEURA  Kreichbaumer 

Apechoneura  Kreichbaumer,  Ann.  Naturli.  Mus.  Wien,  v,  1890,  p.  485. 
Apechoneura  Schmiedeknecht,  Genera  Insectorum,    Fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  60. 
Apechoneura  Morley,  Rev.  Ichneumon  Brit.  Mus.,  ii,  1913,  pp.  3,  22,  23. 

Genotype:  Rhyssa  terminalis  BruUe. 

The  head  is  square  with  a  distinct  carina  between  the  antennae. 
The  antennae  are  long  and  filiform.  The  mesonotum  is  trans- 
versely rugose.  The  propodeum  is  distinctly  areolated  anteriorly, 
but  posteriorly  is  less  distinctly  so.  The  transverse  median 
nervure  is  straight,  not  broken.  The  sub-discoidal  nervure  origi- 
nates from  the  median  vein  far  beyond  the  apex  of  the  sub-median 
cell.  The  areolet  in  the  fore-wing  is  trapezoidal  or  three  cor- 
nered, sessile,  or  shortly  petiolated.  The  abdomen  is  long  and 
cylindrical,  with  an  ovipositor  as  long  or  longer  than  the  body. 
The  largest  species  usually  have  a  dark  spot  in  the  tip  of  the 
wing. 

Table  to  Species 

This  table  is  taken  from  Morley's  Revision  of  Ichneumonidae, 
Part  II.  The  types  of  these  two  species  are  in  the  British  Mu- 
seum, and  therefore  Mr.  Morley  has  had  an  opportunity  to  ex- 
amine them.  Not  having  seen  Mocsary's  paper  -"  I  am  unable 
to  include  his  species. 

Abdomen  with  only  a  discal  line  black nigritarsis  Cameron 

Abdomen  black  and  flavous,  not  at  all  red carinifrons  Cameron 

Apechoneura  nigritarsis  (Cameron) 

Rhyssa  nigritarsis  Cameron,  Biol.  Cent.-Am.,  Hymen.,  i,  1886,  p.  260,  9  . 
Rhyssa  nigritarsis  Schmiedeknecht,  Gen.  Ins.,  Fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  63. 
Apechoneura  nigritarsis  Morley,  Rev.  Ichneumon.,  ii,  1913,  p.  23. 

Type. — In  the  British  Museum. 

"Fulvo  testacea;  antennis,  mesonoto  (medio-excepto),  linea  metanoti, 
abdomine,  supra  tarsisque,  nigris;  alls  hyaUne,  apice  fumata.  Habitat, 
Panama,  Volcan  de  Chiriqui  at  2000-4000  ft. 

"Length  22  mm.  Antennae  nearly  as  long  as  the  body,  stout,  gradually 
thickened  towards  the  apex;  the  base  testaceous  on  the  lower  side.  Head, 
if  anything,  broader  than  the  mesothorax,  the  face  strongly  punctured,  the 
clypeus  obscurely,  transversely,  striated,  with  two  deep  shining  black  depres- 
sions above  the  antennae,  separated  by  a  thin,  rather  sharp  partition,  vertex 
punctured  in  front,  laterally  behind  the  ocelli  aciculated;  mandibles  black 

20  Ann.  Mus.  Nat.  Hungar.,  iii,  1905. 


J.    H.    MERRILL  149 

at  the  apex.  Pronotum  reaching  to  near  the  top  of  the  head,  rising  rather 
perpendicularly  in  front;  the  mesonotum  projects  a  little  over  it,  and  rises 
from  the  scutellum  to  the  apex,  which  has  a  distinct  margin;  the  margin  pro- 
jects upward  in  the  center  and  is  depressed  in  the  middle.  Mesonotum 
transversely  striated  as  usual  and  with  a  longitudinal  furrow  on  each  side  of 
the  apical  three-fourths,  scutellum  shining,  obscurely  punctured,  broader 
than  long,  shghtly  narrower  towards  the  apex.  Pleurae  shining,  obscurely 
punctured,  a  longish  longitudinal  hoUow  in  the  middle.  The  mesonotum  is 
black  except  laterally  in  front  and  down  the  center.  Scutellum  testaceous, 
the  sutures  black.  There  is  a  longish  black  mark  under  the  fore-wings; 
the  base  and  apex  of  the  metanotum,  and  a  broad  line  down  its  center  are 
black.  The  longish  curved  spiracles  are  bordered  with  black.  Metanotum 
shining,  impunctate,  a  curved  transverse  keel  runs  across  its  center  and  an 
obhque  one  from  the  spiracles  to  the  apex.  Abdomen  shining,  somewhat  com- 
pressed, black  above,  the  apex  pilose,  in  the  center  of  the  penultimate  segment 
is  a  somewhat  triangular  depression,  covered  with  a  white  membrane;  the 
last  segment  above  forms  a  projecting  thickly  pilose  lobe;  on  the  lower  side 
it  projects  more  and  ends  in  two  horny  processes  which  clasp  the  ovipositor 
Ovipositor  nearly  three  times  longer  than  the  body,  white  at  the  apex.  Legs 
shining,  the  hind  coxae  black  at  the  base  on  the  lower  side.  Areolet  large, 
triangular,  receiving  the  recurrent  nervure  in  the  middle."  Original  descrip- 
tion from  Cameron. 

Apechoneura  carinifrons  (Cameron) 

Rhyssn  carinifrons  Cameron,  Biol.  Cent.-Am.,  Hymen.,  i,  1886,  p.  261,  9   d^ . 
Apechoneura  carinifrons  Schmiedeknecht,  Gen.  Ins.,  Fasc.  62,  1907,  p.  60. 
Apechoneura  carinifrons  Morley,  Rev.  Ichneumon.,  ii,  1913,  p.  24. 

Type. — In  the  British  Museum. 

"Testacea,  nigro  varia,  antennis  nigris,  medio  apicique  subtus  testaceis; 
pedibus  rufo-testaceis;  basis  et  apice  coxarum  posticarum,  apice  femorum, 
dimidio  apicali  tibiarum  posticarum  tarsisque,  nigris;  ahs  hyahne,  apice 
fumato.     Habitat,  Nicaragua. 

"Antennae  as  long  as  the  body,  the  base,  the  middle  narrowly  and  the  apex 
(except  the  extreme  point),  testaceous  on  the  lower  side.  Face  transversely 
punctured,  the  vertex  impunctate,  a  distinct  keel  (separating  the  antennal 
depression)  runs  down  from  the  ocelli  to  a  little  below  the  base  of  the  antennae ; 
eyes  margined,  especially  on  the  inner  side  and  above;  testaceous,  the  mandi- 
bles, the  antennal  depressions,  a  broad  transverse  band  on  the  vertex  enclosing 
the  ocelli  and  the  hind  region,  black.  Thorax  formed  as  in  nigritarsis, 
testaceous;  the  mesonotum  (except  a  broad  mark  on  the  center),  the  sutures, 
the  base  of  the  metanotum  broadly,  the  sides  of  the  prothorax  in  front,  a 
large  mark  on  the  mesopleura,  and  the  metaplcura  close  to  the  sternum,  black. 
In  the  center  of  the  metanotum  two  short  keels  run  from  the  transverse  keel, 
forming  a  somewhat  square  area.  Abdomen  black;  the  ventral  surface,  a 
longish  mark  at  the  base  of  the  first  segment  in  the  center,  its  apex  and  the 
apices  of  the  other  segments  broadly  testaceous.     The  middle  coxae  are  black 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


150  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

beneath,  the  hind  coxae  are  black  on  the  lower  side  at  the  base  and  bear  a 
longer  black  mark  on  the  apex  above,  on  the  inner  side  they  are  entirely 
black  except  a  small  testaceous  spot;  the  hind  femora  are  infuscate  toward 
the  apex,  and  more  than  the  apical  half  of  the  hind  tibiae  is  black,  tarsi  black, 
testaceous  in  the  middle.  What  appears  to  be  the  male  from  Panama  differs 
from  the  specimens  from  Nicaragua  in  having  a  broad  white  band  on  the 
antennae  close  to  the  apex  and  the  yellow  on  the  head  and  legs  brighter  in 
tint;  there  is  no  black  on  the  coxae  nor  are  the  hind  femora  infuscate  toward 
the  apex;  the  black  on  the  hind  is  only  on  the  outer  side;  and  the  abdomen 
is  broadly  dilated  laterally  at  the  apex." 

This  species  was  originally  described  by  Cameron  as  Rhyssa 
carinifrons  but  in  the  Genera  Insectorum  it  is  placed  in  Apecho- 
neura,  probably  on  account  of  the  carina  between  the  antennae 
and  its  areolated  propodeum. 

Genus  PSEUDORHYSSA  new  genus 

Genotpye:  Pseudorhyssa  siernaia  new  species. 

This  genus  is  characterized  by  its  abdominal  sterna  being 
entire  instead  of  being  separated  by  a  median  longitudinal  groove. 
It  has  an  areolated  propodeum  consisting  of  three  areas.  The 
nota  of  the  second  and  third  abdominal  segments  are  laterally 
bordered  with  a  ridge  forming  a  depression,  which  is  not  found  in 
the  other  Pimplini  genera  which  have  the  transversely  rugose 
mesonotum.     There  is  no  carina  between  the  antennae. 

Pseudorhyssa  sternata  new  species 

Tijpe:  9  ;  Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada.  August  20,  1892.  Col- 
lection of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  Type  No.  4007. 

Six  paratypes  in  same  collection. 

The  females  of  this  species  range  from  three-quarters  of  an  inch  up  to  an 
inch  and  a  quarter  in  length.  The  head  is  black,  polished,  and  slightly  punc- 
tured. The  clypeus  varies  in  outline  from  unidentate  to  bidentate.  Below 
the  antennae  the  face  is  brown  marked  by  two  parallel  longitudinal  yellow 
bands,  which  extend  from  the  base  of  the  antennae  to  the  clypeus.  On  the 
base  of  each  mandible  is  a  yellow  spot.  The  clypeus  is  rufous  at  its  base  and 
darker  at  its  tip.  The  palpi  are  yellowish-white  marked  with  black.  The 
antennae  are  dark  brown  to  black,  and  the  scape  has  a  yellow  spot  beneath. 
The  thorax  is  black  and  bears  a  number  of  short,  erect,  whitish  hairs.  The 
pronotum  is  deeply  excavated  on  both  sides,  highly  polishetl  and  ahnost 
impunctate.  The  first  thoracic  spiracle  is  bordered  with  yellow  and  this 
color  may  extend  forward  for  a  short  distance  on  the  upper  border  of  the 
pronotum.  The  tegulae  are  yellow.  The  mesonotum  is  flat  on  top  and  is 
separated  from  the  prescutum,  only  by  two  short  parallel  longitudinal  grooves 
along  its  anterior  portion.     Posteriorly  the  prescutum  is  continuous  with  the 


J.    H.    MERRILL  151 

mesonotum,  the  transverse  rugulae  of  the  latter  passing  over  the  former  in  a 
continuous  hne.     The  anterior  portion  of  the  prescutum  is  punctured. 

The  mesopleura  are  smooth,  poUshed  on  their  superior  portions,  punctured 
and  clothed  with  short  white  hairs  on  theii*  inferior  portions.  A  short  groove 
extends  forward  on  the  mesopleura  from  the  mesoepimeron,  starting  at  a 
point  about  two-thirds  of  the  distance  from  its  base  to  its  apex.  The  meso- 
scutellum  and  metascutellum  are  smooth  on  their  sides,  with  obhque  to  longi- 
tudinal striations,  their  centers  are  punctured  and  clothed  with  hairs.  The 
metathorax  is  smooth,  slightly  punctm'ed  and  clothed  with  short,  white  hairs. 
The  propodeum  is  coarsely  punctured,  except  for  a  dorsal  area  enclosed  by 
ridges,  which  is  pohshed  and  but  sUghtly  punctured.  These  ridges  start  at, 
or  near  the  base  of  the  segment,  pass  posteriorly,  as  two  gradually  diverging 
straight  lines  for  about  two-thirds  its  length,  where  they  become  circularly 
dilated  to  such  an  extent,  that  at  their  posterior  extremities  they  reach  to 
the  lateral  margins  of  the  notum,  thus  forming  three  areolated  areas  on  the 
propodeum.  The  wings  are  hyaline,  tinged  with  yellow,  the  nervures  and 
stigma  are  dark  brown  except  at  their  base,  where  they  are  lighter.  The 
recurrent  nervure  is  interstitial  with  the  outer  transverse  cubitus.  The  legs 
are  rufous,  paler  beneath.  The  tarsal  segments  are  sometimes  darker  towards 
the  tarsal  claws,  which  are  also  dark.  The  postexior  femora  each  have  a 
dark  spot  on  its  extremity.  The  posterior  tarsi  are  darker  than  the  others. 
The  abdomen  is  coarsely  punctured  and  irregularly  wrinkled.  The  notum  of 
the  second  abdominal  segment  is  laterally  bordered  with  a  strong  ridge.  From 
each  anterior  extremity  of  the  notum  extends  a  ridge  to  its  apex.  These 
ridges  gradually  converge  and  enclose  a  median  longitudinal  channel,  which 
at  its  base  is  polished  and  impunctate  but  becomes  coarsely  punctured 
and  irregularly  wrinkled.  From  this  depression  a  number  of  transverse 
wrinkles  extend  to  the  lateral  margins  of  the  notum.  The  pleura  of  this 
segment  are  coarsely  punctured  and  do  not  fuse  with  the  notum.  There  is  a 
small  obtusely  rounded  projection  on  the  outer  margin  of  the  segment  at  the 
point  where  the  ridges  end.  This  projection  is  bordered  by  a  rufous  streak. 
The  notum  of  the  third  segment  has  transversely  wrinkled,  oblique  depressions 
ext.ending  from  either  side  of  the  projecting  lobe  of  the  second  segment  out- 
ward to  the  lateral  margin  of  the  notum.  The  rest  of  the  notum  is  coarsely 
punctured  and  irregularly  wrinkled,  except  a  raised  portion  at  the  truncate, 
outer  margin  which  is  finely  punctured.  The  sternal  plates  are  not  divided 
by  a  median  longitudinal  groove,  consequently  there  are  no  mid-ventral 
projections.  This  segment,  as  are  also  the  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth,  is  bordered 
with  a  rufous  band.  The  remaining  segments  are  coarsely  punctured  and 
irregularly  wrinkled  on  their  nota.  The  fifth,  sixth,  seventh  and  eighth 
segments  have  truncate  outer  margins  laterally,  with  slight  emarginations 
on  their  nota.  The  ovipositor  is  longer  than  the  body,  dark  brown  but 
lighter  at  its  tip,  with  darker  colored  sheaths. 

This  specie.s  is  described  from  seven  specimens,  one  each  from 
"Maine,"  "Colorado"  and  "Toronto,  Canada,"  and  four  from 
"Washington  Territorj-. "     It  may  be  distinguished  from  Megar- 

TRANS.   AM.   ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


152  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

hyssa,  Rhyssa,  and  Epirhyssa  by  its  entire  abdominal  sterna, 
areolated  propodeum,  and  by  the  excavations  on  the  nota  of  the 
second  and  third  abdominal  segments,  and  may  be  distinguished 
from  Apechoneura  by  the  absence  of  a  carina  between  its  antennae. 

Unlocated  Species 

Thalessa  ?  histrio  Kreichljaumer 

Thalessa?  histrio  Kriechbaumer,  Ann.  Naturh.  Hof-Mus.,  Wien.,  v,  p. 
487,  cf. 

"Head,  thorax,  and  feet  black,  varied  with  rufo-flavous,  abdomen  rufous, 
base  black  segments  1  and  2  banded,  3  on  both  sides,  apical  spots  flavous. 
Wings  hyaline,  stigma  flavous,  this  sunken  triangular  spot  and  apex  of  the 
wings  fuscous,  areola  wanting.  Length,  13  mm.  Because  of  the  absence  of 
the  areola  perhaps  forming  a  proper  genus,  which  I  have  omitted  to  establish 
since  the  female  as  yet  unknown  might  fail  to  show  the  very  imperfect  charac- 
teristic marks.  Head  flavous,  apex  of  mandibles,  eyes,  occipital  bands  be- 
neath on  both  sides  reddish,  ocellar  region,  the  line  on  the  vertex  joined  with 
it,  and  antennae  black,  of  this  the  first  two  segments  beneath,  the  upper  line 
and  two  facial  sutures  rufous.  Thorax  black,  nearly  the  whole  margin  of 
the  anterior  pleura,  pronotum,  two  longitudinal  striae  and  two  punctures 
before  the  mesonotum,  striae  below  the  wings,  tegulae,  scutellvma,  postscutel- 
lum,  three  lateral  metathoracic  spots,  tip  of  dorsum  near  place  of  junction, 
slightly  golden-yellow.  Nearly  the  whole  of  the  anterior  coxae,  the  posterior 
above  and  on  the  sides  flavous,  summit  angulated  and  below  fuscous,  anterior 
trochanter  flavous,  dark  punctured,  posterior  ones  fuscous,  top  flavous  or 
rufous,  hind  part  more  or  less  fulvous,  in  front  flavous,  above  rufous,  bended, 
on  both  sides,  posteriorly  below  fuscous  lined,  posterior  rufous,  top  flavous, 
anterior  tibiae  and  tarsi  flavous,  posterior  rufous,  base  of  exlerior  radial  nervure 
of  wing  irregularly  bent.  Forceps  on  the  last  anal  segment  short  on  top, 
simimit  triangularly  greatly  impressed,  segments  straight.  Ends  of  segments 
abruptly  truncated. 

Habitat:   White  Mountains." 


J.    H.    MERRILL  153 

EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES 

Plate  XII 

Fig.  1. — Antenna  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 
Fig.  2. — Maxilla  of  Megarhyssa  lunalor. 

C — cardo.     Gr— galea.     L — lacinia.     P — palpus.     S — stipes. 
Fig.  3. — Head  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 

CE — compound  e3'e.     CL — clypeus.     GE — gena.     L — labrum.     MD  — 
mandible. 
Fig.  4. — Mandible  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 
Fig.  5. — Dorsal  view  of  thorax  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 
Fig.  6. — Lateral  view  of  thorax  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 
a2 — second  abdominal  segment,     cxl — procoxa.    cx2 — mesocoxa.    cx.3 — 
metacoxa.      epm2 — mesoepimeron.      epmS — metaepimeron.      epsl — proepi- 
sternum.    eps2 — mesoepisternum.     eps3 — metaepisternum.     nl — pronotum. 
ppct2 — prepectus.      psc2 — prescutum.      sp — spiracle.     scl2 — mesoscutellum. 
sclS — metascutellum.     sct2 — mesoscutum.     sct3 — metascutum.     tg — tegula. 
tsp — thoracic  spiracle. 

Plate  XIII 

Fig.   1. — Abdomen  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 

Fig.  2. — Sternal  plate  of  abdomen  of  Megarhyssa. 

Fig.  3. — Sternal  plate  of  abdomen  of  Rhyssa. 

Fig.  4. — Second  abdominal  segment  of  Rhyssa. 

Fig.  5. — Second  abdominal  segment  of  Megarhyssa. 

Fig.  6. — Hind  leg  of  Megarhyssa  hmator. 

Fig.  7. — Fore  leg  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 

Plate  XIV 

Fig.  1. — Fore  wing  of  Megarhyssa  lunator  according  to  Snodgrass. 

1 — costal  vein.  2 — sub-costal  vein.  3 — radial  vein.  4 — median  or  ex- 
terno-median  vein.  5 — anal,  sub-median  or  interno-median  vein.  7 — basal 
vein.  9 — cubital  vein.  11 — transverse  cubital  vein.  12 — transverse  cubital 
vein.  13 — transverse  medial  vein.  14 — discoidal  vein.  15 — subdiscoidal 
vein.     16 — first  recurrent  vein.     17 — second  recurrent  vein.     19 — stigma. 

Fig.  2 — Fore  wing  of  Megarhyssa  lunator  according  to  Cresson. 

a — costal  and  sub-costal  nervures  blended,  b — externo-mcd'al  nervure. 
c — anal  nerviire.  d — basal  nervure.  e — marginal  or  radial  nervure.  f— 
first  transverse  cubital  nervure.  g — second  transverse  cubital  nervure. 
h — transverse  medial  nervure.  i — abbreviated  cubital  or  stump  of  ner\-ure. 
j — discoidal  nervure.  k — cubital  nervure.  1 — recurrent  nervure.  m — sub- 
discoidal nervure.     n — stigma. 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,   XLI. 


154  PIMPLINE    ICHNEUMONIDAE 

Fig.  3. — Hind  wing  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 

a — costal  nervure.     b — sub-costal  nervure.     c — externo-medial  nervure. 
d — anal    nervure.     e — marginal    or    radial    nervure.     g — discoidal   nervure. 
h — transverse  medial  nervure.     i — transverse  cubital  nervure. 
Fig.  4 — Fore  wing  of  Megarhyssa  lunator. 
Fig.  5 — Hind  wing  of  Megarhyssa  limator. 

a — anal,    c — costa.    d — cu.  cubitus,     r — radius.       sc — sub-costa.     m — 
medius. 


Trans.  Am.  Eut.  Soc,  \o\.  XL]. 


ri.  XH. 


PSC2  SCT2 


3 

SCI2      SCtj       SClj 


epni2     psci, 
5  ^ 

P^^^         tspt.        ,,,^     ,,^^    ^^^^      p^^,^ 


MERRILL-    PIMPLINE  ICHNEUMONIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Eiit.  Soc,  Vol.  X]J. 


PI.  XIII. 


MERRILL  — PIMPLINE  ICHNEUMONIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  \o\.  XLI. 


I'l.  XIV 


CU,  >lj  CI  +  A  ^  ,M, 


C  ^  SC  R  ^  Al 


RS  -  M 


MERRILL      PIMPL I NE  ICHNEUMONIDAE 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  155 


STUDIES  IN  AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 
(ORTHOPTERA) 

V 

BY  JAMES  A.  G.  REHN  AND  MORGAN  HEBARD 

A    SYNOPSIS    OF    THE    SPECIES    OF    THE    GENUS 

CONOCEPHALUS  (XIPHIDIUM  OF  AUTHORS) 

FOUND  IN  NORTH  AMERICA  NORTH  OF 

MEXICO^ 

CONOCEPHALUS  Thunberg 

1815.  Conocephalus  Thunberg,   ]\lem.  Acad.  Imp.  .Sci.  St.  Petersbourg,  v, 

p.  271. 

1829.  Anisoptera  LatreiUe,  Regne  Anim.,  Ed.  2,  v.  p.  184. 

1831.  Xiphidion  Sen-ille,  Ann.  Sci.  Xat.,  xvii,  p.  159. 

1838.  Xiphidium  Burmeister,  Handb.  Entom.,  ii,  abth.  ii,  pt.  i,  p.  707. 

1869.  PaloUa  F.  Walker,  Cat.  Dermapt.  Salt.  Brit.  Mus.,  ii,  p.  249. 

1912.  Conocephalus  Karny,  Gen.  Ins.,  Orth.,  Subf.  Conocephalinae,  p.  8. 

Genotype  (by  tautonymy). — Conocejjhalus  heniiptenis  Thun- 
berg =Conocephah(s  conocephalus  [Locnsta  conocephalus]  (Fabri- 
cius) . 

This  genus  is  a  member  of  the  Tettigoniidae  and  of  the  sub- 
family Conocephalinae,  and  has  been  placed  by  Karny  at  the 
end  of  his  restricted  subfamily  Conocephalinae,  after  the  very 
closely  allied  genus  Orchelinmm.  It  is  evident,  however,  that 
the  North  American  genus  Odontoxiphidium  should  be  placed 
at  the  end  of  this  group,  following  the  present  genus. 

It  is  extremely  important  to  note  that  the  many  subgenera  of 
Conocephalus  are  readily  separable  one  from  the  other  by  one 
or  more  striking  characters  in  every  instance,  while  the  genus 
Orchelinmm,  though  forming  a  distinct  unit  which  is  readily 
recognizable  in  the  vast  majority  of  specimens  examined,  affords 
no  single  constant  character  for  its  ready  separation  from  the 
present  genus. 

1  Published  with  the  aid  of  the  Orthoptera  Fund. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


156      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Differential  Generic  Characters. — The  genus  Conocephalus  is 
separated  with  great  difficulty  from  the  genus  OrcheUmum.  The 
present  genus  includes  diminutive  forms;  but  the  smallest  indi- 
viduals of  several  species  of  OrcheUmum,  the  majority  of  these 
found  onlj^  in  the  extreme  northern  part  of  the  range  of  the  re- 
spective species,  are  not  as  large  as  the  largest  specimens  of  Con- 
ocephalus before  us.  In  the  present  genus  the  stridulating  field  of 
the  male  tegmen  is  normally  smaller,  narrower  and  less  extensive 
than  in  OrcheUmum,  the  vicinity  of  the  arcuate  vein  not  strongly 
produced  or  overhanging  ^  and,  when  looking  from  the  dorsum, 
the  humeral  trunk  is  never  hidden.^  The  male  cerci,  though 
showing  many  different  types,  do  not  in  any  of  the  North 
American  species  exhibit  the  type  found  in  the  majority  of  the 
species  of  OrcheUmwn,  in  which  the  tooth  is  placed  in  a  more  or 
less  decided  socket-like  depression;  all  of  the  American  species 
of  the  genus  have  the  cerci  unispinose.  Further  usual  differen- 
ces are  found  in  the  male  subgenital  plate  which  is  truncate 
distad  in  the  great  majority  of  American  species. ■*  The  females  of 
all  the  North  American  species  do  not  have  the  ovipositor  de- 
cidedly arcuate,  though  distinctly  arcuate  in  C.  nemoraUs, 
occasionally  of  this  type  in  C.  nigropleur aides,  and  such  a 
condition  even  more  weakly  indicated  in  other  species.^  Mate- 
rial of  the  two  genera  is  easily  separated  by  a  decidedly 
different  general  appearance,  but  when  the  characters  of  the 
two  are  compared,  the  variation  in  each  of  the  genera  leaves  us 
unable  to  state  a  single  absolute  difference. 

History. — In  1815,  Thunberg  erected  the  genus  Conocephalus, 
including  in  it  twenty-four  species;  under  one  of  these,  C.  hemip- 
terus  (p.  272),  he  placed  as  a  synonym  Locusfa  conocephalus  of 
Fabricius,  which  citation  forms,  under  the  International  Nomen- 
clature rules,  t^q^e  designation  by  tautonjany,  and  in  consequence 

2  The  opposite  of  this  is  true  for  the  majority  of,  but  not  all,  the  species  of 
OrcheUmum. 

^  This  is  the  normal  condition  in  the  species  of  OrcheUmum,  excepting  in 
0.  volanlum  and  0.  hradleiji,  and  to  a  less  degree  in  0.  gladiator. 

''This  is  not  true  of  C.  allardi,  which  has  a  distinctive  and  remarkal)le  male 
subgenital  plate. 

''  In  Orchelimuhi,  mililare  is  the  only  species  having  a  straight  ovipositor; 
several  other  species  have  the  ovipositor  with  dorsal  margin  straight  but  with 
ventral  margin  curved. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  157 

the  species  becomes  type  of  the  genus  Conocephalus.  This 
unfortunate  condition  has  been  remarked  by  certain  authors  in 
recent  years,  and  requires  the  abandonment  of  the  name  Cono- 
cephalus for  the  large  cone-headed  katydids  to  -which  it  has 
generally  been  applied,  and  its  use  for  the  present  genus,  which 
appears  in  most  literature  under  Xiphidion  or  Xiphidium. 

The  name  Anisoptera  of  Latreille,  1829,  was  based  on  two 
species,  dorsalis  and  brachypterus;  the  former  has  been  selected 
as  the  type  of  Anisoptera  ])y  Kirby,*^  the  latter  is  a  member  of 
the  Decticinae.  Karny  "^  takes  exception  to  the  use  of  Anisoptera 
for  the  present  genus  by  Kirby;  the  latter 's  non-use  of  Cono- 
cephalus is  apparently  incomprehensible  to  him,  but  is  probably 
due  to  Kirby's  personal  objection  to  the  use  of  tautonymic  names, 
which  objection  has  been  shared  by  numerous  workers. 

Walker's  genus  Palotta,  1869,  includes  the  single  species 
inornata,  which  has  been  synonymized  by  Kirby  under  Xiphi- 
dium  iris  of  Stal. 

Classification. — Karny  has  recently  divided  the  present  genus 
into  five  subgenera.^  His  new  Xeoxipkidion  includes  thirtj-'-two 
species  and  in  the  absence  of  a  designated  genotype  we  select 
C.  {X .)  fasciatus  (DeGeer).  The  subgenus  XtpAid^'on  Serville  has 
the  type  fixed  by  Kirby  ^  as  fuscum  (Fabricius).  Karny 's  new 
Thecoxiphidion  includes  six  species  and,  in  the  absence  of  a  desig- 
nated genotype,  we  select  C.  (T.)  strictus  (Scudder).  The  subgenus 
Palotta  F.  Walker  has  inornata  {iris  Serville)  type  by  monotypy, 
while  the  tj'pe  of  the  subgenus  Conocephalus  is  C.  (C.)  conocephalus 
by  tautonymy,  as  discussed  above.  Of  these  subgenera  we  find 
Xiphidion,  Palotta  and  Conocephalus  possessing  sufficient  and 
distinguishable  characters,  but  under  Xiphidion  we  must  place 
Xeoxiphidion  and  Thecoxiphidion.  The  first  of  these  is  separated 
by  Karny  by  the  male  cerci  being  heavy,  depressed  and  short 
distad,  the  majority  of  species  American,  in  contrast  to  Xiphidion 
having  the  male  cerci  slender,  acuminate,  not  or  but  little  de- 
pressed distad,  the  majority  of  species  from  the  Eastern  Hemi- 
sphere.   Study  of  the  genotypes  and  the  numerous  species  of  the 

«  Syn.  Cat.  Orth.,  ii,  p.  274,  (1906). 

'  Verb.  k.-k.  zool.-botan.  Gesell.  Wien,  lix,  p.  27,  (1909). 
*  Gen.  Ins.,  Orth.,  Subf.  Conoccphalinae,  p.  8,  (1912). 
'Syn.  Cat.  Orth.,  ii,  p.  274,  (190()). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.   SOC,    XLI. 


158      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

genus  before  us  convinces  us  that  the  above  characters  are  in- 
sufficient. Moreover  we  are  certain  that  the  type  species  of 
these  subgenera,  fasciatus  and  fuscus,  possess  no  other  differential 
characters  of  sufficient  importance  to  warrant  the  erection  of 
subgenera.  The  North  American  species  which  we  place  under 
the  subgenus  Xiphidion  are  naturally  separated  into  three  groups, 
but  it  would  be  necessary  to  erect  countless  subgenera  for  the 
genus  were  these  considered  subgenerically  distinct.  The  Old 
World  species  having  no  teeth,  or  two,  instead  of  the  usual  one  on 
each  male  cercus,  are  certainly  more  distinctive  than  these  and 
may  constitute  valid  subgenera,  while  the  variation,  within  the 
genus,  of  the  male  subgenital  plate  affords  even  more  decided 
genital  characters,  being  acutely  produced  distad  without  styles 
in  some,  acutely  produced  distad  with  styles  in  others  and  not 
produced  but  bearing  styles  in  the  majority  of  species. 

The  very  long  ovipositor  and  very  brief  tegmina  are  used  to 
separate  Thecoxiphidion  from  Xiphidion.  The  variation  in  the 
ovipositor,  not  only  in  the  type  of  this  subgenus  but  in  the  majority 
of  the  species  which  we  havestudied,  convinces  us  that  this  charac- 
ter is  insufficient  for  subgeneric  use,  and  the  tegminal  length  is 
not  to  be  considered  of  even  specific  value,  as  the  genotype 
itself,  normally  decidedly  brachypterous,  develops  a  macrop- 
terous  form. 

Key  to  the  Subgenera  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus 

A.  Prosternum  bispinose.  (Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with 
three  pairs  of  spurs.) 

B.  Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  five  to  seven  i" 
well  spaced  spines. 

C.  Male  subgenital  plate  very  strongly  produced  meso-distad  in  two 
sharp  straight  spikes,  styles  absent. 

Dicellura  new  subgenus 

CC.  Male  subgenital  plate  with  distal  margin  more  or  less  decidedly 

truncate,  with  no  decided  emargination  or  production;  small,  slender, 

filiform  styles  present  laterad.  Xiphidion  Serville 

BB.  Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  nine  to  ten 

closely  set  spines.  Palotta  F.  \\'alker 

AA.  Prosternum  unarmed.     (Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae 

armed  with  five  to  seven '"  well  spaced  spines.) 

'"  In  all  of  the  North  American  species  of  the  genus,  the  cephalic  and  median 
tibiae  have  both  ventro-cephahc  and  ventro-caudal  margins  armed  uniformly 
with  six  well  spaced  spines. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD 


159 


B.  Caudal  tibiae  amied  at  distal  extremity  with  three  pairs  of  sj)urs. 

Conocephalus  Thunberg 
BB.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  a  single  pair  of  spurs 
(dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  absent.     IVIale  subgenital  plate  as  in  Xiphidion.) 

Anarthropus  new  subgenus 

The  following  diagram  illustrates  the  relationship  of  the  forms 
here  considered. 


-nllanli 

^fascial  us  fasciatus 
"^ — fa scia tus  v icin us 

s'pinosus 

'jrdcillim  us 

hrevipen  n  is 

rcsacensis 


iicniorolii 


-occidental  is 


-sirictui 


njgrnphilus 


stictotncrus 


-aigicdus 

nigroplcurum 

aUcn uatus 

niffrDphuroides 


-spartinae 


-saltans 


The  numbers  given  above  designate  the  three  subgenera  known 
from  North  America;  the  letters  indicate  the  natural  groups  of 
the  very  large  subgenus  Xiphidion,  each  of  which  includes  species 
showing  a  greater  or  less  degree  of  affinity,  as  given  in  the  above 
diagram.  Of  the  species  of  group  A,  resacensis  shows  much  the 
greatest  affinity  to  the  species  of  group  C.  Group  B  is  distinctive 
and  forms  a  decided  unit,  not  a  transition,  between  groups  A  and 
C.  Group  C  divides  into  two  portions,  the  species  forming  the 
first  of  these  showing  somewhat  greater  affinity  to  those  of  Group 
A. 

In  certain  respects  otherwise  very  different  species  show  decided 
similarity,  thus  allardi  and  nemorcdis  both  have  unusually  broad 
tegmina  with  apices  very  broadly  rounded  and  tympana  of 
males  in  proportion  decidedly  wider  tlian  is  usual;  brevipennis 


TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


160      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

and  spartinae  are  so  similar  in  general  appearance  that  they  long 
remained  unrecognized  in  collections  as  very  distinct  species. 

Distribution  (over  the  region  under  consideration). — The 
present  genus  is  found  everywhere  in  Canada  as  far  north  as  ade- 
quate collecting  has  been  done  and  probably  extends  in  distribu- 
tion northward  at  least  as  far  as  the  spruce  belt.  It  is  also  found 
everj^where  in  the  United  States;  l^ut  in  the  semi-desert  and  desert 
regions  of  the  west  it  is  confined  to  mountains,  rivers,  streams, 
lakes  and  irrigated  tracts  where  a  more  constant  water  supply 
is  to  be  found.  The  genus  is  found  in  the  greatest  numbers  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley  region  and  in  the  central  Atlantic  states. 

Material  Examined. — In  addition  to  a  series  of  over  1000  speci- 
mens already  correctly  recorded,  we  have  examined  and  recorded 
in  the  present  paper  2907  specimens,  of  which  1924  are  in  the 
Hebard  Collection  and  that  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences 
of  Philadelphia.  For  the  privilege  of  studying  the  additional 
material  we  wish  to  express  our  deep  appreciation  to  Mr.  A.  N. 
Caudell,  of  the  United  States  National  Museum  and  to  Dr. 
Samuel  Henshaw,  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  who 
have  enabled  us  to  study  all  of  the  material  in  the  collections  of 
those  institutions,  to  Prof.  A.  P.  Morse  who  has  generously 
requested  us  to  study  and  record  the  interesting  series  in  his  col- 
lection taken  by  him  outside  of  New  England,  and  to  Mr.  Wm. 
T.  Davis  and  Dr.  J.  Chester  Bradley  whose  careful  w^ork  in  the 
field  and  kind  cooperation  has  greatly  assisted  us  in  this  and  other 
studies.  The  privilege  of  studying  and  recording  the  material 
belonging  to  the  Pennsylvania  State  Department  of  Zoology 
has  also  aided  us  in  the  present  work. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  present  paper  the  following  types  have 
been  before  us: 

Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell) 

Conocephalus  fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse) 

{Xiphidium  vicinum  var.  productum  Morse,  synonym  of  Cono- 
cephalus fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse).) 

Conocephalus  spinosus  (Morse) 

Conocephalus  gracillinius  (Morse) 

Conocephalus  brevipennis  (Scudder) 

{Xiphidium  ensifer  Scudder,  synonym  of  Conocephalus  brevi- 
pennis (Scudder).) 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  IGl 

{Xiphidium  gossypii  Scudder,  synonym  of  Conocephalus  brevi- 
pennis  (Scudder).) 

Conocephalus  resacensis  new  species 

Conocephalus  nemoralis  (Scudder) 

Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse) 

{Xiphidium  occidentale  var.  camurum.  Moi'se,  synonym  of 
Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse).) 

(Xiphidium  occidentale  var.  caudatum  iNIorse,  synonym  of 
Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse).) 

Conocephalus  strictus  (Scudder) 

Conocephalus  hygrophilus  new  species 

Conocephalus  stictomerus  new  species 

Conocephalus  aigialus  new  species 

Conocephalus  nigropleurum  (Bruner) 

Conocephalus  attenuatus  (Scudder) 

Conocephalus  nigropleuroides  (H.  Fox) 

Conocephalus  spartinae  (H.  Fox) 

Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder) 

{Xiphidium  modestum  Bruner,  synonym  of  Conocephalus  sal- 
tans (Scudder).) 

Key  to  Males  of  the  North  American  Species  of  the  Genus 
Conocephalus  found  north  of  Mexico 

A.  Prosfernum   bispinose.     Caudal   tibiae   armed   at   distal   extremity   with 
three  pairs  of  spurs. 

B.  Subgenital  plate  very  strongly  produced  meso-distad  in  two  sharp 
straight  spikes  which  are  weakly  divergent,  styles  absent,  distal  margin 
of  plate  between  productions  obtuse-angulate  emarginate. 

(Subgenus  Dicellura) 
(Size  medium,  form  robust,  ^\'rtox  very  weakly  ascending,  sides  moder- 
ately divergent,  greatest  width  two-thirds  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint. 
Eyes  normal.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very  broad.  Tegmina 
broad  at  apex,  tympanum  of  same  unusually  large.  Dorsvun  of  abdomen, 
including  cerei,  dark  brown.  Cerci  heavy,  with  mcsal  portion  not  contrast- 
ingly swollen,  armed  with  a  heavy  mesal  (vertical)  tooth  which  is  flat  and 
broad  at  the  base,  situated  interno-mesad.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal 
femora  unarmed.)  allardi  (Caudell) 

BB.  Subgenital  i)late  not  produced  distad,  disto-lateral  styk>s  small  and 
filiform,  distal  margin  of  plate  nearlj'  or  quite  transverse. 

(Subgenus  Xiphidion) 
C.  Cerci  armed  with  a  heavy  mesal  (vertical)  tooth,  so  that  its  base  is 
visible  from  above,  this  tooth  situated  interno-mesad. 

TR.\NS.    .\M.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


162      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

D.  Cerci  with  niesal  portion  not  contrastingly  swollen. 

E.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  weakly  to  very  decidedly  depressed 
and  with  apex  broad  and  rounded.     (Size  small  to  medium.) 

F.  Tympanum  of  tegmina  not  unusually  elongate.  Convex  callos- 
ity of  lateral  lobes  not  very  broad.  Vertex  moderately  produced, 
(weakly  to  very  weakly  ascending). 

G.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  moderately  produced,  the  depres- 
sion of  the  same  being  general  and  not  more  decided  on  the  in- 
ternal side. 

H.  Vertex  with  sides  moderately  divergent,  greatest  width 
about  two-thirds  that  of  proximal  antennal  point.  Eyes 
decidedly  small.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  moderately 
but  not  decidedly  broad.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  trifasciate, 
with  median  line  broad.  Cerci  not  decidedly  hea\'y  or  elon- 
gate, with  distal  portion  weakly  depressed.  Ventral  margins 
of  caudal  femora  normally  unarmed. 

I.  Form  slender.     Abdominal  fasciae  moderately  distinct, 
colors  not  brilliant.  fasciatus  fascia tus  (DeOeer) 

II.  Form     moderately    slender.     Abdominal    fasciae    very 
distinct,  colors  brilliant  (particularly  so  in  life). 

fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse) 
HH.  Vertex  with  sides  decidedly  divergent,  greatest  width 
equaUing  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Eyes  normal. 
Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very  narrow.  Abdomen 
immaculate,  with  distal  portion,  including  cerci,  pale  yellow. 
Cerci  heavy,  elongate,  with  distal  portion  very  decidedly 
depressed.  Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora  bear- 
ing normally  four  to  five  spines.     (Form  moderately  rolsust.) 

spinosus  (Morse) 
GG.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  more  decidedly  produced  and  very 
sti'ongly  depressed,  particularly  on  the  internal  side.  (Fonn 
moderately  slender.  Vertex  with  sides  moderately  divergent, 
greatest  width  two-thirds  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint. 
Eyes  normal.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  modei'ately 
but  not  decidedly  broad.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  dark  brown, 
in  pale  examples  yellowish.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora 
normally  unarmed.)  brevipennis  (Scudder) 

FF.  Tympanum  of  tegmina  unusually  elongate.  Convex  callosity 
of  lateral  lobes  very  broad.  Vertex  distinctly  produced.  (Form 
very  slender.  Vertex  weakly  ascending,  sides  moderately  diver- 
gent, greatest  width  about  two-thu-ds  that  of  proximal  antennal 
joint.  Eyes  normal.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  narrowly  but  usually 
strikingly  trifasciate.  Cerci  of  similar  type  to  those  of  Jasciatus 
but  distinctly  more  elongate  and  attenuate,  with  distal  portion 
very  strongly  depressed.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora 
unarmed.)  gracillimus  (Morse) 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  163 

EE.  Cerci  with  cUstal  portion  not  at  all  or  very  weakly  depressed, 
with  apex  narrow,  acuminate.  (Eyes  normal.  \'entral  margins  of 
caudal  femora  unarmed.) 

F.  Vertex  broad  and  blunt,  very  weakly  ascending,  sides  strongly 
divergent.     8ize  mediimi  to  slightly  smaller. 

G.  Form  distinctly  robust.  Vertex  with  greatest  width  slightly 
greater  than  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint. '^  Convex  callosity 
of  lateral  lobes  moderately  broad.  General  color  dark  brown, 
occasionally  washed  with  green,  veins  and  veinlets  of  tegmina 
pale  and  conspicuous.  Tegmina  broad  at  apex,  tympanum  of 
same  luiusuallj'  large.  Cerci  shoii,  distal  portion  short,  conical, 
with  blunt  apex  not  at  all  depressed.  nemoralis  (Scudder) 

GG.  Form  moderately  robust.  Vertex  with  greatest  width 
averaging  about  one  and  three-fourths  times  that  of  proximal 
antennal  joint  which  is  unusually  small.  Convex  callosity  of 
lateral  lobes  very  broad.  General  color  dark  bro-^vn  or  bright 
green,  abdomen  uniformly  dark  or  very  dark  meso-dorsad  with 
a  dark  line  on  each  side,  veins  of  tegmina  not  conspicuous. 
Tegmina  not  broad  at  apex,  tympammi  of  same  unusually  small. 
Cerci  similar  to  those  of  ne?noral(S  but  with  distal  portion  more 
produced,  elongate,  attenuate,  almost  imperceptibly  or  not  at 
all  depressed,  with  apex  more  acuminate. 

occidentalis  (Morse) 
FF.  Vertex  very  broad  and  exceedingly  blunt,  not  at  all  ascending, 
sides  very  strongly  divergent,  (greatest  width  about  one  and  one- 
half  times  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint).  Size  large  to  very 
large.  (Form  robust.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very 
broad.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  infuscated  except  in  very  pale 
examples.  Tegmina  broad  at  apex.  Cerci  of  same  general  type 
as  those  of  nemoralis  but  with  distal  portion  very  greatly  pro- 
duced, very  elongate  and  attenuate,  very  weakly  depressed  distad, 
with  apex  strongly  acuminate.)  strictus  (Scudder) 

'  DD.  Cerci  with  mesal  portion  very  contrastingly  swollen,  (this  portion 
elongate  ovate,  distal  portion  moderately  produced  and  very  weakly 
depressed,  apex  sharply  rounded.  Size  rather  large,  form  distinctly 
attenuate.  Vertex  not  ascending,  sides  strongly  divergent,  greatest 
width  slightly  greater  than  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Eyes 
normal.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  very  broad,  convex  callosity  of 
same  very  broad.  Abdomen  immaculate,  with  distal  portion,  including 
cerci,  pale  yeUow.     Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed.) 

resacensis  new  species 

^^  One  male  of  C.  nemoralis  is  before  us  having  the  vertex  unusually  narrow, 
not  as  wide  as  the  basal  antennal  joint.  Though  this  character  is  of  decided 
importance  in  the  species  of  the  present  genus,  the  above  instance  shows  that, 
no  matter  how  constant  a  single  character  may  appear  to  be.  occasional  speci- 
mens are  sui-e  to  be  found  in  which  the  variation  from  the  normal  is  decided. 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


164      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOFTERA) 

CC.  Cerci  armed  with  a  more  delicate  (ventral)  tooth,  so  that  but  Uttle 
of  this  tooth  is  visible  from  above,  (mesal  portion  of  cercus  very  contrast- 
ingly swollen),  tooth  situated  at  proximal  base  of  this  swelling,  (distal 
portion  of  cercus  greatly  depressed.     Vertex  distinctly  ascending). 

D.  Cerci  with  swollen  mesal  portion  not  attenuate  elongate.  (Eyes 
unusually  protuberant.  Abdomen  immaculate,  with  distal  portion, 
including  cerci,  a  bright  and  striking  yellow  in  life.) 

E.  Swollen  mesal  portion  of  cerci  with  that  portion  above  tooth 
produced  in  an  overhanging  knob-like  protuberance,  distal  portion 
strongly  produced  with  sides  very  weakly  converging  to  broadly 
rounded  apex. 

F.  Vertex  with  sides  strongly  divergent,  greatest  width  equalling 
that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  broad.  Cerci  with  swollen  mesal  portion  bulbous, 
ovate.  Coloration  not  unusual.  Size  large,  form  robust  and 
rather  elongate.  Eyes  large.  Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal 
femora  bearing  t-wo  to  four  spines.  hygrophilus  new  species 

FF.  Vertex  with  sides  very  weakly  divergent,  greatest  width  little 
more  than  half  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity 
of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotuni  very  narrow.  Cerci  with  swollen 
mesal  portion  brief,  so  that  entire  distal  half  of  cercus  is  flattened. 
Coloration  unusual. 12  Size  rather  large,  form  rather  slender, 
Eyes  normal.  Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora  bearing 
normally  three  and  three  spines.  stictomerus  new  species 

EE.  Cerci  with  swollen  mesal  portion  not  i)rodu('ed  above  tooth, 
(this  portion  nearly  circular),  distal  portion  less  strongly  produced 
with  margins  strongly  converging  to  sharply  rounded  apex.  (Vertex 
with  sides  moderately  divergent,  greatest  width  about  two-thirds 
that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
broad.  Size  medium,  form  robust  and  rather  truncate.  Eyes  large. 
Ventro-exlernal  margins  of  caudal  femora  bearing  normally  four  and 
five  spines.)  aigialus  new  species 

DD.  Cerci   with   swoUen   mesal   portion    attenuate,    elongate    ovate, 
(distal  portion  with  margins  subparallel  to  broadly  rounded  apex.) 
E.  Vertex  with  greatest  width  very  little  over  one-half  that  of  prox- 
imal antennal  joint.     Eyes  of  normal  size  but  unusually  protuberant. 
F.  Coloration  solid,  distinctive  and  vivid,  abdomen  solid  shining 
black,  with  meso-dorsal  portion  occasionally  \-er}-  dark  brown. 
(Cerci  heavy,  with  swollen  mesal  portion  broadly  elongate  ovate. 
Size  medium,  form  moderately  robust.     Convex  callosity  of  lateral 
lobes    very    narrow    but    distinct.     Ventro-external    margins    of 
caudal  femora  liearing  normally  three  and  three  spines.) 

nigropleurum  (Bruner) 
FF.  Coloration  of  head  and  pronotum  trifasciate,  abdomen  not  solid 
shining  l)lack.     (Size  .small  to  medium,  form  distinctly  slender.) 

^^  The  caudal  femora  are  in  life  strikingly  marked  witli  sj^ots  and  dots  of 
coral  red. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  ICo 

G.  Coloration  not  as  brilliant.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
very  narrow  and  subobsolete.  Cerci  of  similar  type  to  those 
of  nigropleurum  but  longer  though  but  little  more  slender,  with 
distal  portion  curved  outward.  Ventro-external  margins  of 
caudal  femora  bearing  nornialh'  two  and  two  spines. 

attenuatus  (Scudder) 
GG.  Coloration  very  brilliant.  Convex  caUo.sity  of  lateral 
lobes  moderately  but  not  decidedly  broad.  Cerci  of  similar 
type  to  those  of  nigropleurum  but  much  more  slender,  with  en- 
larged portion  and  distal  portion  both  more  attenuate,  slightly 
irregular  in  outUne.  Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora 
in  much  more  than  half  of  the  examples  unarmed,  when 
spines  are  present  these  range  from  one  to  two. 

nigropleuroides  (H.  Fox) 
EE.  Vertex  with  greatest  width  two-thirds  that  of  proximal  antennal 
joint.  Eyes  normal.  (Coloration  not  striking,  resembling  that  of 
aigialus  but  with  the  j-ellow  less  extensive  and  decidedly  paler. 
Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  moderately  but  not  decidedly  broad. 
Size  small,  form  moderately  slender.  Male  cerci  similar  to  those  of 
nigropleuroides  but  not  irregular  in  outline.  Ventro-external  margins 
of  caudal  femora  bearing  normalh*  one  and  two  spines.) 

spartinae  (H.  Fox) 
AA.  Prosternum  unarmed.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with 
one  pair  of  spurs.  (Subgenus  Anarthropus) 

(Size  medium  to  verj'  small,  form  rather  slender.  \'ertex  moderately  ascend- 
ing, sides  decidedly  divergent,  greatest  width  nearh'  one  and  one-half  times  that 
of  proximal  antennal  joint.  E3-es  normal.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
very  broad.  Abdomen  with  dorsum  dark,  bordered  laterad  with  a  narrow 
pale  line,  sides  infuscated.  Cerci  very  slender,  with  a  long,  slender,  median 
(vertical)  tooth  situated  interno-mesad,  the  diameter  of  which  at  its  base  is 
nearly  that  of  diameter  there  of  shaft  of  cercus.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal 
femora  unarmed.)  saltans  (Scudder) 

It  must  be  remembered  in  using  the  above  key  that  single 
characters  are  seldom  if  ever  absolutely  constant  and  that  varia- 
tion exists  in  all  species,  the  characters  given  above,  when  taken 
singly,  being  only  correct  for  the  great  majority  and  not  for 
every  example  of  the  species  considered. 

In  every  group  we  have  carefully  studied,  the  absolute  necessity 
of  determining  material  not  from  one  or  two  apparently  striking 
differences  but  from  the  sum  total  of  characters,  has  convinced 
us  that,  for  correct  conceptions  and  accurate  determinations,  the 
latter  method  is  the  only  safe  one  to  follow.  In  conseciuence  a 
brief  key  for  the  species  treated  here  would  in  our  opinion  only 
lead  to  confusion,  and  in  the  use  of  the  present  key  we  feel  that 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


166      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


success  depends  upon  following  each  species  out  in  each  character 
and  basing  conclusions  upon  the  net  result.  Should  single  characters 
be  taken  as  all  important,  confusion  is  an  almost  certain  result. 
We  give  below  in  tabular  form  the  extremes,  found  in  the  species 
in  tegminal  and  ovipositor  length  (in  millimeters),  and  have  also 
included  the  general  form  of  the  ovipositor  and  the  results  ob- 
tained from  counting  the  spines  of  the  ventro-external  margins 
of  the  caudal  femora.  The  ventro-internal  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora  are  furnished  with  one  to  two  spines  in  but  five  specimens, 
two  of  C.  fasciatus  fasciatus  and  three  of  C.  attenuatus,  in  the 
very  large  series  examined. 


Tegmina  Ovipositor  Spines  of  ventro- 

Brachyp-  external  margins 

terous  of  caudal  femora 


allardi* 
f.  fasciatus 
f.  vicinus 
spinosus* 

gracillimus 
brevipennis 

resacensis* 
neni  oralis 

occidcntalis 

slriclus 
hygroyhilus 


Macropterous 

cf  6.7-6.S  straight. 

9    5.3-5.4  15.3-16.8 

o"  11.7-19.3      straight. 

9  10-21.1  7-9.9 

d"  16.4-18.7       9.9-13.1  straight. 

9  15.6-18.5  10.6-13.9  7.5-13 

cf  14.3-15. 1      very  weakly 


9  16.2 
c^  14.4-19.1 
9  15.3-20.7 
cf  13.9-16.3 

9  14.9-18.1 
& 


6-10.3 

5.4-9.3 

7.1-8.8 


normally  0. 

23%  1  to  5. 
none. 


normally  0. 
12.5%  1  to  3. 
normally  0. 
4%  1  to  2. 
normally  4  and  5. 
curved,  broader,  extremes  4  to  6. 
7-8.8 
straight.  none. 

7.8-10.9  

straight  or 
nearly  straight. 
8.9-14.7 
straight. 
15.2-15.6 
7.2-9.2       distinctly 

curved. 
4.3-7.7  7.8-9.8 
7-9.4  very  weakly 

curved  to  nearly 
straight. 
4.3-6.9       8-15.7 
5 . 1-7 . 3       nearly  straight. 
2.8-5.8       17.7-32.3 
10.3  weakly  sigmoid, 

broader. 
9  18.6  10.4 

'^  A  single  female  from  Appomattox,  Virginia,  exhibits  an  intermediate  con- 
dition between  the  brachypterous  and  macropterous  forms  of  the  present 
species;  tegminal  length  10.5  mm. 


9    5.6-6 

9 


15.7-16.7 


9  16.4 
&  15.7-17.8 
9  15.4-2213 
&  


normally  2  and  3. 
extremes  2  to  4. 


REHX    AXD    HEBARD 


IG- 


sHctomerus 


aigialus 


nigropleurum 


attenuatus 


Tegmina 

Brachyp- 
Macropterous         terous 

cf  18.3-18.4       8-11.6 


Ovipositor 


Spines  of  ventro- 
external  margins 
of  caudal  femora 


9  18.3-18.8 
cf  16-17.7 


9  18.1-19.7 
c^    

9  16-18.6 
cf  18.1 

9  19.4-20.9 


very  weakly  sig-  normally  3  and  4. 

moid,  broader,     extremes  0  to  7. 
6.9-9.8     13.7-19.8 
6 . 8-9 . 6     straight  to  normally  4  and  5. 

weakly  sigmoid, 

extremes  1   to  7. 


broader. 
7.1-10.6   10.6-13.7 
5.7-9.4     straight, 

broader. 
6.6-9.3     13.4-18.7  ' 
10.1-10.6  very  weakly 

curved. 
8.7-10.6  19.9-27.8 


normally  3  and  3. 
extremes  0  to  6. 

normalh^2  and  2. 
extremes  0  to  5. 


nigropleuroides    cf    5 . 7-8 . 7 


weakly  sigmoid    considerabty 
or  distinctlv         over  half  0. 


spartinae 


saltans 


9  15.5-17.8 
d'  15.3-18.2 

9  16.2-18.9 
cf  14.3-17.1 


9  16.2-20.3 


5.3-8.2     cm-ved. 

5 . 9-9 . 3     verj-  weakly 

curved. 
5.2-9.3  7.1-9.9 
3 . 1-6 . 3     very  weakly 

curved  to  nearly 

straight. 
1.6-3.8     9.7-16.4 


extremes  0  to  2. 
normally  1  and  2. 
extremes  0  to  5. 


In  the  species  marked  with  an  asterisk  greater  extremes  doubt- 
less exist,  as  adequate  material  for  such  determination  is  not  as 
yet  contained  in  collections.  The  macropterous  forms  have 
the  wings  decidedly  surpassing  the  tegmina,  the  brachj^pterous 
forms  have  the  tegmina  as  long  as,  or  longer,  than  the  wings. 
Such  macropterism  and  brachypterism  is  found  in  twelve  of 
the  seventeen  species  here  considered.  No  such  brachyptorous 
form  is  developed  in  fasciatus  vicinus;  a  semi-brachypterous 
form  ])cing  the  normal  condition  in  this  race,  and  macropterism 
appearing  in  the  southernmost  portions  of  its  distribution.  Three 
species — not  including  the  above  mentioned  geographic  race  of 
one  of  these — show  only  a  macropterous  condition,  while  two 
species  are  known  from  only  l)rachyptcrous  material.  So  little 
material  is  known  of  one  of  the  only  macropterous  and  both  of 
the  only  brachypterous  species,  that  both  conditions  will  very 
probably  be  found  in  one  or  possibly  all  of  these  species  when 
larger  series  have  been  gathered.     Of  the  twelve  species  showing 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


168      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

both  conditions,  the  normal  type  is  brachypterous  in  all  of  which 
we  have  sufficient  material  to  reach  any  conclusion;  two  of  these,. 
stictomerus  and  spartinae,  alone  show  a  macropterous  type  ap- 
parently in  preponderance  in  portions  of  their  southernmost  dis- 
tribution. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  taken  from  the  base  of  the  basal  plica 
to  the  apex  of  the  ovipositor,  it  has  been  a  general  practice  to 
take  this  length  from  the  juncture  of  the  subgenital  plate  to  the 
apex  of  the  ovipositor,  but  due  to  the  mobility  of  the  subgenital 
plate  this  method  can  not  be  as  accurate.  In  consequence  our 
measurements  average  about  .4  mm.  less  than  they  would  if 
taken  the  other  way. 

The  spines  of  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora, 
when  present  in  fasciatus  fasciatus,  fasciatus  vicinus  and  hrevi- 
pennis,  are  almost  invariably  decidedly  smaller  than  in  the  species 
in  which  such  spines  are  normally  present. 

The  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are  always  unispinose 
in  occidentalis,  stridus  and  saltans,  normally  so  in  nemoralis  and 
apparently  so  in  allardi  and  resacensis;  in  all  of  the  other  species 
they  are  normally  bispinose.  A  single  abnormal  specimen  of 
spartinae  has  one  of  these  genicular  lobes  trispinose.  The  varia- 
bility of  this  character  in  the  majority  of  species  causes  it  to  be 
of  little  diagnostic  importance. 

The  abdominal  coloration  is  important,  particularly  in  the 
males  of  the  species  of  this  genus.  Some  forms  are  distinctive 
in  coloration  and  these  factors  are  discussed  in  the  specific  treat- 
ment. Man}-  species  are  similar  in  having  head,  pronotum, 
thorax  and  limbs  green,  with  a  dark  medio-dorsal  stripe  on  head 
and  pronotum  usually  narrowly  bordered  by  buff.  In  the  specific 
treatment  of  such  species,  it  has  not  been  considered  necessary 
to  discuss  these  features  unless  specific  variations  occur. 

As  the  present  work  is  considered  by  no  means  monographic, 
we  have  thought  it  best  to  omit  detailed  descriptions  under  the 
treatment  of  all  but  the  new  species.  The  most  important  char- 
acters are  given  in  the  keys  and  tables  of  the  introduction.  In 
the  following  treatment  of  the  known  species,  we  have  more 
fully  discussed  these  characters  where  further  details  of  interest 
exist,  and  have  also  considered  other  less  important  characters 
which  have  been  omitted  from  the  kevs  and  tal)les  of  the  intro- 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  169 

duction.  As  a  result,  in  determining  material  with  the  present 
paper,  we  would  advise  the  use  primarily  of  the  keys,  tables  and 
figures;  the  specific  treatment  of  known  species  being  here 
employed  mainh'^  to  set  forth  the  variation  in  each  species  and 
its  distribution. 

Subgenus  Dicellura  '■*  new  subgenus 

The  subgenus  includes  a  single  species,  from  the  Appalachian 
region  of  the  southeastern  United  States. 

Type  of  Subgenus. — Conocephalus  allardi  [Xiphidion  allardi] 
(Caudell). 

Suhgeneric  Description. — Prosternum  bispinosc.  Subgenital 
plate  of  male  very  strongly  produced  meso-distad  in  two  sharp 
straight  spikes  which  are  weakly  divergent,  styles  absent;  be- 
tween the  productions  the  distal  margin  of  the  plate  is  obtuse- 
angulate  emarginate  at  an  angle  of  slightly  over  ninetj^  degrees. 
Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  femora  armed  with  six 
well  spaced  spines.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremities 
with  three  pairs  of  spurs.  Size  medium  for  the  genus,  form  ro- 
bust. 

Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell)  (Pis.  XV-XVII,  fifj.  1:   XVIII.  1  and  2; 

XIX,  9;  XX,  1.1 
1910.     Xiphidion  allardi  Caudell,  ^^  Ent.  News,  xxi,  p.  58.     [Tray  and  Blue 

^Mountains,  Towns  County,  Georgia.] 

The  present  insect  is  widely  separated  from  any  other  known 
species  of  the  genus  by  the  characters  given  in  the  subgeneric 
description.  The  species  bears  a  slight  superficial  resemblance 
to  C.  brevipennis  but  differs  greatly  in  the  characters  mentioned 
above,  in  the  very  broad  tegmina  of  which  the  male  tympanum 
is  unusually  large  for  the  species  of  the  genus,  and  in  the  ovipositor 
which  is  rigidly  straight  and  exceeds  in  length  the  maxinmm 
found  in  brevipennis.  The  anomalous  male  subgenital  plate  l^i'ings 
to  mind  that  of  the  South  American  species,  C.  vitticoUis  and  C. 
longipes,  but  this  plate  is  found  upon  examination  to  be  an  en- 
tirely different  development  in  the  present  insect. 

"From  6keXXa  =  fork  and  oiipd=tail,  in  allusion  to  the  exceptional  form  of 
the  male  subgenital  i)late. 

15  Single  type  designated  by  Caudell  and  Heliard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1912,  p.  164,  (1912). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


170      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  decidedly  broad,  cephalic  margin 
moderately  oblique  and  nearly  straight  to  the  broadly  obtuse-an- 
gulate  ventro-cephalic  angle,  thence  nearly  straight  and  decidedly 
more  horizontal  than  is  usual  to  the  rather  sharply  rounded  ven- 
tro-caudal  angle  which  is  rectangulate,  caudal  margin  weakly  sin- 
uate but  nearly  straight,  humeral  sinus  obsolete,  convex  callosity 
very  broad.  Tegmina  broadly  rounded  at  apex.  Genicular 
lobes  of  caudal  femora  normally  unispinose,  sometimes  supplied 
with  a  small  supplementary  spine;  genicular  areas  of  same  dark- 
ened;  ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed. 

In  addition  to  the  type  series  (the  type  and  allotype  in  the 
United  States  National  Museum  and  a  paratypic  pair  in  the 
Hebard  Collection),  we  have  examined  but  two  unrecorded  speci- 
mens. The  species  is  further  known  only  from  specimens  taken 
by  Allard  at  Indian  Grave  Gap,  Towns  County,  Georgia. 

Wytheville,  Virginia,  IX,  5,  1903,  (Morse),  1  (f,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Rabun  County,  Georgia,  VII,  1910,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  juv.   9 ,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Subgenus  Xiphidion  Serville  ^^ 
1912.     Xvphidioyi  Karny,  Gen.  Ins.,  Fasc.  135,  Subf.  Conocephalinae,  p.  S. 
1912.     Neoxiphidion  Karny,  ibid. 
1912.     Thecoxiphidion  Karny,  ibid. 

Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus   (DeGeer)i^  (PL  XV,  figs.  2,  3  and  5; 

XVI  and  XVII,  2;  XVIII,  3  and  4;  XIX,  10;  XX,  2.) 
1773.     Locusla  fasciata  DeGeer,   Mem.  Hist.    Ins.,  iii,  p.  458,  pi.  40,  fig.  4. 

[Pen(ii).sylvania.] 
1841.     Orchelimum  gracile  Harris,  Ins.  Inj.  Veget.,  p.  131.     [Ma.ssachusetts.] 

Harris'  description  of  his  gracile,  giving  a  nearly  straight  ovi- 
positor and  other  characters,  shows  unquestionably  the  present 
synonymy;  the  figure  of  a  female  accompanying  the  same 
description  in  the  Flint  edition  ^*  belongs,  however,  to  an  Orcheli- 
vium,  probably  concinnum  Scudder,  the  curved  ovipositor  show- 
ing at  once  that  the  specimen  selected  for  the  figure  by  Dr. 
Agassiz  was  not  the  species  described  by  Harris. 

The  present  species  is  not,  as  has  been  generally  supposed, 
found  far  south  of  the  borders  of  the  United  States,  and  the  only 
exotic  material  of  the  species  now  before  us  is  from  Bermuda. 

^^  See  page  157  for  the  type  of  this  subgenus  and  tlie  s^'nonj-niy. 
"  For  a  more  descriptive  discussion  of  the  present  species  see  following  study 
by  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xli,  (1915). 
18  Harris,  Ins.  Inj.  Veget.,  Flint  Ed.,  p.  163,  fig.  78,  (1862). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  171 

The  Antillean  records  and  those  from  Panama  apply  to  a  closely 
allied  but  distinct  species  C.  cinereus,  while  those  from  Mexico 
may  be  in  part  correct,  as  the  present  species  certainly  inhabits 
the  northern  portion  of  that  country;  the  South  American  rec- 
ords, however,  belong  either  to  the  above  mentioned  or  still 
another  species. 

The  tegmina  normally  surpass  the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora 
when  in  repose;  no  brachypterous  condition  exists  in  this  insect 
and  only  very  occasional  specimens  have  the  tegmina  barely 
reaching  the  extremities  of  the  caudal  femora.  This  latter  con- 
dition is  found  only  in  rare  specimens  from  northern  localities 
and  in  western  series  approaching  C.  f.  vicinus. 

The  male  cerci  in  the  present  species  are  usually  bright  green; 
in  drying  some  specimens,  as  in  the  other  species  of  the  genus, 
lose  all  of  their  normal  green  general  coloration,  becoming  a 
uniform  straw  color.  The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora 
are  not  darkened;  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  normally 
bispinose;  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are 
normally  unarmed,  verj'  small  (usually  microscopic)  spines  are 
present  in  two  hundred  and  eight  perfect  specimens  examined  as 
follows : 

Number  of  spines,  0-0         0-1         1-1         1-2         2-2 

Number  of  specimens,  182         19  5  1  1 

This  shows  12.5  %of  the  material  to  have  these  margins  armed, 
geographic  distribution  apparently  having  no  effect  on  this  con- 
dition in  the  present  species.  In  the  specimen  having  the  ventro- 
external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  armed  with  2  and  2  sjoines, 
one  of  the  ventro-internal  margins  is  also  furnished  with  a  single 
minute  spine,  this  is  also  found  in  a  single  specimen  having  the 
ventro-external  margins  unarmed. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Bothwell,  Prince  Edward 
Island,  8-9.2;  Northeast  Harbor,  Maine,  7-7.8;  Fredericksburg, 
Virginia,  8-9.3;  Jacksonville,  Florida,  7.3-8.3;  West  Point,  Ne- 
braska, 9.2-9.6;  Pinebluft",  Wyoming,  8.3-9.9;  Carrizo  Springs. 
Texas,  8.6-9.7;   Jemez  Hot  Springs,  New  Mexico, ^'^  8.6-9.4  mm. 

The  present  species  is  found  in  the  United  States  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  the  typical  form  being  supplanted  by  a 

1'  These  specimens  are  intermediate  between  the  eastern  and  western  races 
of  this  species. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


172      STUDIES   IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

geographic  race  in  the  region  of  Pacific  drainage.  The  insect 
will  probably  be  found  to  occur  in  Canada  far  north  of  its  pres- 
ent known  range  (Prince  Edward  Island  to  North  Bay  and  White- 
mouth,  Ontario,  to  Aweme,  Manitoba)  as  it  is  a  hardy  species 
even  more  abundant  in  the  meadows  of  northern  Maine  and 
Michigan  than  in  the  south  and  E.  M.  Walker  states  that  it  is 
"one  of  the  few  common  locustids  in  northern  Ontario."  South- 
ward it  is  found  to  the  extremity  of  southern  Florida  and  along 
the  gulf  coast  to  Mexico. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  over  300.  Here  recorded,  698; 
339  males,  355  females  and  4  immature  females.  Intermediates,  20;  7  males, 
11  females  and  2  immature  females. 

Bothwell,  Prince  Edward  Island,  VIII,  24,  1912,  (B.  Long),  4  c?,  7  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

St.  Andrews,  Prince  Edward  Island,  VIII,  26,  1912,  (B.  Long),  1  d',  2  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Dundee,  Prince  Edward  Island,  VIII,  26,  1912,  (B.  Long;  in  black  spruce 
swamp),  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Charlottetown,  Prince  Edward  Island, IX,  1912,  (B.  Long),  1  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Bunbury,  Prince  Edward  Island,  VIII,  28,  1912,  (B.  Long;  in  marsh),  5  9 , 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cape  Aylesbur}',  Prince  Edward  Island,  VIII,  27,  1912,  (B.  Long;  among 
sand  dunes),  2  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Great  Cranberry  Island,  Maine,  VIII,  24,  1913,  (H.;  occasional  in  short 
grasses),  1  9  • 

Northeast  Harbor,  Maine,  VIII,  16  and  21,  1913,  (H.;  common  in  short 
grasses),  5    9  . 

Baileys  Island,  Casco  Bay,  Maine,  VIII,25,  1907,  (B.  Long), 3  9  ,[A.N.S.P.]. 

Rye  Beach,  New  Hampshire,  IX,  1  and  2,  1913,  (H.),  1  c^. 

Marion,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  1905,  (H.),  1  d" ■ 

Amherst,  Massachusetts,  X,  1907,  (J.  A.  Hyslop),  1   9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Wesquage  Beach,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  8  and  10,  1913,  (H.;  grasses  near  salt 
marsh),  4  cT,  2    9. 

Chateaugay  Lake,  New  York,  VIII,  20  to  IX,  11,  1878,  (Scudder),  1  d",  3 
9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Clifton  Springs,  New  York,  5  d",  7  9,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Ithaca,  New  York,  VIII,  I  to  X,  4,  1885  to  1894,  13  c^,  5  9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Cattaraugus,  New  York,  IX,  11,  1894,  1  9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Tol)yhanna,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  1903,  (H.),  2  d . 

Stroudsburg,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  1903,  (H.),  1  d". 

Cornwclls,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  11,  1906,  (R.  &  H.),  1   9  . 

Tinicum  Island,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  9  and  29,  1903  and  1904,  (R.  &  II.), 
1  c^,  1   9. 

Swarthmore,  Pennsylvania,  X,  13,  1906,  (E.  T.  Cresson  Jr.),2  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  173 

Pink  Hill,  Delaware  County,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  9,  1908,  (R.  &  H.;  grasses 
on  serpentine  outcrop),  1  cf. 

Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  20  to  VIII,  30,  5  d',  3   9,  [Pa.  St.  Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Rockville,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  4  to  29,  8  cf,  11  9 ,  [Pa.  St.  Dept.  Zool.]. 

CamphiU,  Cumberland  Countj^,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  31,  1  cf ,  [Pa.  St.  Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Beatty,  PeuBsylvania,  (C.  Brugger),  2  d^,  2  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Mullica  River  flats,  Bui-lington  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  24,  1914,  (H.; 
border  of  marsh),  1  c?,  1   9  ■ 

Chestnut  Xeck,  Atlantic  County,  New  Jersey,  VII,  16,  1911,  (R.  &  H.; 
grasses  near  salt  marsh),  1  d^. 

Ventnor,  Xew  Jersey,  VIII,  5,  1914,  (H.;  among  weeds  in  marshy  spots  on 
barrier  beach),  2  c?,  2   9,1  juv.   9  . 

Margate  City,  Xew  Jersey,  VII,  24,  1914,  (H.),  1  juv.   9  ;  VIII,  17,  1914, 
(H.;  salt  marsh  border),  1    9  . 

Ocean  City,  X'ew  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  grasses  beside  road,  in  middle 
of  salt  marsh),  1   c?. 

Cedar  Springs,  Xew  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  common  in  grasses  near 
fresh  marsh),  1  cf . 

Cape  May,  Xew  Jersey,  VII.  22,  1910,  (H.),  1  cf ,  2  9  . 

Chestertown,  Maryland,  VIII,  10  to  30,  1899  to  1904,  (E.  G.  Vanatta),  3  cT, 
3   9 ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.].  ' 

Island  Creek,  Maryland,  VII,  20,  1912,  (C.R.Shoemaker),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  1   9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.] 

Fredericksburg,  Virginia,  VII,  20,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  common  in  meadowland), 
9    cf,  7    9. 

Vu-ginia  Beach,  Virginia,  VII,  4,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Xorfolk,  Virginia,  IX,  8,  1903,  (Morse),  2  cf ,  5  9 ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Hickory,  Virginia,  VII,  3,  1903,  (Morse),  9  c?,  10  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Appomattox,  Virginia,  IX,  6,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d',  3  9 ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Wytheville,  Virginia,  IX,  5,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Eure,  Xorth  Carohna,  VII,  5,  1903,  (:\Iorse),  2  cT,  2  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Selma,  Xorth  Carohna,  VII,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Winter  Park,  Xorth  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  occasional  in  weeds 
and  undergrowth),  1    9  . 

Lake   Waccamaw,  Xorth  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;   occasional  in 
high  weeds),  2  cf . 

Greensboro,  Xorth  Carolina,  VII,  10,  1903,  (INIorse),  3  d",  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Sahsbury,  Xorth  Carohna,  VII,  11,  1903,  (Morse),  7  c?,  4  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Roan  Mountain.  Xorth  Carolina.  VIII,  31,  1903,  (Morse),  3  d",  3  9  ,  [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Linville,  Xorth  Carolina,  VIII,  30,  1903,  (Morse),  8  d',  12  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

IMorganton,  Xorth  Carolina,  VII,  12,  1903,  (Morse),  3  d",  3  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Balsam,  Xorth  Carolina,  VIII,  20,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Governors  Island,  Xorth  Carolina,  VIII,  20,  1903,  (Morse),  1  c",  [Morse 
Cln.]. 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


174      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (ORTHOPTERA) 

Topton,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  21,  1903,  (Morse),  1  c?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Denmark,  South  Carohna,  VIII,  14,  1903,  (Morse),  1  c?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Yemassee,  South  Carohna,  IX,  4,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  2  cf. 

Trenton,  Georgia,  VII,  10,  1905,  (Morse),  4  d",  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Marietta,  Georgia,  VII,  27, 1903,  (Morse),  8  d',  2  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Atlanta,  Georgia,  VII,  26,  1910,  1  9 ,  [Ga.  State  Cln.];  VIII,  2,  1913,  (R.  & 
H.),  1  cf",  2   9. 

Augusta,  Georgia,  VII,  29,  1913,  (R.  &  H.),  1  9  . 

Savannah,  Georgia,  VIII,  13,  1903,  (Morse),  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  12,  1903,  (Morse),  3  c?,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Isle  of  Hope,  Georgia,  IX,  3,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cT. 

Jesup,  Georgia,  IX,  1,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  c^. 

St.  Simon's  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  30,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  9  . 

Brunswick,  Georgia,  VIII,  30,  1911,  (H.),  1   9. 

Cumberland  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  31,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  3  c?. 

Waycross,  Georgia,  VIII,  11, 1903,  (Morse),  2  a",  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Billy's  Island,  Okeefenokee  Swamp,  Georgia,  VI  and  VII,  1912,  (J.  C. 
Bradley),  2  cf,  6  9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Macon,  Georgia,  VII,  30  and  31,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  in  high  grasses  on  edge  of 
forest),  1  &,2,  9  ;  IX,  18,  1878,  (in  pasture),  2  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Westpoint,  Georgia,  VII,  30,  1903,  (Morse),  1   9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Columbus,  Georgia,  VII,  16, 1913,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  d^,  3  9  ,[Ga.  State  Chi.]. 

Albany,  Georgia, VIII,  1,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  very  few  in  wet  grass),  1  cf. 

Bambridge,  Georgia,  IX  and  X,  1910,  (J.  C.  Bradley),  1  cf ,  2  9 ,  [Ga.  State 
Chi.]. 

JacksonviUe,  Florida,  XI,  3,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  d',  3  9 ,  [Davis  Chi.]. 

South  JacksonviUe,  Florida,  IX.  27  and  28,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  d',  2  9 , 
[Davis  Chi.]. 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII,  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  sandy  field  of  low 
grass.),  2   9 . 

Pablo  Beach,  Florida,  IX,  27,  1913,  XI,  4,  1911,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1  c?,  1  9, 
[Davis  Cln.]. 

Live  Oak,  Florida,  VIII,  10,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d',  [Morse  Cln.];  VIII,  26,  1911, 
(R.  &H.),  1  cf. 

Tallahassee,  Florida,  VIII,  8,  1903,  (Morse),  9  d",  2  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Marianna,  Florida,  VIII,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d^,  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Cedar  Keys,  Florida,  VI,  3,  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Tampa,  Florida,  XI,  23,  1911,  (G.  P.  Englehardt),  1  9 ,  [BkljTi.  Inst.  A. 
&  S.]. 

Little  River,  Florida,  XI,  25,  1912,  (F.  Knab),  1   9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Lemon  City,  Florida,  (E.  J.  BrowTi),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Miami,  Florida,  XI,  26,  1912,  (F.  Knab),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

North  Bay,  Ontario,  IX,  1  to  8,  1906,  (G.  S.  Miller  Jr.),  3  d',  6  9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Cuyahoga  Falls,  Ohio,  VIII,  14,  1904,  (W.  V.  Werner),  1  d^,  [U,  S.  N.  M.j. 

SahneviUe,  Ohio,  IX,  10,  1892,  1  d',  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Brul6,  Wisconsin,  VIII,  16  and  17,  1912,  (Witmer  Stone),  1  d^,  2  9,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 


KEHN    AND    HEBARD  175 

Cranmoor,  Wisconsin,  X,  17,  1910,  (C.  W.  Hooker),  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Chicago,  Illinois,  IX,  9,  1903,  (H.;  in  waste  field),  I  d",!  9  . 

Waldo,  Minnesota,  VIII,  1906,  (Witmer  Stone),  1  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Duluth,  Minnesota,  VIII,  1906  and  1912,  (Witmer  Stone),  3  d',  7  9,  [A.  X. 
S.  P.]. 

Staples,  Minnesota,  VII,  21,  1909,  (H.),  3  d',  1   9,1  juv.   9. 

St.  Peter,  Minnesota,  1880,  1   9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Johnson  City,  Tennessee,  VIII,  27,  1903,  (Morse),  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chattanooga,  Tennessee,  X,  19,  1888,  (F.  G.  Martin),  1  d',  1  9 ,  [U.S.  X.  M.]; 
2  cf,  [HebardChi.]. 

Columbia,  Tennessee,  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Anniston,  Alabama,  VII,  12,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  2  9 ,  [Morse  Cbi.]. 

Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  VII,  15,  1905,  (Morse),  3  d",  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Greenville,  Alabama,  VII,  31,  1903,  (Morse),  6  cf ,  3  9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Flomaton,  Alabama,  VIII,  2,  1903,  (Morse),  2  cf ,  3  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Agricultural  College,  Mississippi,  1  c?,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

IVIeridian,  Mississippi,  VII,  16,  1905,  (Morse),  1   9 ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Hattiesburg,  Mississippi,  VII,  17,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Gulfport,  Mississippi,  VII,  21,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Xatchez,  Mississippi,  V,  14,  1909,  (E.  S.  Tucker),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Fort  Dodge,  Iowa,  VIII,  27,  1910,  (M.  P.  Somes),  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Iowa  City,  Iowa,  VIII,  5,  1910,  (M.  P.  Somes),  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

St.  Louis,  Missouri,  VII,  24,  1877,  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Ivirl'.wood,  Missouri,  X,  1877,  1  cf ,  3  9 ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  Arkansas,  IX,  5,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Van  Buren,  Arkansas,  IX,  1,  1905,  (Morse),  5  cf ,  6  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Dardanelle,  Arkansas,  VIII,  31,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Magazine  Mountain,  Arkansas,  VIII,  29,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  [Morse'Cln.]. 

Mena,  Arkansas,  VIII,  31,  1905,  (Morse),  Icf,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

De  Queen,  Arkansas,  VII,  29,  1905,  (Morse),  1  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

AshdowTi,  Arkansas,  VII,  27,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Bayou  Sara,  Louisiana,  I,  20,  1879,  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Milneburg,  Louisiana,  VII,  22,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  4  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Xew  Orleans,  Louisiana,  VI,  1883,  (Shufeld),  3  cf ,  1  9  ;  VI,  7,  1902,  (at 
light),  2  9  ;  X  to  XI,  15,  1882,  1  cf ,  1   9  ,  [aU  U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Crowley,  Louisiana,  IX,  28  and  30,  1911,  (E.  S.  Tucker;  in  rice  field),  14  cf , 
11  9,  [U.S.  X.  M.]. 

Winnipeg,  Manitoba,  VIII,  22,  1877,  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Harney's  Peak,  Black  Hills,  South  Dakota,  7000  to  8000  ft.  (Bruner),  1  9  , 
[U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

West  Point,  Xebraska,  VIII  to  IX,  6  cf ,  5  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Lincoln,  Xebraska,  VII  to  IX,  3  cf ,  3  9,1  juv.  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Xorth  Platte,  Xebraska,  VII,  28,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  swampy  areas  on  river 
plain),  2  (f ,  3  9. 

Fort  Robinson,  Xebraska,  VII,  1888,  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Glen,  Xebraska,  VIII,  1903,  (L.  Bruner),  4  cf,  5  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.   SOC,   XLI. 


176      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Sidney,  Nebraska,  VII,  30,  1910,   (R.  &  H.),  1    c?;  VIII,  25,  1893,  1   9, 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 
Belpre,  Kansas,  IX,  13,  1909,  (H.;  in  field  of  short  grass),  1   9  . 
Independence,  Kansas,  (A.  Birckfield),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Howe,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  4,  1905,  (Morse),  5  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 
Wilburton,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  27,  1905,  (Morse),  2  cT,  4  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 
Haileyville,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  6,  1905,  (Morse),  1  c^,  [Morse  Cln.]. 
Okmulgee,  Oklahoma,  VI,  24,  (J.  D.  Mitchell;  at  light),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Shawnee,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  26,  1905;  (Morse),  1  cT,  [Morse  Cln.]. 
Bonita,  Texas,  VIII,  14,  1905,  (Morse),  1  c?,  1  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 
Pittsburg,  Texas,  IX,  9,  1904,  (F.  C.  Bishopp),  2  cf ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Terrell,  Texas,  VI,  9,  1904,  (F.  C.  Bishopp),  1  cT,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Dallas,  Texas,  IX,  25  and  26,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  common  in  field  of  high  gi-ass), 
5  c^,  8   9. 

Sagamore  Hill,  Tarrant  County,  Texas,  IX,  27,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  areas  of 
low  grass  in  open),  2  cf . 
Doucette,  Texas,  VII,  24,  1912,  (H.),  1  &. 

Beaumont,  Texas,  VII,  23, 1912,  (H.;not  common  on  grassy  swampy  gi-ound), 
3  cf,  5   9. 

Calvert,  Texas,  VIII,  1903,  (A.  W.  Morrill),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Shovel  Mount,  Texas,  VI,  30,  1901,  (F.  G.  Schaupp),  1  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 
Paige,  Texas,  VIII,  3,  1904,  (C.  R.  Jones;  on  cotton),  1  c?,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Kerrville,  Texas,  VIII,  17  and  18,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d". 
San  Antonio,  Texas,  VIII,  15  and  16,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  common  in  high 
grass),  3   9 . 
Galveston,  Texas,  VII,  19  to  21,  1912,  (H.),  8  c?,  1  9  . 
La  Marque,  Texas,  VII,  22,  1912,  (H.),  1   9  . 

Webster,  Texas,  VII,  19,  1912,  (H.;  common  on  grass  prairie),  1  c?,  3   9  • 
Virginia  Point,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.),  1  cf ,  3  9  . 
Rosenberg,  Texas,  VII,  25  and  26,  1912,  (H.),  2  d. 

Wharton,  Texas,  VII,  12,  1904,  (C.  R.  Jones;  on  cotton),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Victoria,  Texas,  VII,  26  and  27,  1912,  (H.;  common  in  stream  bottom),  2  cf, 
1    9. 
Corpus  Christi,  Texas,  VII,  29,  1912,  (H.),  1  d. 
Gregory,  Texas,  VII,  30,  1912,  (H.),  1  d',  1   9  . 
Lyford,  Texas,  VIII,  6  and  7,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d,l   9  . 
Mission,  Texas,  VIII,  5  and  6,  1912,  (H.),  1  d',  1   9 . 
BrownsviUe,  Texas,  VII,  31  to  VIII,  5,  1912,  (H.),  1  d,2  9  . 
Piper  Plantation,  near  Brownsville,  Texas,  VIII,  3,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  grassy 
spots  in  heavy  river  bottom  tangle),  3  cf ,  2   9  . 

Uvalde,  Texas,  VIII,  21  and  22,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  &. 
Del  Rio,  Texas,  VIII,  22  and  23,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  common  in  grasses  of  river 
bottom),  2  cf,  1    9. 

Carrizo  Springs,  Texas,  X,  1884,  (A.  Wadgymar),  4  o",  9   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 
Benavides,  Texas,  VIII,  9  and  10,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  d. 
Glendive,  Montana,  VII,  26,  1909,  (H.;  on  river  l)ottoms),  3  cf,  3  9  ■ 
Forsyth,  Montana,  VII,  27,  1909,  (H.),  1  d. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  177 

Billings,  Montana,  VII,  28,  1909,(R.  &  H.;  on  grassy  river  plain),  IG  a,  'J  9  . 

\\'orland,  Wyoming,  VIII,  1911,  1    9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Pinebluff,  Wyoming,  9  d',  27  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Julesburg,  Colorado,  VII,  29,  1910,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cf ,  1   9 . 

Livermore,  Colorado,  X,  4,  1898,  2  d^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Boulder,  Colorado,  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Pueblo,  Colorado,  VIII,  30  and  31,  1877,  (Scudder),  1  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Garland,  Colorado,  VIII,  28  and  29,  1877,  (Scudder),  1  cf ,  3  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Springer,  New  Mexico,  IX,  15,  (C.  N.  Ainslie),  1  a",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Rociada,  New  Mexico,  VIII,  8,  (Cockerell),  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Intermediate  material  between  typical  C.  fasciatus  and  C.  fasciatus  vicinus. 

Jemez  Mountains,  New  Mexico,  VIII,  1909,  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Jemez  Hot  Springs,  New  Mexico,  VIII,1  to  29, 1912  and  1913,  (J.  Woodgate), 
7  cf,  11   9,2  juv.   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Conocephalus  fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse)  (Pis.  XVI,  XVII  and  XX,  fig.  3; 

XVII,  figs.  5  and  6.) 
1881.  Xiphidium  ensiferum  Scudder  (not  of  1862),  Second  Rept.  U.  S.  Ent. 

Comm.,  1880,  App.  ii,  p.  23.     [Glenbrook  and  Reno,  Nevada.] 
1881.  Xiphidium  brevipenne  Scudder  (not  of  1862),  Second  Rept.  U.  S.  Ent. 

Comm.,  1880,  App.  ii,  p.  23.     [Sisson  and  Strawberry  Valley,  California.] 
1881.  Xiphidium  fasdatum  Scudder,  Second  Rei)t.  U.  S.  Ent.  Comm.,  1880, 

App.  ii,  p.  23.     [Portland,  Oregon.] 
1901.  Xiphidium  vicinum  Morse,^''  Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii,  p.  203.     [Palm  Springs, 

San  Bernardino,  Colton,  Los  Angeles,  Kern  City,  Lathrop,  \^'est  Berkeley, 

Mill  Valley,  Sisson  and  Gazelle,  California;  Ashland,  Glendale,  Drain  and 

Divide,  Oregon;  Tenino,  Washington.] 
1901.  Xiphidium  vicitiu?n    variety    productum  Morse,^!  Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii,  p. 

204.     (Macropterous  material  in  above  series.) 

This  insect  has  been  adequately  described  bj'  INIorse;  the  dis- 
tinctive characters  given,  when  compared  with  typical  fasciatus, 
being,  in  the  female,  a  normally  longer  ovipositor  both  actually 
and  in  proportion  to  the  caudal  femora,  and  in  the  male,  cerci 
which  are  slightly  broader  just  distad  of  the  tooth  with  the  exter- 
nal margins  less  sinuous.  The  present  series  shows  further  that  in 
this  race  the  form  is  normally  somewhat  more  robust  and  the  lat- 
eral lobes  of  the  pronotum  are  broader,  with  cephalic  margin 
more  broadly  convex  and  ventro-caudal  angle  even  more  l>roa(lly 

-"Single  type  designated:  cf;  Palm  Springs,  California,  VII,  10,  1897, 
(Morse),  [Morse  Chi.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1915, 
p.  1C6,  (1915).) 

^'Single  type  designated:  9;  San  Bernardino,  California,  Vll,  15,  1897, 
(Morse),  [Morse  Cln.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 
1915,  p.  106,  (1915).) 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


178      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

rounded.  The  great  majority  of  individuals  of  this  race  differ 
from  the  average  of  fasciatus  fasciatus  in  having  the  tegmina  just 
reaching  the  tips  of  the  caudal  femora  or  falling  short  of  these  as 
much  as  3  mm.  Examples  occur,  however,  having  as  long  teg- 
mina as  are  found  in  fasciatus  s.s.,  which  condition  is  more  fre- 
quently met  with  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  range  of  the  insect 
and  has  been  given  the  name  productumhy  Morse.  As  further  dif- 
ferences are  wanting  to  distinguish  such  material,  we  are  obliged 
to  place  this  name  in  the  synonymy  of  the  present  form.  The 
phase  having  very  long  tegmina  and  wings  is  represented  by  the 
following  material  before  us:  2  d",  Mountain  Home,  Idaho;  1 
d^,  2  9  ,  Shoshone,  Idaho;  1  d',  Milford,  Utah;  1  d',  Reno,  Ne- 
vada; 2  d^,Alamitos  Bay,  California,  and  1  d^,  Los  Angeles, 
California.  An  almost  intermediate  condition  is  shown  in  a  num- 
ber of  individuals  from  Council  Crest  and  Divide,  Oregon,  and  in 
two  d"  from  Milford,  Utah. 

In  life  the  present  race  is  normally  quite  as  green  in  general 
coloration  with  abdominal  markings  brighter  than  in  typical  fas- 
ciatus; the  following  field  note  taken  from  fresh  material  at  Sho- 
shone and  Mountain  Home,  Idaho,  demonstrates  this  very  clearly 
— "Abdomen  with  a  medio-dorsal  band  of  vandyke  brown,  wider 
cephalad,  narrowing  gradually  caudad,  bordered  by  lemon  yellow 
bands  about  half  as  wide.  In  the  males  the  rest  of  the  abdomen  is 
grass  green,  in  the  females  these  lemon  yellow  bands  are  in  turn 
bordered  on  each  side  by  very  narrow  bands  of  vandyke  brown." 
The  large  series  before  us,  though  otherwise  in  excellent  condi- 
tion, is  almost  without  exception  much  discolored  and  faded,  the 
cerci  of  the  males  retaining  a  green  coloration  in  only  a  few  cases. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  not  darkened ;  the 
genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  normally  bispinose;  the  ventro- 
external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  unarmed, 
very  small  (usually  microscopic)  spines  are  present  in  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty-two  specimens  examined  as  follows: 
Number  of  spines,  0-0  0-1  0-2 
Number  of  specimens,  146       5         1 

This  shows  3.9%  of  the  material  to  have  these  margins  armed 
with  such  adventitious  spines. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Mountain  Home,  Idaho, 
11.2-12.6;  Soda  Springs,  Idaho,  9.2-10.7;  Council  Crest,  Oregon, 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  179 

9-10.7;  Sisson,  California,  9.8-11.2;  Los  Angeles,  California, 
12;  Reno,  Nevada,  10.3-11.7;  Milford,  t'tah,  10.7-11.7  mm. 
Morse,  in  his  excellent  series  of  measurements  given  with  the 
original  description,  shows  the  extremes  of  ovipositor  length  to 
be  7.5  to  13  mm.  in  the  present  insect. 

The  present  geographic  race  is  distributed  over  the  region  of 
Pacific  drainage  in  the  United  States,  having  been  found  from 
Soda  Springs,  Idaho,  and  Milford,  Utah,  as  far  north  as  Tenino, 
Washington,  and  Agassiz,  British  Columbia,-- and  south  to  Alami- 
tos  Bay  and  Palm  Springs,  California.  In  the  desert  regions  of 
this  area,  the  species  is  to  be  found  often  very  numerous  in  green 
vegetation  in  irrigated  areas  or  where  other  constant  sources  of 
water  supply  exist. 

Speciniens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  122.  Here  recorded,  201;  104 
males,  92  females  and  5  immature  females. 

Soda  Springs,  Idaho,  7  cf ,  7  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Shoshone,  Idaho,  VIII,  8,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  occasional  in  an  irrigated  area), 

4  c^,  4   9. 

Mountain  Home,  Idaho,  VIII.  9,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  scarce  in  an  irrigated  area), 
1  6^,29. 

Nampa,  Idaho,  VIII,  9,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  a  marshy  meadow),  5  c?,  1   9  - 

Reno,  Nevada,  IX,  2,  1910,  (R.  &  Hi;  in  gi-assy  irrigated  tract),  14  d^,Q  9  ■ 

Wabuska,  Nevada,  IX,  5,  1910,  (H.;  common  in  grasses  about  water  tank), 
1  cT,  3   9. 

Salt  Lake  VaUey,  Utah,  VIII,  1  to  4,  1877,  (Scudder),  18  d",  11  9, 
[M.  C.  Z.]. 

Provo,  Utah,  VIII,  23  and  24,  1877,  (Scudder),  2  d^,  4  9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Milford,  Utah,  IX,  5,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  very  common  in  grasses  along  river), 
28  d",  39   9. 

Longmire's  Springs,  Mount  Rainier,  Washington,  2700  ft.,  VIII,  23,  1910, 
III.;  grasses  about  springs],  1  cf . 

PuUman,  Washington,  VIII,  19,  1909,  (J.  A.  Hyslop),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Newaukum,  Washington,  VIII,  8,  1909,  (H;  in  buh-ushes  and  l)racken), 
1  juv.   9  . 

Mount  Tabor,  Oregon,  VIII,  9,  1909,  (R. ;  high  grasses  in  open)  ,19. 

Council  Crest,  Oregon,  VIII,  9,  1909,  (H.;  not  common  in  fiekl  of  high  dry 
grass),  8  cf ,  8  9,2  juv.  9  . 

Clackamas,  Oregon,  VIII,  9,  1909,  (H.;  in  high  grasses),  1  9- 

West  Albany,  Oregon,  VIII,  10,  1909,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cf ,  1  9 . 

Divide,  Oregon,  VIII,  11,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  occasional  in  dry  meadow  grasses) 

5  cf,  1   9. 

--  This  record  of  F.  Walker  as  fasciatus  we  have  been  unable  to  verifj-,  but 
there  is  httle  doubt  that  the  material  will  })e  found  to  belong  to  the  present  race. 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


180      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Sacramento,  California,  VIII,  18,  1907,  (E.  S.  G.  Titus),  1  cT,  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Bakersfield,  California,   IX,  14,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  grasses  along  irrigating 
ditch),  3  o",  1    9. 

Los  Angeles,  California,  1889,  (Coquillett),  4  cf ,  1  9  ,  2  juv.  9  ,  [Heljard  Cln.]. 

Conocephalus  spinosus  (Morse)  ^3  (Pis.  XVI,  XVII  and  XX,  fig.  4;  XVIII, 

figs.  7  and  8.) 
1901.  Xiplddium   spinosum    Morse,  ^'' Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii,    p.    201.     [Coronado, 

California.) 

As  the  author  of  this  species  has  given  a  really  excellent  descrip- 
tion, it  is  rather  irritating  to  find  it  synonymized  by  Karnj^^* 
under  C.  saUator,  where,  without  material  for  comparison,  that 
author  briefly  states  that  it  is  a  smaller  variation. 

The  species  is  known  only  from  the  salt  marshes  about  San  Diego 
Bay,  California;  the  type  series  of  three  males,  two  females  and 
one  immature  female  in  the  Morse  Collection  and  Museum  of 
Comparative  Zoology,  and  in  addition  three  males  and  one  fe- 
male in  Philadelphia,  have  been  examined. 

Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse)  (PI.  XV,  fig.  8;  XVI,  XVII  and  XX,  5; 
XVIII,  9  and  10;  XIX,  11.) 

1877.     Xiphidium   ensiferum   Scudder,  (not  ensifer  of  Scudder,  1862),  Proc. 

Best.,  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xix,  p.  83.     [Fort  Reed,  Florida.] 
1901.    Xiphidium  gracillimum  Morse,  ^^  Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii,  p.  236.     [Capron 

[Viking]  and  Bisca3Tie  Bay  [Miami],  Florida.] 

The  present  species  belongs  to  a  small  group,  the  other  species 
of  which  are  Antillean  and  tropical  American,  which  is  in  the 
main  distinguished  from  the  forms  more  nearly  related  to  C. 
fasciatus  by  the  majority  of  the  characters  given  in  the  key  for 
the  present  insect.  When  compared  with  fasciatus,  the  more 
produced  vertex  and  broader  convex  callosities  of  the  lateral  lobes 
of  gracillimus  are  found  to  be  characters  which  are  somewhat  less 
conspicuous  than  might  be  expected;  the  present  species  is  more 

^3  For  a  full  discussion  of  the  present  species  see  following  study  by  Rehn 
and  Hebard,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xU,  (1915). 

2* Single  type  designated:  cf ;  Coronado,  California,  VII,  24,  1897,  (Morse; 
on  salt  marsh),  [Morse  Cln.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci. 
Phila.,  1915,  p.  105,  (1915).) 

"  Abh.  k.-k.  zool.-botan.  Gesell.  Wien,  iv,  p.  94,  (1907). 

-"Single  type  here  designated:  cf;  [Miami]  Biscayne  Bay,  Florida,  (Mrs. 
A.  T.  SloKson),  [M.  C.  Z.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Phila., 
1915,  p.  105,  (1915).) 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  181 

readily  distinguished  by  the  decidedly  more  slender  form,  differ- 
ently shaped  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  narrower  tegmina 
with  male  tympanum  decidedly  more  elongate,  different  colora- 
tion, and  different  male  cerci. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  broad,  cephalic  margin  moderately 
oblique  and  nearly  straight  to  the  very  broadly  obtuse-angulate 
ventro-cephalic  angle,  thence  very  weakly  concave  and  slightly 
more  horizontal  than  usual  to  the  sharply  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle  which  is  slighth'  less  than  90°,  caudal  margin  convex  to  the 
broad  and  distinct  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosit}^  very  broad. 
These  lobes  are  often  more  or  less  distinctly  marked  mesad  with 
a  diffused  dark  postocular  stripe.  The  abdomen  is  marked  in 
dark  individuals  with  three  narrow  dark  bands,  one  meso-dorsal, 
the  others  lateral,  the  two  intervening  spaces  forming  usually 
bright  yellow  bands.  The  pronotal  markings,  combined  with  the 
narrowness  of  the  abdominal  bands,  give  individuals  showing  the 
intensive  color  pattern  a  much  more  striped  appearance  than 
is  ever  found  in  fasciatus.  The  cerci  are  bright  green  or  dark 
brown;  -"  the  greater  production,  especialh'  of  the  distal  portion, 
eausing  the  internal  tooth  to  be  situated  in  relative  position  just 
proximad  of  the  point  which  it  occupies  in  fasciatus.  Though 
the  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  bispinose, 
fifteen  of  the  series  of  sixty-six  specimens  examined  for  this 
character  have  one  of  these  lobes  unispinose,  two  have  two  of  the 
same  showing  this  condition,  while  two  have  three  of  the  genicular 
lobes  unispinose.  In  this  species  the  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal 
femora  are  not  darkened;  the  ventral  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora  are  unarmed.  Immature  examples  of  gracilUmus  are 
very  slender  and  very  strongly  tristriate.  -"^ 

The  present  species  is  confined  in  distribution  to  the  Florida 
Keys  and  the  mainland  of  southern  Florida  as  far  north  as  Fort 

^^  In  life  tfie  male  cerci  are  probably  always  green  or  gi-eenish,  this  color  is 
one  of  the  most  likely  to  disappear  in  dried  material. 

^^  Of  the  immature  specimens  recorded  as  this  species  by  the  present  authors, 
Proc.  Acad.  Xat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1912,  p.  268,  (1912),  those  from  Miarni  and  Home- 
stead, Florida,  are  immature  examples  of  Ordtelivmm  concinnum,  while  the 
two  immature  individuals  from  Key  \'aca  and  Kej'  West,  Florida,  are  speci- 
mens of  Odonloxiphidium  apterum.  These  errors  were  due  to  our  then  very 
limited  knowledge  of  the  early  stages  of  these  species,  which  exhibit  indeed  a 
general  (though  not  detailed)  similarity  to  gradllimus. 

TR.\XS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


182      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Reed  and  Tampa,  in  which  region  the  authors  have  taken  a 
series  of  eighty-three  specimens. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  correctly  recorded,  95.  Here  recorded, 
1  male,  1  female  and  1  immature  female. 

Fort  Reed,  Florida,  IV,  21,  1876,  (J.  H.  Comstock),  1  juv.  9,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Lemon  City,  Florida,  (E.  J.  Brown),  1  &,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Biscayne,  Florida,  V,  2,3.  1    ? ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Conocephalus  brevipennis  (Scudder)  (Pis.  XVI  and  XVII,  fig.  6;  XVIII, 

11  and  12;  XX,  6  and  7. 
1862.     Xiphidium  brevipennis  Scudder,'-^  Can.  Nat.  and  Geo!.,  vii,  p.  285.3" 

[New  England.] 
1862.     X[iphidium]   ensifer  Scudder,    Bost.  Journ.    Nat.   Hist.,  vii,  p.  451. 

[Lawn  Ridge,  Illinois.]     (In  part.) 
1869.     Xiphidium  ensiferum  F.  Walker,  Cat.  Dermapt.  Salt.  Br.  Mus.,  ii,  p. 

270.     [United  States.] 
1875.     Xiphidium  gossijpii  Scudder,'!  Proc.  Bost.  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xvii,  p.  462. 

[Texas;  Mississippi.] 

Scudder's  ensifer,  emended  ensiferum  by  F.  Walker,  is  ])ased 
upon  two  females  from  Lawn  Ridge,  Illinois,  now  in  the  IVIuseum 
of  Comparative  Zoology;  one  of  these,  which  we  here  select  as 
single  type,  is  a  brachypterous  example  of  Conocephalus  brevi- 
pennis; in  this  specimen  the  caudal  femur  is  13.1,  the  ovipositor 
13.7  mm.  in  length.  The  other  specimen  is  a  brachypterous 
example  of  C.  stridus.  At  that  time  the  latter  species  w^as  un- 
described,  but  the  confusion  of  two  so  very  distinct  species  is 
almost  incredible. 

Scudder's  gossypii  is  also  a  synonym  of  the  present  species, 
based  upon  material  from  Texas  and  INIississippi,  which  agrees 
throughout  with  typical  brevipennis  from  New  England,  except 
in  the  somewhat  greater  size. 

The  present  species  and  C.  spartinae,  though  distantly  re- 
lated, are  very  similar  in  general  appearance  and  have  been  fully 

23  Single  type  here  designated:  9  ;  Massachusetts,  [M.  C.  Z.].  Measurements; 
length  of  body  13.2,  of  tegmen  9,  of  caudal  femm-  11,  of  ovipositor  9.4  mm. 

'<•  Scnidder's  description  of  X  [iphidium]  brevipennis,  in  the  Bost.  Journ.  Nat. 
Hist.,  vii,  p.  451,  was  published  in  November  1862,  while  this,  the  original 
description,  appeared  in  August  and  September  of  the  same  year;  to  it  was 
added  a  record  from  the  Red  River  Settlements,  Manitoba,  properly  assigned 
to  C.  saltans  here. 

31  Single  type  here  designated:  9  ;  Texas,  (Belfrage),  [M.  C.  Z.].  Measure- 
ments; length  of  body  14.1,  of  tegmen  8.4,  of  caudal  femur  16.8,  of  ovi- 
positor 13.1  mm. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  183 

compared  under  the  latter  species.  Females  of  the  two  species 
are  difficult  to  separate,  but,  in  addition  to  a  somewhat  different 
facies,  this  sex  of  brevipennis  is  found  to  have  the  ovipositor  aver- 
aging distinctly  longer  and  straighter. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  moderately  broad,  cephalic  margin 
straight  to  the  broadly  obtuse-angulate  ventro-cephalic  angle, 
thence  straight  to  the  rather  broadh  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle  which  is  slightly  less  than  90°,  caudal  margin  weakly  con- 
vex to  the  distinct  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  moderately 
broad. 

Though  the  distinctive  male  cerci  of  this  species  usually  show 
little  or  no  variation,  a  single  specimen  in  the  series  from  Corn- 
wells,  Pennsylvania,  has  the  apex  of  these  organs  acute  and  very 
nai-rowly  rounded,  an  abnormality  found  in  no  other  male  of  the 
species  before  us. 

The  tegmina  in  the  males  usually  just  reach  the  bases  of  the 
brown  cerci,  in  the  females  they  are  shorter,  covering  usually 
about  two-thirds  of  the  dorsum  of  the  abdomen;  somewhat 
greater  tegminal  abbreviation  sometimes  occurs,  however,  and 
macrQpterism  very  rarely  takes  place,  this  condition  being  rep- 
resented in  3.2%  of  the  examples  in  the  series  here  recorded, 
7  males  and  11  females. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  usually  weakly 
infuscated  in  the  present  species;  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same 
are  normally  bispinose  but  frequent  examples  are  met  with  which 
have  one,  two  or  three  of  these  lobes  unispinose,  examples  are 
very  rare  in  which  all  of  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora 
are  unispinose.  The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora  are  normally  unarmed,  small  spines  are  present  in  three 
hundred  and  forty-one  perfect  specimens  examined  as  follows: 
Number  of  spines,  0-0  0-1  0-2  0-3  1-1  1-2  1-3  2-2  2-3  2-5 

Number  of  specimens,   267  43     6      1      116      1      4      1       1 

This  shows  21.7%  of  the  material  to  have  these  margins 
armed;  as  in  fasciatus,  geographic  distribution  apparently  does 
not  influence  this  condition,  but  in  the  present  species  the  spines 
when   present   are   usually   heavier   than   in   that   insect. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Saunderstown,  Khode 
Island,  9.1-10.8;  Diamond  Valley,  Pennsylvania,  11.6-12.7; 
Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  10.3-13.4;  Chestnut  IIi!l,  Pennsylvania, 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.    SOC,   XLI. 


184      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

11.4-14.7;  Tinicum,  Pennsylvania,  8.9-11.8;  Castle  Rock,  Penn- 
sylvania, 11.4-13.6;  Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  9.3-10.8;  Fay- 
etteville.  North  Carolina,  9.7-10.8;  Wilmington,  North  Carolina, 
9.2-9.6;  Florence,  South  Carolina,  10.6-11.9;  Yemassee,  South 
Carohna,  9.3-9.6;  Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  9.4;  Moline,  Illinois, 
11.4-13.7;  West  Point,  Nebraska,  10.5-14.7  mm.  The  oviposi- 
tor varies  slightly  from  the  normal  perfectly  straight  type  to  one 
in  which  an  extremely  weak  upward  curvature  is  appreciable, 
suggesting  the  type  found  in  spartinae,  and  one  in  which  an  open 
sigmoid  curvature  is  barely  indicated,  to  the  weakest  appreciable 
degree.  The  specimens  from  West  Point,  Nebraska,  have  the 
ovipositor  slightly  heavier  and  averaging  longer  than  in  any 
eastern  series.  Of  the  eastern  material,  that  from  drier  upland 
situations  (Diamond  Valley,  Corn  wells  (back  from  the  river), 
Chestnut  Hill,  Castle  Hock,  Pennsylvania;  Fayetteville,  North 
Carolina;  Florence,  South  Carolina,  and  a  number  of  other 
localities)  has  the  ovipositor  frequently  showing  a  suggestion  of 
an  open-sigmoid  curvature  and  averaging  longer  than  in  material 
from  marsh  or  swamp  lands  (Tinicum,  Pennsylvania;  Wilming- 
ton, North  Carolina;  Yemassee,  South  Carolina;  Atlantic  Beach, 
Florida,  and  other  localities),  and  we  believe  the  differences  dis- 
cussed above  probably  to  be  due  wholly  to  environmental  con- 
ditions,^^  particularly  those  governing  oviposition,  which  in 
situations  of  different  character  would  indicate  that  different 
plants  are  selected  as  the  receptacles  for  the  eggs. 

The  present  species  is  known  from  Eastport,  Maine;  Montreal, 
Quebec,  and  Algonciuin  Park,  Ontario  to  Atlantic  Beach,  Flor- 
ida,^^  and   the   Gulf   coast   as   far   as   Beaumont,    Texas.     The 

'2  Different  variations  are  found  in  occasional  species,  primarily  due  it  would 
seem  to  immediate  environmental  conditions  and  not  sufficient  to  warrant 
trinomial  recognition.  See  under  C.  rngropleuroides  in  the  present  paper  and 
under  C.  cinereus  and  saltator  in  the  next  paper  of  the  present  series.  Also 
under  Or chelimum  concinnum,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xU,  pp.  15  and  62,  (1915), 
and  under  Nemohius  fasciatus  fascinlus  and  its  geographic  race  socius,  Proc. 
Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1913,  pp.  410  and  424,  (1913). 

'^  Further  south  in  Florida  this  species  has  not  been  found.  Scudder's  1S77 
record,  with  a  query,  of  an  immature  individual  from  Fort  Reed  as  his  ensiferum, 
ai)i)lies  to  ConocepJialus  gradUimus;  while  the  present  authors'  record  from 
Chokoloskee  we  now  know  to  be  based  upon  material  incorrectly  labelled  and 
probably  taken  in  the  vicinity  of  New  York,  New  York. 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  185 

westernmost  records  are  ^Nlinncsota'^'*;  North  Platte,  Nebraska, 
and  Texas  (probably  Dallas),  the  species  apparently  not  reaching 
far  beyond  the  limits  of  the  naturally  well  watered  regions. ^^ 
The  insect  is  numerous  and  widely  distributed  over  the  Upper 
Austral  Zone  of  the  central  Atlantic  and  upper  Mississippi 
Valley  regions  of  the  United  States,  but  is  found  local  and  usually 
quite  scarce  in  the  lowlands  of  the  southeastern  states. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  over  100.  Here  recorded,  555; 
257  males,  286  females,  2  immatm-e  males  and  10  immatm-e  females. 

Montreal,  Quebec,  VIII,  30,  1902,  (C.  Stevenson),  1    9,  [U.  S.  X.  :\I.]. 

Seabrook,  New  Hampshire,  (A.  A.  Eaton),  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Jaffrey,  New  Hampshire,  IX,  23,  1896,  (S.  Henshaw),  6  cf,  16  9.  [M. 
C.  Z.j. 

Marion,  Massachusetts,  VIII,  1905,  (H.;  grasses  in  woods),  4  cf,  5  9  . 

Saunderstowii,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  3  to  7,  1913,  (H.;  common  in  upland 
grasses  and  vines  near  woods),  7  cf ,  11   9  . 

Wesquage  Beach,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  8  and  10,  1913,  (H.;  in  grasses  and  vines 
near  woods  and  on  edge  of  salt  marsh),  2  cf,  6  9  . 

Niverville,  New  York,  VIII,  24,  1904,  (Morse),  3  a",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chatham,  New  York,  VIII,  9,  1904,  (Morse),  4  <i^,  2  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Chfton  Springs,  X'ew  York,  1  d^,  1   9,  [Cornell  Univ.],  (macropterous). 

Ithaca,  New  York,  VIII,  4  to  X,  12,  1885  to  1894,  22  cf ,  24  9,  [Cornell 
Univ.],  (1  cf  macropterous). 

Tobyhanna,  Penn.sylvania,  IX,  1903,  (H.),  I  cf,  5   9  . 

Stroudsburg,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  1903,  (H.;  in  high  grasses),  2  d^,  1    9. 

Dauphin,  Penn.sylvania,  IX,  15,  1  cf ,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  16,  1    9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Progress,  Pennsylvania,  X,  10,  1    9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.].  » 

Marysville,  Pennsylvania,  X,  6  and  7,  4  d",  1   9  ,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Bristol,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  1912,  (H.  W.  Fowler),  1    9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Woodlands  Cemeteiy,  Philadelphia,  Permsylvania,  X,  7,  1906,  (B.  Long), 
1  cf,  1   9,  [A.  N.  S.  PJ. 

Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  7,  1914,  (H.;  everywhere  in  low  shrul)bery 
and  grasses  along  river  and  on  edge  of  woods),  10  cf ,  3  9,2  juv.  9  ;  IX,  11, 
1906,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cf ,  6  9. 

Ashbourne,  Peimsvlvania,  X,  27,  1906,  (B.  Long),  2  cf,  5  9,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 

^  Though  not  so  stated  by  Lugger,  it  is  vii'tually  certain  that  the  species  is 
common  in  Minnesota  only  as  far  north  as  the  border  of  the  Canadian  Zone. 
Scudder's  record  of  this  species  from  the  Red  River  Settlements,  Manitoba, 
applies  to  C.  saltans. 

^^  Scudder's  records  of  hrevipennis  from  California  and  ensifer  from  Nevada 
Sipply  to  C .  fasciaius  vicinus,  to  which  insect  the  present  species  shows  decided 
similarity  in  manj'  respects,  but  rriay  be  readily  separated  by  the  differences 
of  coloration  and  genitaUa. 

TRANS.    .\M.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


186      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Chestnut  HiU,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  5,  to  X,  4,  1903  to  1911,  (H.;  in  grasses 
near  woods),  3  cf ,  7  9- 

Wissahickon  Creek,  Chestnut  Hill,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  9,  1914,  (H.;  grasses 
in  openings  of  forest),  2  c?,  1   9  . 

Swarthmore,  Pennsylvania,  X,  13,  1906,  (E.  T.  Cresson  Jr.),  1  9 ,  [A.  N. 
S.P.]. 

Castle  Rock,  Delaware  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  19,  1909,  (R.  &  H.; 
common  in  luxuriant  undergrowth  of  heavy  deciduous  forest),  5  cT,  14  9, 
(2   9  macropterous) . 

Devon,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  14,  1905,  1   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Tinicum  Island,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  13  to  IX,  29,  1903  to  1911,  (R.  &  H.; 
very  abundant  near  marsh  in  rank  grass),  38  c?',  42  9  • 

Fern  Hill,  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  19,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  grasses 
on  serpentine  outcrop),  3  cf,  7  9  • 

Shady  Nook,  SuUivan  County,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  6  and  7,  1908,  (Witmer 
Stone),  1  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Diamond  Valley,  Huntingdon  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  10,  1905,  (R.), 
3  o',  4   9. 

Emporium,  Pennsylvania,  X,  1905,  (H.  W.  Fowler),  2  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Beatty,  Pennsylvania,  (O.  Brugger),  2  cf ,  2  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Lindenwold,  New  Jersey,  X,  31,  1914,  (B.  Long),  2  o^,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Woodbury,  New  Jersey,  X,  2,  1907,  (C.  B.  Hardenberg),  1  cf ,  1  9 ,  [A.  N. 
S.  P.]. 

Stafford's  Forge,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  12  to  IX,  16,  1905  to  1908,  (R.  &  H.), 
6  c?,  5   9. 

Mays  Landing,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  29,  1914,  (H.;  in  boggy  pine  barrens), 
1   9. 

Reega,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  29,  1914,  (H.;  scarce  in  undergrowth  of  pine 
barrens),  1  cf ,  1   9  . 

Margate  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  17,  1914,  (H.;  grasses  on  dry  ground  on 
edge  of  salt  marsh),  1  c?,  2  9  . 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14  and  26,  1914,  (H.;  tall  grasses  on  border 
of  fresh  marsh),  38  cf ,  9  9,2  juv.  9  ,  (Ic?  macropterous). 

Plummers  Island,  Maryland,  VIII,  6  and  29,  1901  and  1904,  (Currie,  Bar- 
ber), 1  cf ,  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Cabin  John,  Maryland,  IX,  23,  1911,  1  d^,  2  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  IX,  1883,  1    9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Anolostan  Island,  District  of  Columbia,  IX,  6,  1912,  (Caudell),  1  9 ,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.). 

Marshall  Hall,  Maryland,  VIII,  9,  1883,  1  juv.   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Rosslyn,  Virginia,  IX,  (Caudell),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Falls  Church,  Virginia,  IX,  4  and  28,  1906,  3  c?,  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Appomattox,  Virginia,  IX,  6,  1903,  (Morse),  2  d",  3   9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Wytheville,  Virginia,  IX,  4,  1903,  (Morse),  1    9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Cape  Henry,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Norfolk,  Virginia,  IX,  8,  1903,  (Morse),  2   9,1  juv.   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  187 

Virginia  Beach,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1908,  (Morse),  1  cf,  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]; 
X,  6,  (F.  Knab),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  North  Carohna,  IX,  9,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  4  cf,  4  9  . 

Roan  Mountain,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  31,  1903,  (Morse),  3  d",  2  9, 
[Morse  Chi.]. 

Linville,  North  Carohna,  VIII,  30,  1903,  (Morse),  7  cf,  3  9,2  juv.  9, 
[Morse  Chi.]. 

Sahida,  North  Carohna,  VIII,  17,  1903,  (Morse),  2  o^,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Governors  Island,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  20,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cT,  3  juv. 
9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  4  d^,  3    9. 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.:  in  high  weeds  on 
lake  shore),  3  d",  3  9  • 

Spartanburg,  South  Carolina,  VIII,  G,  1913,  (H.),  1  juv.  cf. 

Florence,  South  Carolina,  IX,  G,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  green  undergrowth  of 
deep  forest  and  in  grasses  on  its  edge),  7  d^,  5  9  . 

Yemassee,  South  Carolina,  IX,  4,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  grasses  on  edge  of  forest), 
3  c",  2   9,1  jviv.   9. 

Atlanta,  Georgia,  VIII,  2,  1913,  (R.  &  H.),  1  juv.  o^. 

Savannah,  Georgia,  VIII,  14,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cT,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Sandfly,  Georgia,  IX,  3,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  cT,  1   9  . 

Homerville,  Georgia,  VIII,  27,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  c?. 

Billy's  Island,  Okeefenokee  Swamp,  Georgia,  IX,  1  to  5,  1913,  (J.  C.  Brad- 
ley), 1    9  ,  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Atlantic  Beach,  Florida,  VIII,  24,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  2  cf ,  1   9  . 

South  Jacksonville,  Florida,  IX,  7,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  1    9,  [Davis  Cln.]. 

Windsor,  Ontario,  IX,  1894,  2  d",  [Cornell  Univ.]. 

Cuyahoga  Falls,  Ohio,  VIII,  14,  1904,  (W.  V.  Warner),  1  c^,  [U.  S.  N.  M.j. 

Salineville,  Ohio,  IX,  10,  1892,  1   9,  [Cornell  Univ.],  (macropterous). 

Roan  Mountain  Station,  Tennessee,  IX,  3,  1903,  (Morse),  3  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Johnson  City,  Tennessee,  VIII,  27,  1903,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chattanooga,  Tennessee,  VIII,  24,  1903,  (Morse),  4  cf ,  5   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Flomaton,  Alabama,  VIII,  2,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Chicago,  Ilhnois,  IX,  9,  1904,  (H.;  in  waste  field),  1    9  . 

Moline,  Illinois,  IX,  (McNeill),  1  a',  2  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  IX  and  X,  1884  and  1885,  (L.  Bruner),  19  d,  33  9  , 
[Hebard  Cln.],  (4  cf,  G  9  macropterous). 

Weeping  Water,  Nebraska,  IX,  24,  1909,  (L.  Bruner),  1  9.  [Hebard 
Chi.]. 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  VIII  (taken  at  light),  1  9,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (macropter- 
ous). 

Table  Rock,  Nebraska,  VIII,  25,  1904,  (H.;  in  high  grass),  1   9  . 

North  Platte,  Nebraska,  VIII,  28,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  swamjjy  areas  on  river 
plain),  1   cf. 

Hopkins,  Arkansas,  IX,  12,  1904,  (C.  R.  .Jones),  1  d,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Beaumont,  Texas,  VIII,  23,  1912,  (IL;  grasses  on  swampy  ground),  1  cf . 

TR.\NS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XI. I. 


188      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oETHOPTERa) 

Conocephalus  resacensis  ^^  new  species  (PL  XV,  fig.  6;  XVI,  7;  XVII,  7; 

XVIII,  13  and  14;  XX,  8.) 

The  present  species  somewhat  resembles  C.  allardi  and  C. 
hrevipennis  but  differs  from  both  in  the  attenuate  form,  wider 
vertex,  smoother  pronotum  with  lateral  lobes  even  more  elongate 
than  in  allardi,  different  and  paler  coloration,  much  more  elongate 
caudal  femora  with  genicular  areas  not  darkened,  (genicular  lobes 
normally  unispinose  as  in  allardi),  and  very  different  male  geni- 
talia, though  with  subgenital  plate  of  the  normal  type  of  the 
subgenus  Xiphidion,  as  found  in  hrevipennis. 

Type. —  cf  ;  Piper  Plantation  near  Brownsville,  Texas.  August 
3,  1912.    (Rehn  and  Hebard.)    [Hebard  Collection,  Type  No.  171 .] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  rather  large  for  the  genus,  form  slender  and 
surface  very  smooth.  Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex,  when  seen  from  the  lateral 
aspect,  scarcely  at  all  depressed  proximad,  in  same  plane  as  the  occiput; 
fastigium  of  vertex  nearly  as  wide  as  basal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a 
decided  concavity  to  facial  suture;  eyes  normal.  Pronotum  elongate,  round- 
mg  smoothly  into  the  lateral  lobes  which  are  considerably  longer  than  deep 
with  surface  very  smooth,  cephalic  margin  of  lateral  lobes  broadly  and  evenly 
arcuate  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  moderately  rounded  and  rectangu- 
late,  caudal  margin  of  same  very  weakly  convex  to  the  very  shallow  and 
scarcely  appreciable  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  very  broad,  somewhat 
broader  than  in  allardi  and  decidedly  broader  than  in  hrevipennis.  Tegmina 
slightly  more  than  half  the  length  of  the  caudal  femora,  structure  very  deh- 
cate  with  veins  weaker  than  in  hrevipennis;  stridulating  area  similar  but  smaller 
in  proportion  with  stridulating  vein  and  veins  of  the  speculum  decidedly 
heavier  than  in  that  species,  in  this  latter  respect  more  as  in  allardi;  wings 
shghtly  shorter  than  tegmina.  Abdomen  and  cerci  unicolorous.  Cerci  elong- 
ate; the  median  half  quite  evenly  and  decidedly  swollen  and  bearing  on  the 
internal  margin  at  the  point  of  gi-eatest  diameter  a  rather  long  tooth,  which 
is  broad  at  its  base  and  is  situated  slightly  lower  than  mesad  (in  vertical  sense) 
but  entirely  visible  from  above,  this  tooth  directed  meso-ventrad  with  apex 
sharp  and  decurved;  external  margin  of  cercus  very  weakly  concave,  nearly 
straight;  distad  the  cercus  narrows  evenly  from  the  swollen  portion  to  the  nai-- 
row  blunted  apex,  which  portion  of  the  cercus  is  very  weakly  depressed.  Sub- 
genital  plate  bearing  disto-laterad  styles  .7  mm.  in  length,  the  sockets  of  which 
are  produced  beyond  the  transverse  distal  margin  of  the  plate.  Cephalic  and 
median  femora  much  as  in  hrevipennis,  caudal  femora  very  long  and  more 
attenuate  than  in  hrevipennis,  with  enlarged  proximal  portion  tapering  much 
more  gently  and  with  ventral  margins  unarmed,  genicular  lol^cs  unispinose.'^ 

2'^  In  reference  to  the  "resacas"  or  ancient  and  now  cut  off  and  dried  out 
curves  of  the  Rio  Grande,  in  the  gi-asses  of  which,  surrounded  by  the  low  heavy 
jungle  of  the  river  plain,  the  present  species  makes  its  home. 

^~  The  immature  male  before  us  shows  this  character  to  be  varial)l(\  as  this 
specimen  has  the  genicular  loljes  Ijispinose. 


EEHN    AND    HEBARD  189 

Allotype. —  9  ;  data  same  as  the  tj'pe. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Similar  to  type,  very  slightly  larger.  Lateral 
lobes  of  pronotiim  longer  with  caudal  margin  straight  and  humeral  sinus 
obsolete.  Tegmina  lanceolate  with  rather  sharply  rounded  apex,  half  as  long 
as  abdomen;  wings  very  shghtly  longer.  Ovipositor  longer  than  caudal  femur, 
straight.  The  subgenital  plate  embraces  the  base  of  the  ovipositor  and  has 
the  distal  margin  broadly  arcuate. 

Measurements  {in  miUimeters) 
Length  of       Length  of       Length  of       Length  of       Length  of       Length  of 
body  pronotum         tegmen       caudal  femur      cercus  ovipositor 

Type,  d".  17.2  3.7  7.1  13.4  2.1  

Paratype,  d'.  16.7  3.9  8.8  14.2  2.1  

Allotype,  9.  16.7  4.1  6  14.4  15.2 

Paratype,   9.  16.8  4.1  5.6  14,9  15.6 

In  the  paratypic  female  before  us  the  ovipositor  shows  a  very 
shght  curvature. 

Coloration. — Dorsum  of  head  and  pronotum  with  a  very  broad 
median  band  of  cinnamon  brown,  margined  laterad  with  Ught 
buff.  Eyes  tawny.  Tegmina  and  wings  transparent  and  pale 
buff.  Abdomen  (of  male)  uniform  ochraceous  tawny  including 
cerci,  (of  female)  dorso-proximal  and  entire  distal  portion 
including  ovipositor  cinnamon  brown  tinged  with  tawny.  The 
remaining  portions  of  head,  body  and  limbs,  including  the  gen- 
icular areas  of  the  caudal  femora,  Vanderpoel's  green  (Ridgeway). 
The  allotype  has  alone  retained  in  large  measure  the  original 
coloration. 

The  present  material  was  taken  among  luxuriant  grasses 
growing  in  the  openings  of  the  almost  impenetrable  jungles  of 
palm,  huisache,  ebony  and  many  other  trees,  which  occupy  the 
low  country  along  the  Rio  Grande  below  Brownsville. 

Specimens  Examined:  6;  2  males,  2  females,  1  immature  male  and  1  inmiaturc 
female. 

Piper  Plantation  near  Brownsville,  Texas,  VIII,  3,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  2  cT, 
2  9  ,  type,  allotype  and  parntypes,  1  juv.  cT,  1  juv.  9  . 
Conocephalus  nemoralis   (Scudder)    (PI.  XVI,  figs.  8  and  9;   XMI,  8; 

XVIII,  15  and  16;  XIX,  12;  XX,  9.) 
1875.     Xiphidium  nemorale  Scudder,^^  Proc.  Bost.  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xvii,  p.  462. 

[Dallas  County,  Iowa.] 
1891.     Xiphidium  curlipenne  Redtenl)acher,  Verb.  Zool.-botan.  Gesell.  Wien, 

xli,  pp.  498,  522.     [Missouri.] 

'^  Single  type  here  designated:  c?  ;  Dallas  County,  Iowa,  IX,  3,  (J.  A.  Allen), 
[M.  C.  Z.].  Measurements;  length  of  body  10.8,  of  tegmen  8,  of  caudal  femur 
12.2  mm. 

TRANS.   AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


190      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Scudder  has  properlj'  synonyniized  Eedtenbacher's  curtipenne 
with  the  present  species.  ^^ 

The  present  insect  is  veiy  striking  in  form,  coloration  and 
ovipositor,  which  latter,  though  not  strongly,  is  more  decid- 
edly curved  than  in  any  other  North  American  species  of  the 
genus.  The  species  is  dark  brown  in  general  coloration,  often 
stronglj^  tinged  with  burnt  lake  and  sometimes  with  green;  the 
dorsum  of  the  pronotum,  particularly  in  paler  individuals,  is 
bordered  bj^  very  narrow  lateral  lines  of  the  same  pale  color  which 
make  the  tegminal  veins  and  veinlets  so  conspicuous  in  the  pres- 
ent species,  these  lateral  hues  are  continued  on  the  head,  con- 
verging to  the  vertex  which  they  border. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with  cephalic  margin  moderatel}^ 
convex  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  with  the  ventro-cephalic  angle 
weakly  indicated,  ventro-caudal  angle  rather  broadly  rounded, 
rectangulate,  caudal  margin  exceedingly  weakly  convex  to  the 
subobsolete  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  moderately  broad. 

Macropterism  is  very  rare,  we  have  but  two  examples  of  this 
condition  before  us,  females  from  Plummer's  Island,  Maryland, 
and  Asheville,  North  Carolina. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  alwaj^s  iiifuscated; 
the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  each  furnished  with  a  single 
rather  heavy  spine  or  very  occasional^  bispinose;  the  ventral 
margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  unarmed. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Beatt^-,  Pennsylvania, 
9.2;  Asheville,  North  Carolina,  8.6-9.5;  Marion  County,  Indiana, 
8.8-9;  Mohne,  IlHnois,  8.6;  West  Point,  Nebraska,^"  7.8-8.7 
mm.  Though  normally  distinctly  but  not  very  strongly  curved, 
the  ovipositor  is  found  to  vary  occasionally  in  the  degree  of  this 
curvature  as  well  as  in  length  and  heaviness. 

The  present  species  is  widely  distributed  over  the  upper  Miss- 
issippi valley  region  as  far  north  as  West  Spring  Green,  Wiscon- 
sin, and  is  known  eastward  as  far  as  the  Hudson  Palisades  in 
New  Jerscj^;  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania;  Washington,  D.  C,  and 
Asheville,  North  Carolina,  and  westward  as  far  as  West  Point 
and  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  and  Wichita,  Kansas. 

"Can.  Ent.,  xxx,  p.  184,  (1898). 

*"  One  female  from  West  Point,  Nel)raska,  lias  the  ovipositor  only  6.7  mm. 
in  length,  but  the  whole  organ  appears  to  be  somewhat  abnormal  and  we  have 
consequently  omitted  reference  to  this  individual  elsewhere. 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  191 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  over  70.  Here  recorded  77; 
23  males,  44  females,  4  immature  males  and  6  immature  females. 

Dauphin,  Pemisylvania,  IX,  15,  1    9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Harrisbm-g,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  IS,  1  d^,  2  9,  2  juv.  9,  [Pa.  State  Dept. Zool.]. 

Highspire,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  20,  1    9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Middleto^ni,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  5,  2  9 ,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Beatty,  Pennsylvania,  (O.  Brugger),  1  o",  1   9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Sharpsbm-g,  Maryland,  IX,  IS,  1903,  (CaudeU),  1  c?,  [U.  S.  X.  .M.]. 

Plummer's  Island,  Maryland,  VIII,  2.5  to  X,  25,  (Caudell,  Barber,  Fisher, 
McAtee,  Clemons),  9  cf ,  7  9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.],  (1   9  macropterous). 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  VIII,  1883,  (A.Koebele),  1  9 ,  [HebardChi.] 

Luray,  Virginia,  IX,  2,  1906,  (F.  Ivnab),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Roan  Mountain  Station,  Tennessee,  IX,  3,  1903,  (Mor.se),  4  cf,  4  9,4 
juv.  cf,  3  juv.    9,     [Morse  Cln.]. 

ClarksviUe,  Tennessee,  IX,  24  and  25,  1913,  (S.  E.  Crumlj;  on  tobacco), 
2  d",  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Springvale,  Tennessee,  VIII,  30,  1900,  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

West  Spring  Green,  Wisconsin,  VIII,  26,  1906,  (J.  D.  Hood),  1  9  ,  [Pa.  State 
Dept.  Zool.]. 

West  Point,  Xebraska,  IX,  1,  (Bruner),  4  9 ,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Omaha,  Xebraska,  1  a",  1   9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Ashland,  Xebraska,  1   9 ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Weepmg  Water,  Xebraska,  IX,  24,  1909,  (Bruner),  2  cr",  8  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Lincoln,  Xebraska,  IX,  15,  (Bruner),  1  cf ,  1  9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Des  Momes,  Iowa,  VIII,  26,  1903,  (CaudeU),  1    9 ,  (U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

St.  Louis,  Missouri,  IX,  25  to  X,  27,  1875  and  1876,  1  cf ,  4  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Kh-kwood,  Mis.souri,  IX,  6,  1873  and  X,  7,  1877,  2  9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.j. 

Dardanelle,  Arkansas,  VIII,  31,  1905,  (Morse),  1  juv.   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Conocephalus  occidentalis   (Morse)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  10;  XVII,  9;  XVIII, 

17  and  IS;  XIX,  13;  XX,  10.) 
1901.     Xiphidium  occidentale  Morse,"  Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii,  p.  202.     [Tehachapij 

Ahwa(h)nee,  Wawona,  Yosemite  Valley,  Berkeley,  Sisson[s]  and  Gazelle, 

California;  Ashland,  Grant's  Pass,  Roseburg  and  Corvallis,  Oregon.] 
1901.     X[iphidium]  occidentale  variety   camurum   Morse,    Can.    Ent.,  x.v\iii, 

p.  202.     [Ashland,  Oregon.] 
1901.     X[iphidium]  occidentale  variety  caudatum  Morse,^  Can.  Ent.,  xxxiii, 

p.  203.     [Mt.  Shasta  district,  California.] 

The  use  of  such  varietal  names  as  given  above  appears  wholly 
inadvisable.     The  one,  camurum,  is  based  solely  upon  a  macrop- 

*i  Single  type  designated:  cf;  Tehachapi,  California,  VIII,  3,  1897,  (Morse), 
[Morse  Chi.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Acad.  Xat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1915,  p.  105, 
(1915).) 

"  Single  t3T)e  designated :  9;  Mount  Shasta  district,  California,  VII,  (H. 
Edwards),  [M.  C.  Z.].  (Morse  and  Hebard,  Proc.  Xat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1915,  p. 
105, (1915). 

TRAXS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLl. 


192       STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

terous  specimen  of  the  present  insect;  tlie  otlier,  caiidatum,  on 
three  specimens  exhibiting  a  maximum  of  ovipositor  length. 
When  we  consider  the  prevalence  of  macropterism  and  brachyp- 
terism  in  the  species  of  this  and  many  other  genera,  and  know 
that  such  forms  are  often  if  not  always  the  offspring  of  the  same 
parent,  we  feel  satisfied  that  such  names  are  absolute  synonyms, 
the  use  of  which  can  only  lead  to  confusion  and  misconception 
of  the  importance  of  trinomials  designating  valid  and  constant 
geographic  races.  Morse's  very  large  series  and  our  own  speci- 
mens show  considerable  variation  in  length  of  ovipositor  and 
caudal  femur;  the  material  showing  the  caudal  femora  rather 
short  and  the  ovipositor  rather  long,  named  coudafum  by  Morse, 
is  not  worthy  of  name  designation  as  there  is  no  geographic 
correlation  and  such  variations  are  frequent  in  the  species  of  the 
genus. 

The  present  species,  although  differing  ver}^  decidedly  in  many 
important  characters,  shows  much  the  nearest  affinity  to  C. 
nenioralis,  to  which  insect  it  also  l^ears  a  closer  general  resem- 
blance than  to  any  other  American  species. 

The  great  majority  of  specimens  before  us  have  the  limbs 
and  sides  of  head,  pronotum  and  abdomen,  brown;  a  very  few 
examples  have  these  portions  green.  The  females  have  the 
a])domen  usually  rather  distinctly  marked  dorso-mesad  with  a 
double  row  of  dark  markings,  while  on  each  side  is  situated  a 
narrow  band,  usually  of  even  darker  coloration. 

The  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  are  rather  similar  to  those 
of  nemoraUs,  but  are  somewhat  broader,  with  angles  more  broadly 
rounded  and  humeral  sinus  slightly  more  appreciable. 

Macropterism  is  very  rare,  we  have  examined  the  unique 
female  in  the  Morse  collection  which  exhibits  this  condition. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  weakly  or  not 
at  all  infuscated;  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  unispinose 
in  all  of  the  specimens  we  have  examined;  the  ventral  margins 
of  the  caudal  femora  are  unarmed. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Sisson,  Cafifornia,  14.2- 
15.7;  Shasta  County,  California,  11.1;  Sentinel,  California, 
10.3-12.6;  Mariposa  Grove,  California,  10.1-11;  Mill  Valley, 
Cafifornia,  8.7  mm.  The  ovipositor  is  usually  very  weakly 
curved  but  in  some  specimens  it  is  almost  absolutely'  straight. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  193 

The  present  species  is  peculiar  to  the  Pacific  coast  and  has  l)ecn 
found  there  from  Corvalhs,  Oregon,  southward  through  the  moun- 
tains as  far  as  Tehachapi,  Cahfornia,  and  on  the  coast  in  the 
vicinity  of  San  Francisco. 

SpecimeHs  Examined:  Previously  recorded  156.  Here  recorded,  19;  7  male.s, 
10  females  and  2  immature  females. 

Mount  Shasta,  California,  IX,  1885,  (J.  Behrens),  1  d",  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Shasta  County,  California,  VII,  1885,  (J.  Behrens),  1  juv.  9  ;  VIII  to  IX, 
1885,  (J.  Behrens),  1  cf ,  1   9,  [all  Hebard  Cln.]. 

Sisson,  California,  VIII,  15,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  in  grasses  of  marsliy  meadow), 
4  cf ,  9   9,1  juv.   9. 

Sacramento,  California,  VIII,  20,  1904,  {M.  Xawa),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 
Conocephalus  strictus  (Scudder)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  11;  XVII,  10;  XVIII,  19 

and  20;  XX,  11.) 
1862.     X[iphidium]  ensifer  Scudder,  Bost.  Journ.  Nat.  Hist.,  vii,  p.  451.     [Lawn 

Ridge,  Illinois.]     (In  part.) 
1875.     XipJddium  siridum  Scudder,''^  Proc.  Bost.  Soc.  Xat.  Hist.,  xvii,  p.  400. 

[Dallas,  Texas.] 

This  species  averages  larger  and  has  the  ovipositor  averaging 
longer  than  in  an}''  other  species  found  in  the  United  States. 
Though  differing  very  decidedly  from  C.  nemoralis  and  occiden- 
talis,  the  present  insect  shows  unquestionably  an  extreme  devel- 
opment from  a  common  ancestor  with  these  species. 

In  coloration  the  dorsum  of  the  abdomen,  the  cerci  and  the 
ovipositor  are  dark  brown,  the  remaining  portions  of  the  insect 
are  green  excepting  the  usual  medio-dorsal  dark  stripe  on  the  head 
and  pronotum  which  is  narrowly  bordered  with  buff,  in  the  females 
these  narrow  dorso-lateral  buff  lines  are  continued  on  the  abdo- 
men to  the  base  of  the  ovipositor.  Material  from  the  arid  south- 
west usually  shows  a  decidedly  paler  type  of  coloration  in  which 
the  dorsum  of  the  abdomen  is  often  very  weakly  infuscated  or 
greenish  yellow;  frequently  in  pale  females  from  this  region  the 
color  pattern  described  alcove  is  strongly  defined,  the  abdomen 
showing  a  very  broad  medio-dorsal  fuscous  band  bordered  by  a 
narrow  buffy  band  on  each  side,  the  sides  of  the  abdomen  below 
this  infuscated,  this  coloration  heaviest  dorsad  along  the  bor- 
ders of  the  pale  dorso-lateral  bands,  thus  making  them  very  pro- 
nounced. 

^3  Single  type  here  designated:  9  ;  Dallas,  Texas,  (Boll),  [M.  C.  Z.j.  Meas- 
urements; length  of  body  16.6,  of  tegmen  4.2,  of  caudal  femur  16.4,  of  ovi- 
positor 24.7  mm. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


194      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  large,  cephalic  margins  straight  to  the 
distinct  but  broadly  obtuse-angulate  ventro-cephaHc  angle,  thence 
straight  to  the  broadly  rounded  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  ap- 
proximately rectangulate,  caudal  margin  distinctly  convex  to  the 
distinct  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  very  broad. 

jMacropterism  is  very  rare  in  the  present  species,  11  of  over 
5C0  adult  specimens  at  present  before  us  represent  this  condition. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  not  infuscated; 
the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  unispinose;  the  ventral  mar- 
gins of  the  caudal  femora  are  unarmed. 

The  ovipositor  length  is  as  follows:  Mount  Airy,  Pennsylvania, 
17.7-23.1;  Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania,  19.4-28.1;  Marshall  County, 
Indiana,  20.1-21.8;  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  20.9-21.3;  West  Point, 
Nebraska,  17.7-22.8;"Dodge  City,  Kansas,  17.9-22.6;  Dickinson, 
Texas,  21.2-25;  Beeville,  Texas,  25.2-32.3;  Sycamore  Canon, 
Baboquivari  Mts.,  Arizona,  19.7-24.4  mm.  The  ovipositor  usu- 
ally shows  a  very  weak  curvature  but  in  occasional  specimens  it 
is  almost  absolutely  straight.  Nowhere  in  the  series  of  the  pres- 
ent genus  before  us  is  the  variability  in  ovipositor  length  more 
strikingly  illustrated,  for  the  range  in  length  is  from  17.7  to  32.3, 
showing  a  variation  of  14.6  mm.  The  material  before  us  shows 
that  in  some  localities  the  species  develops  an  ovipositor  averag- 
ing longer  or  shorter  than  in  others,  but  the  fact  is  also  proven 
by  this  material  that  nowhere  in  the  wide  distribution  of  the 
species  does  a  recognizable  geographic  race  occur,  or  even  a  form 
which  might  usually  be  distinguishable,  in  spite  of  the  wide  range 
of  ovipositor  length. 

On  the  Atlantic  coast  the  species  is  known  from  Staten  Island, 
New  York,  south  to  Newbern,  North  CaroUna;  westward  it 
has  been  taken  as  far  north  as  southwestern  Minnesota,  other 
westernmost  records  being  Hot  Springs,  South  Dakota;  Kearney, 
Nebraska ;  Syracuse,  Kansas,  and  Cisco,  Texas,  while  on  the  Rio 
Grande  it  has  been  taken  at  Brownsville  and  Del  Rio,  Texas. 
In  the  mountain  regions  of  the  arid  southwest  the  species  is 
again  found  (Marathon,  Texas;  Mesilla,  New  Mexico,  and  the 
Baboquivari  Mountains,  Arizona),  and  it  will  almost  certainly 
be  found  to  have  a  wide  range  over  the  highest  portions  of  north- 
ern Mexico  and  for  some  distance  along  the  Gulf  coast  of  that 
country. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  195 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  over  50.  Here  recordcnl,  oOo; 
217  males,  249  females,  4  immature  males  and  35  immatvu'o  females. 

Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  7,  1914  (H.;  j)asture,  in  area  of  Andropoqon), 
3  c^,  1   9  ;  IX,  11,  1906,  (R.  &  H.),  19. 

Ashbourne,  Pennsylvania,  X,  27,  1900,  (B.  Long),  1  c?,  4  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
(1   9  maci-opterous). 

Mount  Airy,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  12,  1903,  (H.),  1  cf ;  IX,  24,  1914,  II.:  up- 
land pasture,  very  abundant  in  Andropogon  virginicus),  6  cf ,  10   9  . 

Tinicum  Island,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  9,  1904,  (R.  &  H.),  1  o^,  1  9,  1  juv.  9. 

Addingham,  Peiuisvlvania,  VIII,  13.  1914,  (D.  Culver),  1  cf ,  2  juv.  9,  [A. 
N.  S.  P.]. 

Castle  Rock,  Delaware  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  19,  1909,  (R.  &  II.:  luxu- 
riant vegetation  in  deciduous  forest),  4  cf ,  7   9  ,  (1    9  macropterous). 

Fern  Hill,  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  19,  1908,  (R.  &  H.;  gras.scs 
on  serpentine  outcrop),  11  cf ,  13   9,  (1  cf  and  1    9  macropterous). 

Marcus  Hook,  Pennsvlvania,  VIII,  11,  1905,  (P.  Lorrilliere),  1  juv.  9  ,  [A.  \. 
S.  P.]. 

Harrisbm-g,  Pennsylvania,  Wetzel's  swamp,  IX,  30,  1  9  ,  [Pa.  State  Dept. 
Zool.],  (macropterous). 

Rockville,  Pennsylvania,  VII,  29,  1  juv.   9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.[. 

Ocean  View,  Xew  Jersey,  VII,  27,  1914,  (H;  upland  field),  1  juv.  a  ,  3  juv. 
9  ;  IX,  8  to  X,  9,  1909  to  1911,  (H.  Fox),  2  cT,  3  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Wiklwood  Junction,  Xew  Jersey,  VIII,  27  to  VIII,  8,  1914,  (H.;  hi  waste  field 
particularly  about  baybcrry  l)ushes),  3  juv.  cf,  5  juv.    9. 

Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  VIII  and  IX,  1883,  2  cf,  2  9,  [Hebard 
Cln.],  (1  9  macropterous;  VIII,  IS  to  XI,  14,  (Caudell,  Allard),  3  o",  7  9, 
[U.  S.  X.  M.],  3  9  (macropterous). 

Arlington,  Virginia,  X,  10,  1912,  (Allard),  1  cf ,  2  9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Falls  Church,  Virginia,  IX,  4,  1906,  (Caudell),  1  juv.   9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Xorfolk,  Virginia,  IX.  8,  1903,  (Mor.se),  2  cf ,  2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Virginia  Beach,  Virginia,  IX,  7,  1903,  (Morse),  1   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Appomattox,  Virginia,  IX,  6,  1903,  (Morse),  15  cf,  15  9,  2  juv.  9,  [Mor.se 
Cln.]. 

Utica,  Mississippi,  VIII,  1  juv.   9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Lawn  Ridge,  Illinois,  1  9,  one  of  the  types  of  X iphidium  ensifer  Scudder, 
[M.  C.  Z.]. 

Urbana,  Ilhnois,  X,  15,  1905,  (C.  A.  Hart),  1  o^,  1   9,  [Hel)ard  Cln.]. 

Iowa  City,  Iowa,  VIII,  1889,  (B.  Shimek),  1  cf ,  1  juv.  9  ,  [IIel)ard  Cln.]. 

Des  Moines,  Iowa,  VIII,  26,  1903,  (Caudell),  1  cf ,  1   9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

St.  Louis,  Missouri,  IX,  25  to  X,  27,  1875  and  1876,  1  cf .  7  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.j; 
X,  9,  1904,  (C.  L.  Heink),  4  9,  [Hebard  Cln.j. 

Kirkwood,  Missouri,  X,  1877,  1  cf,  3  9,  [U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  Arkansas,  IX,  5,  1905,  (Morse),  9  cf ,  6  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Hot  Springs,  South  Dakota,  X,  1888,  1   9 ,  [Hebard,  Cln.]. 

West  Point,  Xebraska,  VIII  to  X,  1884,  (L.  Bruner),  3  cf ,  9  9,  [Hebard 
Cln.j. 

South  Bend,  Xebraska,  X,  15,  1910,  (L.  Bruner),  1   9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

TRAXS.    AM.     F.XT.    SOC,    XI.I. 


196      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Weeping  Water,  Nebraska,  IX,  29,  1909,  (L.  Bruner),  3  9,  [Hebard  CIn.]. 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  IX,  3  and  15,  1909,  (L.  Bruner),  3  c?,  6  9,  [Hebard 
Cln.],  (1   9  macropterous). 

Kearney,  Nebraska,  VII,  27,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  in  patches  of  higher  grasses  on 
river  bottoms),  9  c?,  9  9,2  juv.   9  . 

Howe,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  4,  1905,  (Morse),  3  c^,  2  juv.   9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Wilburton,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  27,  1905,  (Morse),  7  c?,  4  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

South  McAlester,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  7,  1905,  (Morse),  11  cf ,  6  juv.  9  ,  [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Caddo,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  8,  1905,  (Morse),  1  o",  1  9,1  juv.  9  ,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

ShawTiee,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  26,  1905,  (Morse),  A  6^,2  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Base  of  Mount  Sheridan,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  24,  1905,  (Morse),  2  9 ,  [Morse 
Cln.]. 

Cache,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  23,  1905,  (Morse),  5  c?,  6  9,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Mountain  Park,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  22,  1905,  (Morse),  2  c^,  3  9  ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Denison,  Texas,  VIII,  12,  1905,  (Morse),  4  cf ,  3  9,  [Morse  Chi.]. 

Wichita  FaUs,  Texas,  VIII,  15,  1905,  (Morse),  4  d^,  11   9 ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Dodge  City,  Kansas,  IX,  13,  1909,  (H.;  higher  grasses  in  prairie  depressions), 
14  cf',  15  9,  (1  cf  macropterous). 

Syracuse,  Kansas,  IX,  12,  1909,  (R.  &H.;  higher  grasses  in  prairie  depres- 
sions), 1  c?',  9  9. 

Piano,  Texas,  VIII,  1907,  (E.  S.  Tucker),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Sagamore  Hill,  Tarrant  County,  Texas,  IX,  27,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  1  juv.  9  . 

Cisco,  Texas,  IX,  21  and  22,  1912  (R.  &  H.;  scarce  in  high  meadow  grasses), 
2  cf,  2  9. 

Flatonia,  Texas,  VIII,  19  and  20,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  in  bunch  grass,  immature 
specimens  occasional),  1   9  . 

Galveston,  Texas,  VII,  19  to  21,  1912,  (H.),  3  c?,  3  9 . 

Virginia  Point,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.;  in  moderate  numbers  in  weeds 
and  tall  grass  growing  at  a  level  slightly  higher  than  tidal  marsh)  ,3  cf ,  3  9  . 

La  Marque,  Texas,  VIII,  22,  1912,  (H.),  10  cf ,  3  9  . 

Dickinson,  Texas,  VII,  20,  1912,  (H.;  nowhere  common  but  widely  distrib- 
uted in  low  green  plants  in  pine  woods),  3  d^,  8  9  . 

Webster,  Texas,  VII,  19,  1912,  (H. ;  occasional  in  plant  clumps  on  prairie),  1  d' . 

Rosenberg,  Texas,  VII,  25  and  2G,  1912,  (H.;  common  and  widely  distributed 
in  weeds  and  gra.sses),  4  c?,  3  9  • 

Victoria,  Texas,  VII,  26  and  27,  1912,  (H.;  occasional  in  weeds),  2  d",  3  9. 

Beeville,  Texas,  VII,  28,  1912,  (H.),  3  d,3   9. 

Gregory,  Texas,  VII,  30,  1912,  (H.),  2  cf ,  2   9. 

RobstowTi,  Texas,  VIII,  9,  1912,  (IL),  1  cf ,  2  9  . 

Lyford,  Texas,  VIII,  6  and  7,  1912,  (R.  &  H.),  2  cf,  2  9,1  juv.  9  . 

BrownsviUe,  Texas,  VII,  30  to  VIII,  5,  1912,  (H.),  2  d',  2   9  ■ 

Clarendon,  Texas,  VIII,  18,  1905,  (Morse),  9  d',  6  9,  [Morse  Cln.],  (1  9 
macropterous) . 

Amarillo,  Texas,  VIII,  19,  1905,  (Morse),  1  cT,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Del  Rio,  Texas,  VIII,  22  and  23,  1912,  (H.;  area  of  hea\y  grass  with  clumps 
of  cat-tails  in  river  bottoms),  1  d. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  197 

Marathon,  Texas,  VIII,  26  and  IX,  13,  1912,  (R.  &  H.;  scarce  in  hifih  jirecn 
grass  in  wet  spots),  5  d^,  3   9  . 

Boulder,  Colorado,  VIII,  9,  190.5,  (T.  A.  D.  Cockerel!),  i  d,l  9,4  juv.  9  , 
[U.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Sycamore  Caiion,  Baboquivari  Mountains,  Ai-izona,  X,  8,  1910,  c.  4700  ft., 
(H.;  common  in  dry  grasses  on  canon  slopes  at  upper  forks),  21  d^,  23   9  . 

Oonocephalus  hygrophilus  "  new  species  (PI.  XV,  fig.  9,  XVI,  12;   XVII, 
11;  XVIII,  21  and  22;  XX,  12.) 

This  insect  shows  nearest  relationship  to  C.  stictomerus,  and 
some  affinity  to  C  aigialus,  differing  from  the  latter  species  in 
the  larger  size,  much  broader  but  otherwise  similar  vertex,  deeper 
lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  with  the  ventro-caudal  angle  more 
acute,  not  strikingly  truncate  distal  extremity  of  the  male  abdo- 
men, different  male  cerci  and  longer  caudal  femora.  The  male 
cerci  are  distinctive,  the  nearest  development  in  this  respect 
being  found  in  C.  stictomerus. 

The  species  probably  will  be  found  in  numerous  localities  in 
the  heavier  vegetation  along  the  margins  of  salt  marshes  and 
about  brackish  and  fresh  water  swamps  on  the  Gulf  coast,  Httle 
work  has  as  yet  been  done  there  in  such  environment. 

Type. —  9  ;  Virginia  Point,  Galveston  County,  Texas.  July  21, 
1912.    (Hebard.)    [Hebard  Collection,  Type  No.  172.] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  large  for  the  genus,  form  robust  and  rather  elon- 
gate. Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect  not 
strongly  but  distinctly  ascending  above  the  plane  of  the  occiput  (shghtly  more 
so  than  in  C.  aigialus  and  much  as  in  C.  stictomerus),  fastigium  of  vertex  ahnost 
as  wide  as  basal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  distinct  concavity  to  the  facial 
suture,  when  seen  from  front  about  half  again  as  deep  as  wide.  Eyes  large  for 
the  genus  and  unusually  protruding.  When  seen  from  above  the  lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  diverge  rather  strongly  ventro-laterad;  cephalic  margin  of  lateral 
lobes  with  the  ventro-cephalic  angle  very  weakly  indicated,  broadh^  arcuate 
to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  very  sharply  rounded  and  weakly  acute- 
angulate,  caudal  margin  very  weakly  convex  to  the  very  shallow  humeral  sinus, 
convex  callosity  broad.  Tegmina  delicate  in  structure,  elongate,  reaching  a 
little  beyond  tips  of  caudal  femora;  wings  decidedly  longer,  extending  beyond 
apex  of  ovipositor.  Ovipositor  decidedly  shorter  than  caudal  femur,  broad, 
approximately  straight  in  direction  but  showing  a  very  evident  open-sigmoid 
curve.  Subgenital  plate  flat,  with  lateral  margins  convex  and  tiirned  upward 
sharply,  thus  embracing  the  base  of  the  ovipositor,  meso-caudal  portion  of 
margin  transverse.  Cephalic  and  median  limbs  much  as  in  aigialus,  caudal 
limbs  decidedly  longer,  caudal  femora  with  ventro-external  margins  armed  with 
a  few  small  stout  spines  (2  and  2),  genicular  lobes  strongly  bi-spinose. 

*•  From  hypo,  and  <^tXos,  a  lover  of  the  watery  ways. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


198      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Allotype.  —  cf" ;  Milneburg,  Orleans  Parish,  Louisiana.  Juty  22, 
1905.     (A.  P.  Morse.)     [Morse  Collection.] 

Descripiion  of  Allolype. — Very  similar  to  type,  size  slightly  smaller.  Tegmina 
very  similar  to  those  of  aigialus,  delicate  in  structure,  abbreviate,  reaching  to 
base  of  penultimate  dorsal  abdominal  segment,  tympanum  short  and  broad, 
veins  and  veinlets  very  delicate;  wings  slightly  shorter  than  tegmina.  Distal 
portion  of  abdomen,  including  cerci,  raw  sienna.  Cerci  elongate,  mesal  por- 
tion ovate,  bulbous  and  swollen  with  that  portion  above  ventro-proximal  tooth 
produced  in  an  overhanging  knob-like  protuberance,  at  the  proximal  base  of 
this  swelling  is  situated  interno-ventrad  a  slender  decurved  tooth,  directed  mesad 
and  nearly  perpendicular  to  the  shaft  of  the  cercus,  the  external  margin  of  which 
is  weakly  concave,  beyond  the  mesal  sweUing  the  cercus  is  greatly  depressed 
and  flattened,  this  distal  portion  strongly  produced  with  sides  very  weakly 
converging  to  the  broadly  rounded  aiyex.  Subgenital  plate  bearing  disto- 
laterad  short  styles,  the  distal  margin  of  the  plate  is  weakly  convex. 

Measuronents  (in  millinietcrs) 

Length  of 
Length  of  Length  of   Length  of      caudal     Length    Length  of 
body       pronotuni     tegmen         femur    of  cercus  ovipositor 

Milnehnrcr,  La.,  Allotype.        IG.S         3.7  10.. 3  13.8         2  

9 
Virginia  Point,  Tex.,  T.vpf.    17.2         3.8  18.6  13.9         10.4 

Coloration. — General  color  pale  green  (bright  green  in  life). 
Eyes  cinnamon  brown.  Dorsum  of  head  and  pronotum  with  a 
weakly  indicated  band  of  pale  brown.  Tegmina  and  wings  trans- 
parent, warm  buff.  Distal  half  of  male  abdomen,  including  cerci, 
raw  sienna;  in  life  prol^ably  much  more  brilliant  and  approaching 
orange  more  closely  in  shade.  In  the  female  the  abdomen  at  the 
base  of  the  ovipositor  is  washed  weakly  with  this  color.  Genic- 
ular areas  of  caudal  femora  yellowish. 

The  unique  female  of  the  present  species  before  us  is  macro p- 
terous,  while  the  unique  male  is  brachypterous. 

The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed 
with  small  but  heavy  spines;  in  the  female  2-2,  and  in  the  male 
3-4. 

The  present  species  is  only  known  from  the  localities  given 
below. 

Specimens  Examined:  2;  1  male  and  1  female. 

Mikieburg,  Louisiana,  VII,  22,  190.5,  (Morse),  1  cf ,  allotype,  [Morse  Chi.], 
(brachypterous) . 

Virginia  Point,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.;  in  heavy  grasses  on  edge  of  salt 
marsh),  1   9,  type,  (macropterous). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  199 

Conocephalus  stictomerus  ^^  new  species  (PL  XV,  fig.  10;  XVI,  13;  XVII, 

12;  XVIIl,  23  and  24;  XX,  13.) 
1911.     Conocephalus    ensiferus    Rehn    and    Hebard    (not    Xiphidiinn   ensifer 

Scudder,    1862),    Proc.   Acad.   Nat.   Sci.   Phila.,    1910,  p.  643.    (In  part.) 

[Macropterous  pair;  Ptaleigh,  North  Carolina.] 

The  above  error  was  a  result  of  the  specimens  being  in  a  very- 
bad  state  of  preservation,  combined  with  the  fact  that  at  the  time 
many  of  the  characters  of  the  greatest  importance  in  distinguish- 
ing the  North  American  species  of  the  genus  remained  unstudied. 

This  species  shows  a  development  almost  intermediate  be- 
tween C.  hygrophilus  and  C.  nigiahis,  but  differs  from  both  of 
these  species  in  the  very  nnich  narrower  vertex,  in  the  male  cerci 
which  are  similar  to  those  of  hygrophilus  but  distinctly  less  special- 
ized, and  in  the  ovipositor  which  is  very  decidedly  longer  than 
the  maximum  found  in  either  of  the  above  mentioned  forms. 
The  coloration  is  very  distinctive,  no  approach  to  it  being  found 
in  an}^  of  the  known  species  of  the  genus. 

The  present  insect  inhabits  the  middle  Atlantic  coastal  plain, 
where  it  is  to  be  found  in  the  luxuriant  grasses  growing  al^out  the 
borders  of  marshes  near  fresh  and  Ijrackish  water. 

Type. — cf ;  Cedar  Springs,  Cape  Alay  County,  New  Jersey-. 
August  26, 1914.    (Hebard.)    [Hebard  Collection,  Type  No.  173J. 

Description  of  Type. — Size  rather  large  for  the  genus,  form  rather  slender. 
Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect  distinctly  ascend- 
ing above  the  plane  of  the  occiput  (much  as  in  C.  fiygrophilus  and  more  so  than 
in  C.  aigialus),  fastigium  of  vertex  narrow,  very  little  more  than  half  as  wide  as 
the  basal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  scarcely  appreciable  concavity  to  the 
facial  suture,  when  seen  from  front  over  twice  as  deep  as  the  greatest  width. 
Eyes  normal  in  size  but  unusually  protruding.  Pronotum  moderately  con- 
stricted, with  lateral  lobes  narrower  than  in  C.  hygrophilus  and  C.  aigialus, 
similar  in  this  respect  to  C.  hrevipennis,  cephalic  margin  nearly  straight,  ventro- 
cephalic  angle  very  broadly  rounded  obtuse-angulate,  ventral  margin  very 
weakly  concave  to  the  broadly  rounded  but  acute-angulate  ventro-caudal  angle, 
caudal  margin  weakly  convex  to  the  very  shallow  humeral  sinus,  coiivex  ('allos- 
ity  very  narrow.  Tegmina  delicate  in  structure,  abbreviate,  reaching  to  mid- 
dle of  penultimate  dorsal  aljdominal  segment,  tympanum  much  as  in  hrevipen- 
nis; wings  slightly  shorter  than  tegmina.  Cerci  elongate,  mesal  portion 
with  proximal  section  enlarged  and  produced  above  ventro-proximal  tooth  in 
an  overlianging  heavy  knob-like  protuberance,  at  the  l)ase  of  this  swelling  is 

■'^  From  srtKr OS = spotted  and  ;U77p6s=  thigh,  in  allusion  to  the  remarkal)le 
spots  and  dots  of  coral  red  found  on  the  thighs  of  individuals  of  this  species 
during  life. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


200      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

situated  a  slender  decurved  tooth  which  is,  however,  broad  at  its  base,  this  tooth 
directed  mesad  and  nearly  perpendicular  to  the  shaft  of  the  cercus,  the  external 
margin  of  which  is  weakly  angulato-concave,  beyond  the  proximo-mesal 
swelling  the  cercus  is  greatly  depressed  and  flattened  particularly  on  the  inner 
side,  this  distal  half  strongly  produced  with  sides  very  weakly  converging  to 
the  broadly  rounded  apex.  Subgenital  plate  bearing  disto-laterad  very  short 
styles,  distal  margin  of  the  plate  very  weakly  convex,  nearly  transverse. 
Cephalic  and  median  limbs  much  as  in  brevipennis,  caudal  limbs  decidedly 
longer,  caudal  femora  with  ventro-external  margins  armed  with  a  number  of 
small  stout  teeth  (3  and  3),  genicular  lobes  strongly  bispinose.  Coloration  of 
insect  distinctive  and  striking. 

Allotype. —  9  ;  data  same  as  the  type. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Similar  to  type,  very  shghtly  larger.  Tegmina 
lanceolate  with  rather  sharply  rounded  apex,  half  as  long  as  abdomen;  wings 
sHghtly  shorter.  Ovipositor  distinctly  but  not  decidedly  longer  than  caudal 
femur,  broad,  approximately  straight  in  du-ection  but  showing  a  very  evident 
open-sigmoid  curve.  Subgenital  plate  similar  to  that  of  hygrophilus.  Colora- 
tion distinctive  and  striking  as  in  type. 

Measurements  {in  millimeters) 
-71  Length  of      Length  of      Length  of        Length  of  Lensjth  of 

O  body  pronotum        legmen       caudal  femur  cercus 

Cedar  Springs,  N.  J., 

Type 14.4  3,2  8.7               12.4  2 

Cedar  Springs,  N.  J., 

Paratypes 13.4-14.4  3-3.3           8-9.2  12.3-13.7  1.9-2.1 

Chestertown,  Md 12.4-13.6  2.9-3         8.7-11.6       13-13.8  2-2.2 

Raleigh,  N.  C 14.9-15  3.4-3.5  18.3-18.4       14-15.1  2.1-2.2 

Q  Length  of 

V  ovipositor 

Cedar  Springs,  N.  J., 

Allotype 15,3  3.3  9.8               14.7             15 

Cedar  Springs,  N.  J., 

Paratypes 11.1-lG  2.9-3.4  6.9-9.8  12.6-14.7  13.7-15.1 

Chestertown,  Md 13.4  3.7  7.8               15.3             IS.l 

Churchland,  Va 14.5  3.7  9.2               15.6             19.8 

Raleigh,  N.  C 14.3-15.5  3.4-3.6  18.3-18.8  14.3-15.2  16.1-16.7 

Color ation.^^ — ^Lower  portions  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum,  all 
of  thorax,  proximal  two-fifths  of  male  abdomen  and  all  femora 
lettuce  green.     In  life  the  swollen  portions  of  the  caudal  femora 

■""'  The  material  upon  which  these  color  notes  are  based  was,  when  fresh, 
kept  in  a  3%  solution  of  formaldehyde  for  about  ten  hours.  This  treatment 
has  preserved  the  gi-een  coloration  almost  in  its  entirety,  but  the  other  delicate 
colors  are  not  as  brilliant  as  in  life  and  the  coral  red  spots  of  the  caudal  femora 
have  wholly  disappeared.  Still  weaker  solutions  of  formaldehyde,  applied  for 
a  longer  time,  may  l)e  found  to  hold  these  evanescent  colors.  At  present  our 
exj)criinents  are  preliminary  but  have  shown  a  definite  im])rovement  over  sim- 
ply drying  the  material. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  201 

are  strikingly  marked  with  irregularly  placed  spots  and  dots  of 
coral  red;  these  in  the  immature  condition  are  much  darker, 
reddish  brown  in  color,  and  are  still  evident  in  dried  mate- 
rial. Tibiae  green,  much  suffused  with  brown.  Face  capucine 
orange  with  a  median  vertical  stripe  of  mahogany  red  extending 
from  the  vertex  to  the  base  of  the  clypeus,  genae  clouded  with 
mahogany  red.  Dorsum  of  head  and  pronotum  with  a  broad  me- 
dian band  of  mahogany  red,  the  remaining  lateral  portions  of  the 
occiput  and  pronotum  including  the  upper  portions  of  the  lateral 
lobes  capucine  buff,  the  area  between  this  and  the  green  portion 
of  the  lateral  lobes  clouded  with  mahogany  red.  Eyes  very  deep 
mahogany  red.  Tegmina  and  wings  transparent,  salmon  buff. 
Distal  three-fifths  of  male  abdomen,  including  cerci,  orange 
rufous.  Abdomen  and  ovipositor  of  female  sudan  brown,  shaft 
of  latter  washed  with  green.  Genicular  areas  of  caudal  femora 
suffused  with  reddish  brown. 

The  material  before  us  shows  httle  local  size  variabilitj^;  in 
southward  distribution  there  is  a  slight  increase  in  size. 

All  of  the  specimens  before  us  from  New  Jersey  and  Maryland 
are  brachypterous,  while  those  from  North  Carolina  are  all 
macropterous. 

The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed 
with  small  but  heavj^  spines,  (approximate  average,  three  and 
four) ;  these  are  found  in  the  thirty-two  perfect  specimens  before 
us  as  follows: 

Number  of  spines,  0-0    0-1    1-2    2-2    2-3    2-4    2-.5     3-3 

Number  of  specimens,        1113         1127 

Number  of  spines,  3-4    3-.5  3-6    3-7    4-4    4-5    5-5     6-6 

Number  of  specimens,        3        2       113        3        1  1 

The  series  from  which  the  present  species  is  described  was 
taken  in  a  heavy  growth  of  panic  grass  (Panicum  virgatum),  one 
to  one  and  one-half  feet  high,  interspersed  with  various  marsh 
plants  in  a  limited  marshy  area  on  the  border  of  a  brackish  stream. 
Two  hours  strenuous  and  continuous  beating  was  nocessaiy  to 
secure  the  series,  as  the  species  was  very  scarce.  Though  not  un- 
usually active  in  their  movements,  the  insects  proved  to  possess 
extreme  facility  in  concealing  themselves.  The  species  is  known  to 
range  from  Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  to  Raleigh.  North  Carolina. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


202      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oETHOPTERA) 

Specimens  Examined:  42;  \1  males,  23  females  and  2  immature  females. 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  in  high  marsh  grass),  1  juv. 
9  ;  VIII,  26,  1914,  (H.;  in  high  marsh  gi-ass),  12  cf,  13  9,1  juv.  9 ,  ty-pe,  allo- 
type and  paratypes,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Chestertown,  Maryland,  VIII,  19  and  23,  1899,  (E.  G.  Vanatta),  2  o^,  1  9 , 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Churchland,  Vii'ginia,  VIII,  8  and  IX,  15,  1914,  (H.  Fox;  in  brackish  marsh, 
one  in  Sparlina  glabra),  2  9,  [Fox  Chi.]. 

Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  VIII,  6  and  16, 1904,  (C.  S.  Brimley;  hght  at  night), 
1  cf ,  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.];  IX,  9  and  16,  1905,  (C.  S.  Brimley),  2  c?,  6  9  ,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.],  (aU  macropterous) . 

Conocephalus  aigialus^'  new  species  (PI.  XV,  fig.  7;  XVI,  14;  XVII,  13; 

XVIIl,  25  and  26;   XX,  14.) 
1907.     Xiphidion  nigropleurum  (?)  Rehn  and  Hebard  (not  Xiphidium  nigro- 

pleurum  Bruner,  1891),  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1907,  p.  313.    (In  part.) 

[1  9  ;  Pablo  Beach,  Florida.] 
1911.    Conocephalus  brevipennis  Rehn  and  Hebard  (not  Xiphidium  brevipennis 

Scudder,     1862),  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1910,  p.  643.    (In  part.)    [1 

d" ;  Cape  Henry,  Virginia.] 

As  noted  above  the  present  authors  have  twice  failed  to  recog- 
nize single  specimens  of  the  present  species  as  distinct  from  the 
then  known  species.  This  was  chiefly  due  to  the  fact  that 
scarcely  any  material  from  the  salt  marshes  of  the  Atlantic 
coast  was  then  availalile,  and,  in  a  genus  showing  such  great 
variability  as  the  present,  no  definite  knowledge  of  the  forms 
already  described  and  the  number  of  species  really  present  could 
be  gleaned  from  the  inadequate  series  at  that  time  in  hand. 

The  present  species  bears  a  shght  superficial  resemblance^  to 
C.  brevipennis  and  C.  spartinae,  but  may  at  once  be  separated 
from  these  by  the  decidedly  more  rol)ust  and  compact  structui'c, 
unusually  prominent  eyes,  heavy  truncate  distal  portion  of  the 
male  abdomen,  which  in  life  is  a  bright  and  striking  yellow  and 
bears  concolorous  cerci  which  are  distinctive  (but  plainly  a  de- 
velopment of  the  type  found  in  C.  stidomerus  and  C.  hygrophilus), 
broad  and  weakly  sigmoid  ovipositor,  and  short,  heavy  limbs 
with  the  vcntro-cxternal  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  l)earing 
normally  a  number  of  heavy  spines. 

Along  the  coast  of  Georgia  and  Florida,  where  spartinae  is 
also  found  in  the  salt  marshes,  the  present  insect  averages  decid- 
edly larger  in  size  than  that  sjjccies. 

■•^  From  al7taX6s=the  sea  shore. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  203 

As  its  name  implies  the  present  insect  inhabits  salt  marsh 
vegetation,  on  the  beaches  and  along  the  tidal  rivers  of  the  Atlan- 
tic coast,  where  its  habits  are  very  similar  to  those  of  spartinae; 
in  the  present  case,  however,  the  insect  is  found  not  out  on  the 
marshes  but  in  the  halophytic  vegetation  along  their  borders  and 
in  similar  vegetation  on  the  beaches. 

Tijpe. — cf;  Wrightsville,  New  Hanover  County,  North  Caro- 
lina. September  7,  1911.  (Rehn  and  Hebard.)  [Hel)ard  Col- 
lection, Type  No.  17-4.]. 

Description  of  Type. — Size  medium,  form  robust  and  compart.  Head  with 
dorsum  of  vertex  when  seen  from  the  lateral  aspect  distinctly  though  sUghtly 
ascending  above  the  plane  of  the  occiput,  fastigium  of  vertex  narrow,  little 
more  than  half  as  wide  as  the  basal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  scarcely 
appreciable  concavity  to  the  facial  sutm-e,  when  seen  from  front  over  twice  a.s 
deep  as  the  greatest  width.  Eyes  large  for  the  genus  and  unusually  protruding. 
Pronotum  short  with  lateral  lobes  diverging  rather  strongly  ventro-laterad, 
lateral  lobes  with  cephalic  margin  broadly  and  evenly  arcuate  to  (h>  veutro- 
caudal  angle  which  is  rather  sharply  rounded  and  nearly  rectangulate,  caudal 
margin  very  weakly  convex  to  the  very  shallow  humeral  siniLs,  convex  callosity 
broad.  Tegmina  delicate  in  structure,  al)breviate,  reaching  to  base  of  penulti- 
mate dorsal  abdominal  segment;  tympanum  small,  short  and  broad;  veins  and 
veinlets  very  delicate,  more  so  than  in  brevipennis .  Wings  slightly  shorter  than 
tegmina.  Abdomen  with  distal  extremity  enlarged  and  truncate,  distal  half 
including  cerci  bright  and  striking  yellow  in  life.  Cerci  short,  Inilbous  and 
swollen  mesad  in  a  large  and  nearly  circular  area  at  the  proximal  base  of  which 
is  situated  a  slender  ventro-internal  tooth  directed  mesad  and  nearly  perpen- 
dicular to  the  shaft  of  the  cercus,  the  external  margin  of  which  is  very  weakly 
concave,  beyond  the  mesal  swelling  the  cercus  is  gi-eatly  depressed,  this  distal 
portion  with  sides  rapidly  and  evenly  converging  to  the  rather  shari)ly  rounded 
apex.  Subgenital  plate  bearing  disto-laterad  very  short  styles,  the  distal 
margin  of  the  plate  is  very  weakly  convex,  nearly  transverse.  Limbs  shorter 
and  heavier  than  in  spartinae  or  brevipennis,  caudal  femora  with  ventro-external 
margins  armed  with  a  number  of  small  stout  teeth  (.5  and  5),  genicular  lobes 
strongly  bispinose. 

Allotype. — ■  9  ;  data  same  as  the  type. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Very  similar  to  type,  size  somewhat  larger.  Teg- 
mina lanceolate,  ta[)ering  to  the  very  sharply  rounded  apex,  reaching  to  distal 
third  of  abdomen.  Ovipositor  distinctly  but  not  decidedly  shorter  than  caudal 
femur,  broad,  approximately  straight  in  direction  but  showing  a  very  evident 
open-sigmoid  curve.  Sul)genital  plate  flat,  with  lateral  margins  turnetl  ujjward 
sharply  and  embracing  the  base  of  the  ovipositor,  distal  margin  of  flat  surface 
transverse. 

TRANS.    .\M.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI.. 


204      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Measurements  {in  millimeters) 

Length  of         Length  of        Length  of  Length  of  Length  of 

body  pronotum  tegmen  caudal  femur  cercus 

Cape  Henry,  Va. ..  .        12.6  3.1  8.6  11.9  1.8 

Wright svilie,  N.  C, 

Type 12.9  3.1  7.3  10.9  1.8 

Wrightsville,  N.  C, 

Parntypes  .  .  . .      11.9-13.7     3.1-3.4       6.8-8.3       10.7-12.3       1.6-1.9 
Tybee  Island,  Ga.     14.2-15.2     3.3-3.8       8.2-9.6       12.2-13.3       1.8-2 
South  Jacksonville, 

Fla 13.6-14.9     3.7-3.8       16-17.7        12.6-13  1.9-2 

Q  Length  of 

^  ovipositor 

Wrightsville,  N.C., 

Allotype 13.7  3.4  7.8  12.2  10.7 

Wrightsville,  N.C., 

Paratypes  .  .  .  .  11.6-15.8  3.2-3.8  7.1-7.4  12.1-13.2  10.6-10.8 
Tybee  Island,  Ga.  14-15.9  3.7-4.3  7.2-9.3  12.7-15  10.7-11.7 
South  Jacksonville, 

Fla 15.3-17.2     3.8-4.3     18.1-19.7         14-14.4     11.9-13.7 

South  Jacksonville, 

Fla 16.3  4.1  9.7  15  12.8 

Pablo  Beach,  Fla.  15.2  4.1  10.6  15.3  13.4 

Coloration. — General  color  pale  green  (bright  green  in  life). 
Dorsum  of  head  and  pronotum  with  a  broad  median  band  of 
cinnamon  brown.  Eyes  natal  brown  to  ecru  drab  (in  life  some- 
times orange  buff).  Tegmina  and  wings  transparent,  light  buff. 
Distal  half  of  male  abdomen,  including  cerci,  orange  buff  (brighter 
and  very  striking  in  life),  in  living  females  the  abdomen  at  the 
base  of  the  russet  ovipositor  is  usually  washed  with  this  color. 
Genicular  areas  of  caudal  femora  frequently  very  weakly  suffused 
with  brown. 

A  distinct  increase  in  size  in  the  southward  distribution  of  the 
species  is  noted,  but  each  large  series  shows  a  decided  amount  of 
local  size  variability  as  well. 

Macropterism  is  found  in  two  males  and  three  females  from 
the  vicinity  of  Jacksonville,  Florida,  out  of  the  thirty-four  speci- 
mens before  us. 

The  degree  of  production  of  the  distal  portion  of  the  male 
cerci  is  found  to  be  occasionally  variable. 

The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed 
with  small  but   heavy  spines,  in  number  averaging  four  and  five; 


2-2 

3-4 

3-5 

3-6 

4-4 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4-5 

4-G 

5-5 

5-6 

5-7 

9 

1 

5 

3 

1 

EEHN    AND    HEBARD  205 

these  are  present  in  the  twenty-nine  perfect  specimens  before  us 

as  follows : 

Number  of  spines,  1-4 

Number  of  specimens,  1 

Number  of  spines, 

Number  of  specimens, 

The  present  species  is  found  in  salt  marsh  vegetation  on  the 
beaches  and  along  the  tidal  rivers  of  the  Atlantic  coast  from  Cape 
Henry,  Virginia,  to  Pablo  Beach,  Florida. 

Specimens  Examined:     34;  14  males  and  20  females. 

Cape  Henry,  Virginia,  VIII,  18,  1908,  (R.;  in  dune  vegetation  on  beach),  1  cf . 

Oceanview,  Virginia,  VIII,  9,  1904,  (Caudellj,  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  undergrowth  near 
beach  and  under  live  oaks  in  grass  on  edge  of  marsh),  5  cf ,  8  9  ,  type,  allotype 
and  paralypes. 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  12  and  13,  1903,  (Morse),  3  o^,  6   9  ;  IX,  2, 

1911,  (H.;  occasional  along  edge  and  in  borders  of  salt  marsh  in  high  grasses), 
6  cf,  6  9. 

Jacksonville,  Florida,  (T.  J.  Priddey),  1    9,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (macro])terous). 
South  Jacksonville,  Florida,  IX,  6  and  7,  1913,  (W.  T.  Davis),  2  d ,  S    9, 
[Davis  Cln.],  (2  cf ,  2   9   macropterous). 

Pablo  Beach,  Florida.  VIII,  11,  190.5,  (R.  &  H.),  1    9. 

Conocephalus  nigropleurum  (Bruner)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  1.5;  XVII,  14:  XVIII, 

27  and  2S;  XIX,  14;  XX.  1.5.) 
1891.     Xiphidium  nigropleurum  Bruner,^'*  Can.  Ent.,  xxiii,  p.  58.     [Eastern 

Nebraska  to  Antelope  County.] 
1898.     Xiphidium  nigropleura  Scudder,  Can.  Ent.,  xxx,  p.  184.     (Emendation, 

in  key  to  species.) 

The  coloration  of  the  present  insect  makes  it  the  most  l)eauti- 
ful,  and  one  of  the  most  distinctive  in  appearance,  of  the  North 
American  forms.  The  margins  of  the  lateral  lobes  and  of  the 
dorsum  of  the  pronotum,  the  limbs,  tegmina  and  cerci  are  a  rich 
and  vivid  green;  the  face  and  genae,  sides  of  boch'  just  below 
proximal  portion  of  the  tegmina  and  median  areas  of  the  lateral 
lobes  and  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum,  are  dark  brown;  the 
dorsal  surface  of  the  head  is  marked  with  a  median  black  line, 
the  portions  between  this  and  the  eyes  are  yellowish  brown.  Tlie 
abdomen  is  shining  black,  the  dorsum  of  the  same  sometimes 
dark  brown,  particularly  in  females. 

••^  Single  type  selected  by  Rehn  and  Hebard,  Proc.  .\cad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila., 

1912,  p.  124,  (1912). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


206      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  ample  (larger  than  in  C.  attenuatus) , 
cephalic  margin  straight  to  the  distinct  but  broadly  obtuse-angu- 
late  ventro-cephalic  angle,  thence  straight  to  the  rather  narrowly 
rounded  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  less  than  90°  (not  as  nar- 
row as  in  attenuatus),  caudal  margin  nearly  straight,  almost  im- 
perceptibly convex  to  the  very  weakly  defined  humeral  sinus,  con- 
vex callosity  narrow  but  distinct. 

Three  females  are  macropterous  in  the  series  of  ninety-two 
specimens  of  the  present  species  which  we  have  examined. 

When  compared  with  those  of  attenuatus,  the  male  cerci  are 
found  to  be  of  similar  general  type  but  decidedly  straighter  and 
less  attenuate;  the  swollen  portion  is  shorter  and  larger  and  the 
distal  portion  is  shorter,  moderately  but  distinctly  depressed  and 
not  directed  outward,  the  tooth  is  in  the  same  position  but  has 
its  base  broader  and  more  flattened. 

The  caudal  femora  are  rather  long  but  with  the  proximal 
portion  well  developed;  the  genicular  areas  of  the  same  are  occa- 
sionally infuscated,  while  the  genicular  lobes  are  bispinose. 

The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed 
as  follows  in  forty-seven  perfect  specimens  examined: 


Number  of  spines, 

0-3 

1-2 

1-3 

1-4 

2-2 

2-3 

2-4 

Number  of  specimens, 

1 

3 

4 

1 

5 

8 

2 

Number  of  spines, 

3-3 

3-4 

4-4 

4-5 

4-6 

5-5 

Number  of  specimens, 

8 

10 

1 

2 

1 

1 

The  present  species  is  found  in  the  upper  Mississippi  valley 
region  and  northward  to  Ithaca,  New  York;  extreme  south- 
western Ontario;  Gun  Lake,  Michigan,  and  Lone  Rock,  Wiscon- 
sin: in  western  distribution  it  will  probably  not  be  found  to  occur 
far  west  of  the  well  watered  portions  of  eastern  Nebraska  (Halsey 
being  the  westernmost  record)  and  in  eastward  distribution  it  is 
probably  limited  by  the  Appalachians. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  definitely  recorded,  16.  Here  recorded, 
76;  34  males,  29  females,  6  immature  males  and  7  immatiu-e  females. 

Ithaca,  New  York,  VIII,  22  and  25,  1<S91,  (Morse),  15  o^  12  9  ,  2  juv.  9  , 
[Morse  Cln.];  VIII,  4  to  X,  12,  1885  to  1912,  13  cf,  H  9,  [Cornell  Univ.], 
(1  9  macropterous);  VI,  28  to  VIII,  4,  1885  and  1887,  6  juv.  d",  3  juv.  9, 
[Cornell  Univ.]. 

Gun  Lake,  Michigan,  VIII,  Hi  to  20,  1912,  (M.  X.  Carriker,  Jr.),  1  cT,  1  9  , 
Hebard  Cln.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  207 

Lone  Rock,  Wisconsin,  VIII,  12,  1906,  (J.  D.  Hood),  1  9,  [Pa.  State  Dept. 
Zool.]. 

Denison,  Iowa,  VII,  20,  (J.  A.  Allen),  1   9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  VIII  and  IX,  1884  and  1887,  (Bruner),  5  cT,  type 
and  paratypes,  [Heljard  CIn.  and  A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  VIII  and  IX,  1888,  (Bruner),  2  9  ,  allotype  and  paralype, 
[Hebard  Cln.],  (1  macropterous). 

Halsey,  Nebraska,  VII,  12,  1909,  (R.;  in  grasses  on  river  plain),  2  juv.   9  . 

Watertown,  Illinois,  VIII,  9,  (McNeill),  1    9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 
Conocephalus  attenuatus  (Scudder)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  IG;   XVII,  15;   XVIII, 

29  antl  30;  XX,  16.) 
1869.     Xiphidiian  allcnuatum  Scudder,"  Trans.  Am.   Ent.   Soc,   ii,   p.   :305. 

[Illinois.] 
1891.     Xiphidium  sp.?     McNeill,  Psyche,  vi,  p.  24.     [Illinois. | 

1891.  [Xiphidium]   hinccolatnm   Bruner,   Can.    Ent.,    xxiii,   p.   59.     (Nomen 
nudum.) 

1892.  Xiphidium  .scudderi  Blatchley,  Can.  Ent.,  xxiv,  p.  26.     [Vigo  Count\-, 
Indiana.] 

1892.     [Xiphidium]  lanceolatum  Bnmer,  Ent.  News,  iii,  p.  265.     (Explanation 
of  nomen  nudum.) 

Blatchley  states,  in  1903,  that  h\s  scudderi  was  based  upon  the 
brachypterous  condition  of  the  present  species.^"  This  is  true, 
and  the  name  is  consequently  placed  in  the  synonymy  here 
without  reservation. 

The  position  of  the  present  species  is  in  group  C  of  the  sub- 
genus Xiphidion,  between  C.  nigropleurum  and  C.  nigroplenroides. 
The  form  and  length  of  the  ovipositor  in  the  female,  and  cereal 
characters  in  the  male,  afford  features  by  which  the  species  can 
be  readily  distinguished.  The  coloration  and  color  pattern  is 
also  distinctive;  the  color  pattern,  however,  showing  a  closer 
similarity  to  that  of  nigropleuroides  than  to  any  other  form. 

The  face  is  warm  buff  with  median  portion  mahogan}-  red, 
radiating  below  to  form  a  dark  suffusion  on  the  genae  and  ex- 
tending upward  on  the  sides,  thus  enveloping  the  postocular 
region;  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  excepting  the  dorsal 
margin,  are  of  the  same  color,  while  the  medio-dorsal  stripe  of 
head  and  pronotinn  is  somewhat  darker.  The  remaining  por- 
tions of  the  head,  broad  margins  of  the  medio-dorsal  strij)e  of 
head  and  pronotum,  and  the  limbs,  are  warm  buff,  the  femora 
very  finely  speckled  with  mahogany  red.     In  the  male,  the  abdo- 

^^  The  type  of  this  species  has  been  destroyed. 
*»  Orth.  of  Indiana,  p.  S79. 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


208      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (ORTHOPTERA) 

men  is  amber  brown  with  cerci  slightly  paler  and  more  buffy;  in 
the  female,  the  abdon:ien  is  mahogany  red  with  narrow  and  much 
interrupted  dorso-lateral  paler  bands  weakly  suggested  while  the 
ovioositor  is  cinnamon  brown. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  moderately  large  with  ventral 
margin  and  particularly  ventro-caudal  angle  distinctly  curved 
outward;  cephalic  margin  broadly  convex,  with  ventro-cephahc 
angle  subobsolete,  to  the  very  sharply  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle  which  is  distinctly  less  than  90°,  caudal  margin  nearly 
straight,  almost  imperceptibly  convex,  to  the  very  weakly  defined 
humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  very  narrow,  subobsolete. 

But  seven  of  the  series  of  sixty-five  specimens  here  recorded 
are  macropterous. 

The  male  cerci  are  of  a  type  almost  intermediate  betw^een  those 
of  C.  nigropleurum  and  C.  spartinae;  when  compared  with  those 
of  the  latter  species  they  are  seen  to  be  decidedly  more  ample  and 
somewhat  heavier,  with  tooth  slightly  heavier  and  directed  proxi- 
mad  at  a  sharper  angle;  the  externo-lateral  margin  is  more  con- 
cave than  in  either  of  the  above  species.  An  abnormality,  which 
we  have  never  before  seen,  is  found  in  a  single  male  from  Corn- 
wells,  Pennsylvania;  this  specimen  is  adult,  but  the  cerci  have 
remained  as  in  the  instar  preceding  maturity. 

The  ovipositor  is  very  gently  curved  upward,  tapering  very 
gently  distad  to  the  sharp  apex,  with  greater  portion  of  dorsal 
margin  and  distal  portion  of  ventral  margin  supplied  with  widely 
spaced  microscopic  serrulations,  a  condition  not  found  in  any 
other  species  of  the  present  genus  here  considered,  but  the  normal 
condition  in  the  genus  Orchelimum.  The  ovipositor  length  is  as 
follows:  Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  24.6-27.5;  Vigo  County,  In- 
diana, 23.4-26.2;  West  Point,  Nebraska,  19.9-26.3;  Lincoln, 
Nebraska,  25.4-27.8  mm. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  not  darkened  and 
the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  normally  strongly  bispinose, 
occasionally  unispinose.  The  caudal  femora  are  long  and  slender 
and  have  the  ventro-external  margins  armed  as  follows  in  54 
perfect  specimens  examined: 

Number  of  spines,  0-0    0-1    0  2    1-1     1-2     1-3     1-4    2-2 

Number  of  specimens,       3        2        2        4        10       4        1        5 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  209 

Number  of  spines,  2-3    2-4    3-3    3-4    3-5    4-4    4-5 

Number  of  specimens,      9        14        5        1  12 

Two  examples  have  the  ventro-internal  margins  of  these  femora 
armed  with  0-1  and  one  with  1-2  spines,  this  is  a  very  unusual 
condition  found  elsewhere  in  the  North  American  species  even 
more  rarely  in  C.  fasciatus  alone. 

On  a  special  excursion  to  Cornwells,  Pennsylvania,  under- 
taken to  secure  a  series  of  this  species,  it  was  found  very  scarce 
in  high  grasses,  {Panicum  virgatum),  and  plants  along  the  shore  of 
the  Delaware  river,  and  in  moderate  numbers  in  a  small  marshy 
area,  particularly  in  a  restricted  growth  of  low  marsh  grass, 
{Panicularia  septentrionalis) .  The  males  were  usually  found  in 
the  grass  or  perched  on  nearby  plant  leaves,  whence  the}^  sprang 
away  with  alacrity.  The  females  were  never  as  conspicuous  and 
sprang  away  with  great  swift  leaps,  then,  hiding  on  the  opposite 
sides  of  grass  stems  and  leaves  in  the  deepest  tangles  of  vegeta- 
tion, the}'  proved  very  difficult  to  locate.  The  species  may  be 
said  to  be  easily  the  most  alert  and  active  of  the  genus  found 
about  Philadelphia.  Over  its  wide  distribution  it  is  doubtless  re- 
stricted to  damp  spots  and  marsh  areas. 

The  present  species  is  known  from  Ithaca,  New  York,  and  the 
vicinity  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  westward  to  eastern 
Nebraska  and  Kansas;  it  apparently  enjoys  the  most  general 
distribution  in  the  region  south  of  the  Great  Lakes,  and  is  prob- 
ably very  local  and  usually  scarce  everywhere  east  of  the  Appa- 
lachians. The  most  northern  records  are  extreme  southwestern 
Ontario  (Rondeau  and  Point  Pelee)  and  Minnesota. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  15.  Here  recorded,  65;  28 
males,  34  females,  1  immature  male  and  2  immature  females. 

The  Cove,  Ithaca,  New  York,  X,  27,  1912,  2  cf ,  3  9 ,  [CorneU  Univ.]. 

Cornwells,  Bucks  County,  Pennsylvania,  IX,  7,  1914,  (H.),  25  a",  14  9, 
1  juv.  d",  1  juv.  9  ;  X,  11,  1906,  (R.  &  H.),  1   9  • 

Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  1897,  (C.  W.  Johnson),  1  9,  [Morse  Cln.], 
(macropterous). 

Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  VIII,  19,  1  juv.   9,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Watertown,  Illinois,  VIII,  23,  (McNeill),  1    9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  IX,  1885,  (Bruner),  11  9,  [Hebard  Chi.],  (4  macrop- 
terous). 

Lincoln,  Nebraska,  VIII,  (1  9  macropterous  collected  at  light),  1  cf ,  3  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.],  (1  cf ,  1   9  macropterous). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI.  , 


210       STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Conocephalus  nigropleuroides    (H.   Fox)    (PI.  XVI,   fig.    17;    XVII,    16; 

XIX,  1  and  2;   XX,  17.) 
1907.     Xiphidion  nigropleurum  (?)  Rehn  and  Hebard  (not  Xiphidium  nigro- 

pleurum  Bruner,  1891),  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1907,  p.  313.     (In 

part.)     [Cedar  Keys,  Florida.^'] 
1912.     Xiphidium  nigropleuroides  H.  Fox,*^  Ent.  News,  xxiii,  p.  116,  PI.  IX, 

figs.  1  to  5.     [Cape  May  County,  New  Jersey.] 

Tlie  present  insect  resembles  C.  spartinae  more  closely  than 
any  other  species  in  the  form  of  the  male  cerci.  The  color 
pattern,  though  distinctive,  shows  the  nearest  similarity  to  that 
of  C.  attenuatus.  The  shades  of  color  in  this  insect,  particularly 
striking  and  brilliant  in  life,  are  not  found  in  any  other  North 
American  species.  The  species,  though  decidedly  smaller  and 
more  slender  than  spartinae  in  New  Jersey,  increases  southward 
in  size  and  robustness  to  a  very  decided  degree,  as  does  spartinae 
in  size  to  a  considerably  less  extent;  so  that  in  material  of  the 
two  species  from  Florida,  the  present  insect  is  distinctly  the  larger 
and  more  robust  of  the  two.  The  variation  in  shape  of  the 
ovipositor  is  far  greater  in  nigropleuroides  than  in  any  other 
American  species  of  the  genus. 

The  medio-dorsal  stripe  of  head  and  pronotum  is  blackish- 
brown;  the  face,  postocular  portion  of  genae  and  lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  very  dark  brown,  these  markings  giving  the  insect 
a  trifasciate  appearance.  This  is  greatly  intensified  by  the  pale 
coloration  of  the  intervening  portions  of  head  and  pronotum, 
which  are  cream  color.  In  fresh  material  the  tegmina,  limbs 
and  male  cerci  are  ver}^  bi-ight  sea  green,  or  grass  green  in 
some  series,  while  the  distal  portion  of  the  male  abdomen  is  bril- 
liantly marked  with  orange.  In  the  female  this  latter  color  is 
weaker  and  occupies  a  decidedly  lesser  area.  The  brightest  colors 
in  this  insect  are  unusually  hard  to  preserve,  only  traces  of  the 
same  remaining  in  the  majority  of  dried  specimens  before  us. 

Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with  cephalic  margin  broadly  con- 
vex to  the  ventro-caudal  angle,  with  ventro-cephalic  angle  weakly 
defined  and  ventral  margin  often  irregular  and  slightly  concave 
before  the  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  broadly  rounded,  angu- 

'•''^  The  authors'  record  of  a  single  specimen  of  this  species  from  Gainesville, 
Florida,  is  here  corrected  as  it  is  due  to  a  mistake  in  labelling,  the  specimen 
having  been  taken  at  Cedar  Keys,  Florida,  the  day  previous. 

•'■-Single  type  selected  by  H.  P'ox,  Ent.  News,  xxiii,  p.  232,  (1912). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  211 

lation  of  same  a  little  less  than  90°,  caudal  margin  rather  irregu- 
larly convex  to  the  rather  weak  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity 
moderately  but  not  decidedly  broad.  As  in  attenuatus,  the 
ventral  margin  and  particularly  the  ventro-caudal  angle  is 
sharply  but  narrowly  curved  outward. 

Macropterism  is  found  in  but  four  females,  all  from  Cumberland 
Island,  Georgia,  in  the  series  of  over  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
eight  specimens  before  us. 

When  compared  with  spartinae,  the  male  cerci  are  found  to 
be  very  similar  but  more  attenuate  and  slightly  irregular  in  out- 
line, this  irregularity  giving  the  organs  the  appearance  of  being 
a  little  malformed. 

The  ovipositor  is  normally  rather  broad  and  approximately 
straight  in  direction  with  a  weak  open-sigmoid  curvature.  In 
the  series  of  eight  specimens  from  Cedar  Keys,  Florida,  we 
find  this  type  in  three,  and  a  distinctly  thought  not  strongly 
upward  curved  type  in  five,  the  ovipositor  in  these  being  broader 
and  showing  an  even  greater  curvature  than  is  normal  in  spar- 
tinae. The  development  of  two  distinct  types  of  ovipositor  in 
the  same  species  at  one  locality  is  a  problem  which  we  have  also 
encountered  in  Orchelimum  concinnum.  The  females  here  con- 
sidered belong  without  the  slightest  doubt  to  the  same  species 
and  the  cause  of  this  varied  development  is  yet  highly  prob- 
lematical. Elsewhere  in  the  species  of  the  genus  some  individual 
variation  naturally  occurs  in  degree  of  curvature  and  heaviness 
of  the  ovipositor,  but  the  appearance  here  of  two  distinct  tj^pes, 
elsew^here  of  decided  importance  and  value  as  specific  characters, 
is  very  surprising.  Differentiation  in  method  of  oviposition 
and  selection  of  certain  different  plants  for  this  purpose  has 
probably  been  a  major  factor  in  the  development  of  the  different 
types  of  ovipositor  now  to  be  found  in  various  species  of  the 
genus,  but  when  two  distinct  types  are  found  in  the  same  species 
it  would  lead  one  to  suppose  them  to  be  the  result  of  these  same 
factors.  The  difficulty  is  that  with  such  development  the 
different  forms  have  as  a  rule  developed  into  distinct  species, 
which  in  the  present  instance  is  not  the  case.  The  ovipositor 
length  is  as  follows:  Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  10.7-12;  Ocean 
View,  New  Jersey,  11.1-12.8;  Ocean  View,  Virginia,  12.7-13.8; 
Wrightsville,     North    Carolina,     11.4-12;     Cumberland    Island, 

TRANS.    AM.    EXT.    SOC,    XLI. 


"212      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Georgia,   13.9-15.9;  Cedar  Keys,   Florida,  open-sigmoid,   13.2- 
14.1,  arcuate,  12.4-14.6  mm. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  not  darkened, 
the  genicular  lobes  are  normally  bispinose  but  occasionally  uni- 
spinose;  the  caudal  femora  are  elongate  but  with  the  proximal 
portion  more  swollen  than  in  spartinae,  the  ventro-external  margins 
are  unarmed  in  all  but  two  of  the  ninety  specimens  from  New 
Jersey  before  us,  in  the  more  southern  material  these  margins  are 
armed  as  follows  in  forty-one  perfect  specimens  examined: 
Number  of  spines,  0-0        0-1        0-2        1-1        1-2        2-2 

Number  of  specimens,       24  6  5  3  1  2 

The  present  insect  appears  to  be  absolutely  limited  in  distribu- 
tion to  the  salt-marsh  tidal  flats.  It  is  known  from  Ventnor, 
New  Jersey,  to  Cumberland  Island,  Georgia,  on  the  Atlantic 
Coast,  and  from  Cedar  Keys,  Florida,  on  the  Gulf  coast. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  recorded,  over  30.  Here  recorded,  1.38; 
67  males,  54  females,  5  immatm-e  males  and  12  immature  females. 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  5,  1914,  (H.;  very  abundant  in  high  Spartina 
slricla  and  in  nearby  Spartina  patens,  many  immature  individuals  but  few 
adults),  40  d",  22  9,5  juv.  cT,  12  juv.   9  • 

Ocean  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  occasional  in  Spartina  stricta 
far  out  on  tidal  marsh),  5  cf,  4  9  . 

Cape  May  Court  House,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  scarce  in  Spartina 
stricta  far  out  on  tidal  marsh),  2  cT. 

Oceanview,  Virginia,  VIII,  9,  1904,  (Caudell),  2  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  IM.]. 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (H.;  along  tidal  channels  on  salt 
marsh),  1   cf,  4   9. 

Cumberland  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  31,  1911,  (H.;  in  fringing  tidal  salt 
marsh),  12  cT,  14    9 ,  (4    9   macropterous). 

Cedar  Keys,  Florida,  VIII,  15,  1905,  (H.;  in  tidal  salt  marsh),  7  cj^,  8  9  . 

Conocephalus  spartinae  (H.  Fox)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  19;   XVII,  17;  XIX,  3  and 

4;  XX,  18.) 

1862.  X[iphidium]  brevipennis  Scudder  (not  Xiphidiurn  hrevipennis  Scudder, 
August  and  September,  1862),  Bost.  Journ.  Nat.  Hist.,  vii,  p.  451.  Novem- 
ber, 1862.     (In  part.)     [Cape  Cod,  Massachusetts.] 

1902.  Xiphidion  nemorale  Rehn  (not  Xiphidiurn  nemorale  Scudder,  1875), 
Ent.  News,  xiii,  p.  315.     [Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey.] 

1904.  Xiphidion  brevipenne  Rehn  (not  Xiphidiurn  brevipennis  Scudder,  1862), 
Ent.  News,  xv,  p.  330.  (In  part.)  [Atlantic  City  and  Cape  May,  New  Jersey.] 

1912.  Xiphidium  spartinae  H.  Fox,"  Ent.  News,  xxiii,  p.  Ill,  p\.  VIII,  figs.  1 
to  6.     [Wood's  Hole,  Massachusetts;  salt  marshes  of  southern  New  Jersey.] 

"Single  type  .selected  by  H.  Fox,  Ent.  News,  xxiii,  p.  232,  (1912). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  213 

The  descriptions  by  Fox  of  this  species  and  C.  nigropleuroides 
are  complete,  thorough  and  very  different  from  the  usual  care- 
less and  insufficient  descriptions  of  the  species  of  the  present 
genus. 

The  present  species  bears  a  very  decided  general  resemblance 
to  C.  brevipennis,  so  close  that,  until  studied  by  Fox,  virtually 
all  of  the  material  in  collections  had  been  confused  with  that 
species.  When  compared  with  brevipennis,  we  find  that  spar- 
tinae  differs  signally  in  the  male  cerci,  while  females  may  usually 
be  separated  by  the  ovipositor  which  normally  shows  a  very 
weak  but  appreciable  curvature,  this  appendage  in  brevipennis 
being  normally  straight.  In  addition,  material  of  the  present 
■species  from  the  North  Atlantic  coast  is  small  and  more  slender 
than  brevipennis,  but  in  southward  distribution  it  attains  a  size 
quite  as  great  as  the  largest  examples  of  that  species.  The  pro- 
notum  is  much  as  in  brevipennis  but  has  the  lateral  lobes  not 
quite  as  deep  with  the  ventro-caudal  angle  rather  sharply  rounded, 
the  tegmina  are  more  delicate  (not  quite  as  delicate  as  in  C 
aigialus),  with  the  male  tympanum  having  the  stridulating 
vein  distinctly  longer,  this  area  being  slightly  more  transverse 
in  proportion  to  the  length  than  in  brevipennis — -this  is  true  of 
aigialus  which,  however,  has  the  tympanal  area  appreciably 
smaller.  The  distinctive  male  cerci  show  at  once  that  the 
position  of  the  species  is  in  group  C,  while  brevipennis  belongs  to 
group  A.  These  cerci  are  slender  and  symmetrical,  an  elongate 
bulbous  swelling  occupies  the  mesal  half,  at  the  base  of  which  is 
■situated  interno-ventrada  small  slender  tooth  directed  mesad  with 
a  very  weak  inclination  proximad,  the  extei-nal  margin  of  the 
cercus  is  moderately  concave,  beyond  the  bulbous  area  the  cercus 
is  weakly  depressed,  this  distal  portion  with  sides  subparallel 
to  the  broadly  rounded  apex.  These  cerci  differ  from  those  of 
brevipennis  not  only  in  shape  ])ut  in  coloration  as  well,  being 
bright  green  except  in  the  darkest  individuals  in  which  they  are 
pale  olive. 

In  coloration,  material  from  New  Jersey  often  shows  an  inten- 
sive condition,  in  this  the  medio-dorsal  stripe  of  the  head  and 
particularly  the  pronotum  is  very  broadly  margined  by  pale 
buff,  and  below  this  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  are  marked 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


214      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

with  a  postocular  reddish  brown  suffusion;  no  examples  of  such 
coloration  are  found  in  southern  material.  In  hrevipennis,  when 
the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  are  suffused  with  a  darker 
color,  this  color  usually  extends  upward  nearly  to  the  medio- 
dorsal  stripe  of  the  dorsum,  as  the  pale  margins  of  this  stripe  are 
normally  very  narrow  in  that  species,  and  as  a  result  the  intensive 
types  of  coloration  in  the  two  species  are  normally  distinctly 
different  in  appearance.  In  general  coloration,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  differences  mentioned  above  and  the  green  male  cerci, 
this  species  agrees  Avith  brevipennis. 

The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  not 
darkened,  in  occasional  specimens  they  are  weakly  infuscated; 
the  genicular  lobes  of  the  same  are  normally  bispinose,  rarely 
they  are  found  to  be  unispinose,  while  a  single  female  (Wesquage 
Beach,  Rhode  Island)  has  one  genicular  lobe  trispinose;the  ventro- 
externai  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed  in  one  hundred 
and  eighty-one  perfect  specimens  examined  as  follows: 
Number  of  spines,  0-0 
Number  of  specimens,  15 
Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens, 

Macropterism  is  very  rare  in  material  from  the  Atlantic  coastr 
but  appears  to  be  of  frequent  occurrence  on  the  Gulf  coast- 
As  there  is  a  gradual  but  not  decided  increase  in  size  southward 
in  the  distribution  of  the  species,  we  find  such  macropterous 
examples  from  the  Gulf  coast  to  be,  in  general  appearance  only, 
very  similar  to  C.  fasciatus. 

The  ovipositor  is  very  weakly  curved  upward  but  varies  to  an 
almost  straight  condition;  specimens  showing  the  extreme  of 
this  variation  are  often  frequently  difficult  to  separate  from  fe- 
males of  brevipennis,  which  have  the  ovipositor  approaching  the 
minimum  length  found  in  that  species.  The  ovipositor  length^* 
is   as   follows:     Wesquage   Beach,    Rhode   Island,  9;   Chestnut 

'■''^  Our  ovipositor  length  measurements  are,  as  elsewhere  in  the  present  series 
of  papers,  taken  from  the  base  of  the  basal  plica  to  the  apex  of  the  ovipositor; 
this  explains  the  measurements  of  other  authors  exceeding  ours  by  about  .4 
mm.  where  the  length  has  been  taken  from  the  juncture  of  ovipositor  and  sub- 
genital  plate  to  apex  of  ovipositor.  We  have  not  used  this  dimension  as  it  is  not 
sufficiently  accurate,  the  position  of  the  movable  subgenital  plate  affecting  it. 


0-1 

0-2 

0-3 

1-1 

1-2 

1-3 

1-4 

32 

12 

2 

20 

40 

10 

2 

2-2 

2-3 

2-4 

2-5 

3-3 

3-4 

4-4 

20 

16 

4 

1 

3 

3 

1 

REHN    AND    HEBARD  215 

Neck,  New  Jersey,  7.2-8.3;  Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey,  7.1-8.8; 
Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  7.6-8.7;  Ocean  City,  New  Jersey,  8-9.7; 
Oceanview,  Virginia,  9;  Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  9.1; 
Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  8.1-9.8;  Virginia  Point, Texas, 8.2-9.9  mm. 

This  species  has  almost  without  exception  been  found  in  salt 
marshes,  usually  in  Spariina  patens,  covering  the  tidal  flats.  The 
chiefl}'  maeropterous  series  taken  at  Virginia  Point,  Texas,  was, 
however,  in  high  and  heavy  grasses,  where  the  following  field  note 
was  made,  "A  difficult  species  to  capture  as  individuals  are  very 
restless  and  immediately  seek  shelter  by  jumping  down  low  in 
the  bunches  of  grass  where  they  are  very  hard  to  follow."  On 
the  coast  of  New  Jersey  the  species  is  frequentl}'  to  be  found  in 
great  numl)ers  on  the  salt  marshes,  both  in  Spariina  patent 
and  Panicularia  fluitans,  where  large  series  could  be  taken  with 
ease.  The  present  insect  is  now  known  from  Cape  Cod,  Mas- 
sachusetts, to  Miami,  Florida  on  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  on 
the  Gulf  coast  from  Mrginia  Point,  Texas,  to  Everglade,  Florida. 

Specimens  Examined:  Previously  correctly  recorded,  over  30.  Here  re- 
corded, 2.53;  123  males,  106  females,  8  immature  males  and  16  immature 
females. 

Cape  Cod,  :Massachusetts,  (Scudder),  8  cT,  15  9,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Saunderstown,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  9,  1913,  (H.;  in  marsh  grasses),  1  cf . 

Wesquage  Beach,  Rhode  Island,  IX,  10,  1913,  (H.;  salt  marsh),  1  9  . 

New  Haven,  Connecticut,  VIII,  27,  1904,  (B. H.  Walden),  la",  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Mullica  River  flats,  Burhngton  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  24,  1914,  (H.; 
occasional  in  short  grasses,  Panicularia  fluitans,  on  salt  marsh),  2  o",  1    9. 

Chestnut  Neck,  Atlantic  County,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  16,  1911,  (R.  &  H.; 
very  common  on  tidal  flats  in  Spartina  patens),  15  cf ,  6   9  . 

Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey,  IX,  11,  1902,  (R.;  tidal  flats),  3   9  . 

Ventnor,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  5,  1914,  (H.;  1  9  in  marshy  depression  on  harrier 
beach,  and  moderately  numerous  but  adults  few  on  tidal  flats  in  Spartina 
patens),  10  cf ,  5   9,9  juv.   9  . 

Margate  City,  New  Jersey,  VII,  24,  1914,  (H.;  in  gi-eat  numbers  but  adults 
occasional  in  salt  marsh  particularly  in  areas  of  Panicularia  fluitans) ,  9  cf,  11 
9,  5  juv.  6",  4  juv.   9. 

Ocean  City,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  adults  in  moderate  numbers 
on  tidal  flats  in  Spartina  patens),  4  cT,  7  9  ,  1  juv.  cf ,  (1  cf  maeropterous). 

Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  26,  1914,  (H.;  very  scarce  in  fresh  marsh), 

1  cf. 

Cape  May  Court  House,  New  Jersey,  VII,  20,  1914,  (H.;  exceedingly  abun- 
dant but  adults  very  scarce  on  tidal  flats  in  Spartina  patens),  2  cf ,  1  juv.  cf, 

2  juv.  9;  VIII,  14,  1914,  (H.;  adults  only,  moderately  numerous  in  same 
locality),  13  c?,  12  9,  (1   cf  maeropterous). 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


216      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Cold  Spring,  New  Jersey,  IX,  4,  1907,  (B.  Long),  1   ?  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Cape  May,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  7,  1903,  (H.  L.  Viereck),  2c^,  1  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Oceanview,  Virginia,  VIII,  8,  1904,  (Caudell),  1  d^,  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Virginia  Beach,  Virginia,  VII,  2,  1903,  (Morse),  1  d",  1  9,  [Morse  Cln.], 
(macropterous). 

Wrightsville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  7,  1911,  (H.;  very  scarce  in  grasses  fring- 
ing barrier  beach  tidal  lagoon),  1   cf,  1    9- 

Tybee  Island,  Georgia,  VIII,  12  and  13,  1903,  (Morse),  7  cf ,  5  9,  [Morse 
Cln.];  IX,  2,  1911,  (H.;  common  and  found  far  out  on  tidal  flats  in  low  grass), 
25  d",  18  9,1  juv.  d",  1  juv.   9,  (1   9  macropterous). 

Miami,  Florida,  (Mrs.  A.  T.  Slosson),  1  d",  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Buras,  Louisiana,  VII,  25,  1905,  (Morse),  8  d^,  5  9,  [Morse  Cln.],  (1  d" 
macropterous). 

Virginia  Point,  Texas,  VII,  21,  1912,  (H.;  common  in  heavy  grasses  in  salt 
marsh),  11  d",  12  9,  (9  d",  12  9  macropterous). 

Subgenus  Anarthropus  ^^  new  subgenus 

The  subgenus  is  known  to  include  two  species;  of  these  one, 
C.  (A.)  saltans  (Scudder),  is  North  American  and  the  other, 
C.  (A.)  javanicus  (Redtenbacher),^^  is  Javan. 

Type  of  subgenus. — Conocephalus  saltans  [Xiphidium  saltans] 
(Scudder). 

Subgeneric  Description.- — Prosternum  unarmed.  Subgenital 
plate  of  male  of  the  normal  type  found  in  the  genus;  distal  margin 
transverse,  bearing  minute  styles  laterad.  Ventral  margins  of 
cephalic  and  median  femora  armed  with  six  well  spaced  spines. 
Caudal  tibiae  with  dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  of  distal  spurs  absent, 
armed  at  the  distal  extremities  with  a  single  pair  of  well-de- 
veloped median  spurs.  Size  small  to  very  small  for  the  genus, 
form  rather  slender. 
Conocephalus  saltans   (Scudder)  (PI.  XVI,  fig.  19;  XVII,  18;  XIX,  7,  8 

and  15;  XX,  19.) 
1862.     Xiphidium  hrevipenne  Scudder,  Can.  Nat.  and  Geol.,  vii,  p.  285.     (In 

part.)     [Red  River  Settlements,  Manitoba.] 
1872.     Xiphidium  saltans  Scudder,"  Fin.  Rept.  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.  Nebr.,  [). 

249.     [Banks  of  the  Platte  River,  Nebraska.] 

^^  From  a.papdpos=weak  and  7roi)s=foot,  in  allusion  to  the  missing  dorsal  and 
ventral  pairs  of  spurs  of  the  caudal  tibiae. 

^s  Abh.  k.-k.  zool.-botan.  Gesell.  Wien,  xh,  p.  526,  (1891).  The  male  of  this 
species  has  the  cercus  similar  to  that  of  saltans,  but  with  tooth  exceedingly  long, 
evenly  and  decidedly  curved  downward. 

"Single  type  here  designated:  9;  Platte  [River,  Nebraska],  (Ilayden), 
[M.  C.  Z.].  Measurements;  length  of  body  12.8,  of  tcgmen  2.7,  (caudal 
femora  missing),  of  ovipositor  13.7  mm. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  217 

1891.     Xiphidium    modestum   Bruner,    Can.  Ent.,  xxiii,  p.  56.     [Eastern  and 

middle  Nebraska.] 
1891.     Xiphidium  taeniatum  Redtenbacher,  Verb.  Zoob-botan.  (losclb  Wien 

xli,  pp.  498,  520.     [Texas.] 

Scudder  has  properly  placed  modestum  and  taeniatum.  in  the 
S3'nonymy  under  the  present  species. ^"^ 

Typical  saltans  is  normally  small  to  very  small,  and  both  slender 
and  delicate  in  structure.  A  brown  phase  of  coloration  is  fre- 
quently met  with,  particularly  in  the  southeastern  states,  but 
a  green  color  form  is  also  not  unusual  elsewhere,  and  in  this 
phase  the  insect  verj^  closely  resembles  a  small  example  of  C. 
stricius. 

Pronotum  with  cephalic  margin  convex  and  ventro-cephalic 
angle  weakly  indicated  to  the  broadly  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle  which  is  almost  90°,  caudal  margin  weakly  convex  to  the 
verj'  broad  and  distinct  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  very 
broad. 

An  extremely  brachypterous  type  is  normal,  and  it  is  con- 
sequently rather  surprising  to  find  twelve  of  the  two  hundred  and 
six  specimens  recorded  strongly  macropterous,  all  of  these  being 
from  the  western  portions  of  the  insect's  distribution. 

The  caudal  femora  have  the  ventral  margins  unarmed,  the 
genicular  areas  not  darkened  and  the  genicular  lobes  uni- 
spinose. 

The  male  cerci  are  of  a  wholly  different  type  from  that  of  any 
other  North  American  species,  being  very  slender  with  a  very 
long  slender  tooth  situated  interno-mesad  and  slightly  beyond  the 
middle  of  the  shaft;  the  distal  portion  of  the  cercus  tapers  evenly 
to  the  narrowly  rounded  apex  and  is  very  weakly  indented  above. 

The  ovipositor  is  normally  weakly  curved  and  in  length  meas- 
ures as  follows:  Atsion,  New  Jersey,  10.5-10.7;  Fern  Hill, 
Pennsylvania,  12.6-12.9;  Asheville,  North  Carohna,  10.9  13; 
Thomasville,  Georgia,  13.8-15.8;  West  Point,  Nebraska,  9.7- 
13.8;  Sidney,  Nebraska,  10.8-13.2;  southwestern  Nebraska, 
15;  Dodge  City,  Kansas,  15.2;  Colorado  Springs.  Colorado,. 
14.1-15.3;  Dallas,  Texas,  15.9. 

The  present  insect  is  one  of  the  latest  species  to  appc^ar  in  the 
southeastern  United  States,  the  great   majority  wei-e  found  on 

*8Can.  Ent.,  xxx,  p.  184,  (1898). 

TRANS.  AM.   ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


218      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

the  coast  of  the  Carohnas  to  be  immature  as  late  as  early  Septem- 
ber. Among  the  nearly  adult  females  taken  there,  the  ovipos- 
itor ranges  from  13.7  to  14.9  mm.,  which,  with  our  adult  series 
from  Thomasville,  Georgia,  shows  that  over  the  lowlands  of 
the  southeastern  United  States  the  ovipositor  averages  very 
long.  Males  from  this  region  also  show  the  cerci  averaging 
slightly  longer  and  more  slender  than  elsewhere  in  the  distribu- 
tion of  the  insect,  but,  when  the  variation  in  almost  every  large 
series  is  noted,  the  above  results,  though  showing  very  possibly 
an  incipient  geographic  differentiation,  are  by  no  means  sufficient 
to  warrant  the  recognition  of  a  geographic  race.  Individuals 
from  Texas  and  Okhihoma  average  much  the  largest  of  any 
specimens  before  us. 

The  species  is  widely  and  generally  distributed  over  the  prairies 
of  the  middle  west,  east  of  this  its  distribution  appears  to  be  more 
or  less  discontinuous,  the  insect  preferring  sandy  or  other  areas 
of  poor  soil  such  as  the  serpentine  outcrops  in  Pennsylvania. 

The  present  species  is  known  on  the  Atlantic  coast  from  the 
East  Plains  and  Brown's  Mills,  New  Jersey,  southward  to  Yemas- 
see.  South  Carolina  and  Thomasville,  Georgia,  and  is  probably 
distributed,  except  in  the  northern  portion  of  this  region,  west- 
ward to  the  base  of  the  Appalachians.  The  northernmost  points 
of  distribution  are  Toronto,  Ontario;  the  Red  River,  Aweme  and 
the  Souris  River,  Manitoba,  and  Moose  Jaw,  Saskatchewan.  In 
western  distribution  it  has  been  found  along  the  Yellowstone 
River  as  far  as  Livingston,  Montana,  and  has  been  taken  in 
Colorado  at  Fort  Collins  and  Manitou.  The  most  southwestern 
records  are  Springer,  New  Mexico,  and  Amarillo  and  Dallas, 
Texas. 

Specimenti  Exatniitcd:  Previously  recorded,  over  30.  Here  recorded.  208; 
73  males,  87  females,  17  in  mature  males  and  31  im.mature  females. 

Fern  Hill,  Chester  County,  Pcnr.sylvania,  IX,  19,  1808,  (R.  &  H.;  in  grasses 
on  serpentine  outcrop),  6  cf ,  6  9  • 

Whitinf^s,  New  Jersey,  IX,  28,  190(),  (B.  Long),  1  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

East  Plains,  Ocean  County,  New  .Jersey,  VIII,  24,  1914,  (H.;  in  glade  of  tall 
grass  and  also  among  dwarf  pine  and  oak),  1  d^,  3  juv.   9  . 

Reega,  New  Jersey,  VIII,  2.)  an  J  31,  1914,  (H.;  vuidergrowtli  of  pine  barren) 
1  juv.  o',  2  juv.    9  . 

Petersburg,  New  Jersey,  X,  1,  1910,  (II.  Fo.\;  dry  poor  land  among  red 
cedars),  1   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  219 

Somerset  Heights,  Maryland,  V,  24,  1905,  (E  S.  G.  Titus),  Icf,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Cabin  John  Run,  Maryland,  X,  1907,  (W.  Palmer),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Washington,  District  of  Cohnnbia,  VIII,  22  and  IX,  6,  1878    1   c?"    1    9 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fayetteville,  North  Carolina,  IX,  9,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  immature  specimens 
abundant),  7  juv.   cf . 

Wilmington,  North  CaroKna,  IX,  9,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  immature  individuals 
common  tlu'ough  undergrowth  of  pine  woods,  particularly  in  clumps  of  scrub 
oak  shoots),  4  c?',  2  juv.  cf,  3  juv.   9  • 

Winter  Park,  North  CaroHna,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  as  at  Wilmington),  3  cf , 
4  juv.    9 . 

Wrightsville,  North  Carohna,  IX,  7,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  sandy  pine  woods), 
1  juv.   9 . 

Lake  Waccamaw,  North  Carolina,  IX,  8,  1911,  (R.  &  H.),  1  juv.  d". 

Florence,  South  Carolina,  IX,  6,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  immature  specimens  common 
in  open  grassy  glade  and  in  undergrowth  of  pine  woods),  5  juv.  cf ,  3  juv.  9 . 

Yemassee,  South  Carolina,  IX,  4,  1911,  (R.  &  H.;  in  clumps  of  scrub  oak 
shoots  in  pine  woods),  4  juv.  c?,  2  juv.   9  . 

Atlanta,  Georgia,  VIII,  2,  1913,  (R.  &  H.),  1  juv.  d". 

Stone  Mountain,  Georgia,  VIII,  3,  1913,  (R.  &  H.;  immature  specimens 
moderately  numerous  in  bunch  grass  areas  in  pine  woods  on  mountain),  1 
juv.   o". 

Spring  Creek,  Decatur  County,  Georgia,  VII,  16  to  29,  1912,  (J.  C.  Bradley), 

1  very  small  juv.,  [Ga.  State  Cln.]. 

Pine,  Indiana,  IX,  3,  1906,  (J.  D.  Hood),  1  9 ,  [Pa.  State  Dept.  Zool.]. 

Chicago,  Illinois,  IX,  9,  1903,  (H.;  in  waste  field),  1   9  . 

Staples,  Minnesota,  VII,  21,  1909,  (H.;  in  sandy  spot  among  wild  strawberry 
and  other  low  plants),  7  cf ,  4  9,1  juv.  9  . 

Jefferson  County,  Iowa,  VII,  20  to  24,  (J.  A.  Allen),  3  juv.   9 ,  [M.  C.  Z.J. 

DaUas  County,  Iowa,  VIII,  20  to  23,  (J.  A.  AUen),  4  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Hillsboro,  North  Dakota,  VII,  24,  1891,  1  o^,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Bismarck,  North  Dakota,  VIII,  9,  1889,  (Bruner),  2  cf ,  2  9,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Mandan,  North  Dakota,  VII,  25,  1909,  (H.;  along  streamlet  on  prairie  in 
grasses),  1  o"',  1  juv.   9 . 

Dickinson,  North  Dakota,  VII,  25,  1909,  (H.),  1  juv.  9 . 

West  Point,  Nebraska,  IX  to  X,  1882  to  1885,  (Bruner),  4  cf ,  21  9  ,  [Hebard 
Cln.],  (1  cf,  2   9  macropterous). 

Badger,  Nebraska,  1   d^,  [Hebard  Chi.]. 

Valentine,  Nebraska,  VIII,  10,  1888,  2  o",  1  9,  [Hebard  Cln.];  1  o^,  3  9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.],  (1   9  macropterous). 

Gordon,  Nebraska,  (Bruner),  1   9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Fort  Robinson,  Nebraska,  VIII,  21,  1888,  (Bruner),  2  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Glen,  Nebraska,  VIII,  6  to  20,  1903,  1  cf ,  3  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (1  9  macrop- 
terous). 

Kearney,  Nebraska,  VII,  27,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  river  bottom  grassland),  2  c?, 

2  9. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


220      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

North  Platte,  Nebraska,  VII,  28,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  river  bottom  grassland), 
5  cf ,  5  9 ,  (  1  cf  macropterous). 

Sidney,  Nebraska,  VII,  30,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  river  bottom  grassland),  15  cf , 
13   9,  (1  cf,  1    9  macropterous). 

Wichita,  Kansas,  IX,  7,  1904,  (F.  B.  Isely),  2  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.],  (1  macrop- 
terous). 

Dodge  City,  Kansas,  IX,  13,  1909,  (H.;  in  depressions  of  prairie),  2  0?,!  9  . 

Waurika,  Oklahoma,  X,  14,  1909,  (F.  C.  Bishopp),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Summit  of  Mount  Sheridan,  Oklahoma,  VIII,  24,  1905,  (Morse),  1  9, 
[Morse  Cln.]. 

Dallas,  Texas,  1  d^,  3  9,  [M.  C.  Z.],  (1  cf ,  2  9  macropterous). 

Clarendon,  Texas,  VIII,  18,  1905,  (Morse),  1  d',  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Amarillo,  Texas,  VIII,  19,  1905,  (Morse),  3  cf ,  [Morse  Cln.]. 

Moose  Jaw,  Saskatchewan,  VIII,  24,  1903,  (Caudell),  1   9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Glendive,  Montana,  VII,  26,  1909,  (H.;  river  bottom  area  of  grass  and  sage- 
brush), 1  juv.    9 . 

Forsythe,  Montana,  VII,  27,  1909,  (H.;  in  caiion  and  in  grassy  depressions 
above  bluffs),  2  cf,4  9- 

Billings,  Montana,  VII,  28,  1909,  (R.  &  H.),  2  c^. 

Livingston,  Montana,  VII,  29,  1909,  (R.  &  H.;  in  field  of  dry  grass),  1  d". 

Julesburg,  Colorado,  VII,  29,  1910,  (R.  &  H.;  river  bottom  grassland),  2  cf, 
1    9. 

Manitou,  Colorado,  VIII,  1889,  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Springer,  New  Mexico,  IX,  15,  1909,  (C.  N.  Ainslie),  1  d",  [U.  S.  N.  AI.]. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  221 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES 

Plate  XV 

-Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).  Tray  Mountain,  Georgia.  Sub- 
genital  plate  of  male  (paratype).     (X  Sf) 

-Conocephalus  fa^cialua  fasciatus  (DeGeer).  Aweme,  JManitoba.  Sub- 
genital  plate  of  male.     (X5|) 

-Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus  (DeGeer).  Aweme, Manitoba.  Male. 
Distal  extremity  of  caudal  tibia.     (X  20) 

-Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).  Fem  Hill,  Pennsylvania.  Male. 
Distal  extremity  of  caudal  tibia.     (X  20) 

-Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus  (DeGeer).  Aweme,  Manitoba.  Male. 
Lateral  outline  of  head.    ( X  10) 

-Conocephalus  resacensis  new  species.  Piper  Plantation,  Brownsville, 
Texas.     Male  {type).    Lateral  outline.    (X  3§) 

-Conocephalus  aigialus  new  species.  Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 
Male  {type).  Lateral  outline.  (X  3f)  [Figure  number  omitted 
on  plate.] 

-Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse).  Homestead,  Florida.  Male. 
Lateral  outline  of  head.     (X  10) 

-Conocephalus  hygrophilus  new  species.  Milneburg,  Louisiana.  Male 
{allotype).     Lateral  outline.     (X  4) 

-Conocephalus  stictomerus  new  species.  Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey.. 
Male  (type).    Lateral  outline.    (X  4) 

Plate  XVI 
Outline  of  cephalic  view  of  fastigium.     (X  25) 

Fig.     1.— Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).     Tray  Mountain,  Georgia.     Male 
(paratype). 

Fig.     2.— Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus  CDeGeer).  Aweme,  Manitoba.  Male. 

Fig.     3. — Conocephalus  fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse).     Sisson,  California.     Male. 

Fig.     4. — Conocephalus    spinosus     (Morse).     Coronado     Beach,     California. 
Female. 

Fig.     5. — Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse).     Homestead,  Florida.     Male. 

Fig.     6. — Conocephalus  breripennis  (Scudder).   Tinicum,  Pennsylvania.    Male, 

Fig.     7. — Conocephalus  resacensis  new  species.     Piper  Plantation,   Browns- 
ville, Texas.     Male  (type). 

Fig.     8. — Conocephalus    nemoralis     (Scudder).     Asheville,     Norfh    Carolina. 
Male. 

Fig.     9. — Conocephalus    nemoralis    (Scudder).      Asheville,    North    Carolina, 
Male.     Unusually  narrow  condition. 

Fig.  10. — Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse).    Sentinel,  California.     Male. 

Fig.   n. — Conocephalus  sirictuA  (^enddex).     Mt.  Airj^  Pennsylvania.     Male. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


Fig. 

\. 

Fig. 

2_ 

Fig. 

3. 

Fig. 

4. 

Fig. 

5. 

Fig. 

6. 

Fig. 

7. 

Fig. 

8.- 

Fig. 

9. 

Fig. 

10. 

222      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Fig.   12. — Conocephalus     hygrophilus     new     species.     Milnebiirg,     Louisiana. 

Male  {allotype). 
Fig.  13. — Conocephalus  sliciomerus  new  species.     Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey. 

Male  {type). 
Fig.  14. — Conocephalus  aiyiahis  new  species.     Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 

Male  {type). 
Fig.  15. — Conocephalus  nigropleurum  (Bruner).    West  Point,  Nebraska.    Male 

{type). 
Fig.  16. — Conocephalus  allenualns  (Scudder).    Vigo  County,  Indiana.     Male. 
Fig.   17. — Conocephalus  nigra pleuroides  (Fox).    Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig.   18. — Conocephalus  spartinae  {Fox).     Chestnut  Neck,  New  Jersey.    Male. 
Fig.  19. — Conocephalus  saltans  {Scudder) .    Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania.     Male. 

Plate  XVII 

Outline  of  lateral  lolie  of  pronotum.     (X  6) 

Fig.     1. — Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).     Tray  Mountain,  Georgia.     Male 

{paralype) . 
Fig.     2. — Conocephalus fasciatus  fa.sciatus  (DeGeer).  Aweme,'Manitoba.  Male. 
Fig.     3. — Conocephalus  fasciatus  vicinus  {Morse) .    Sisson,  California.     Male. 
Fig.     4. — Conocephalus  spinosus  {Morse).    Coronado  Beach,  California.  Male. 
Fig.     5. — Conocephaln^  gracillimus  {Morse).    Homestead,  Florida.      Male. 
Fig.     6. — Conocephalus  brevipennis  {Scudder) .    Tinicum,  Pennsylvania.    Male. 
Fig.     7. — Conocephalus  resacensis  new  species.     Piper  Plantation,   Browns- 
ville, Texas.     Male  {type). 
Fig.     S. — Conocephalus    nemoralis    (Scudder).      Asheville,    North    Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig.     9. — Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse).    Sentinel,  California.     Male. 
Fig.  10. — Conocephalus  strictus  (Scudder).     Mt.  Airy,  Pennsylvania.     Male. 
Fig.  11. — Conocephalus    hygrophilus    new    species.     Milneburg,     Louisiana. 

Male  {allotype). 
Fig.  12. — Conocephalus  stictomeriis  new  species.     Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey. 

Male  {type). 
Fig.  13. — Conocephalus  aigialus  new  species,   Wrightsville,   North  Carolina. 

Male  {type). 
Fig.  14. — Conocephalus  nigropleurum  {Bruner).    West  Point,  Nebraska.    Male 

(type). 
Fig.  15. — Conocephalus  altenuatus  (Scudder).    Vigo  County,  Indiana.     Male. 
Fig.  16. — Conocephalus  nigro pleuroides  (Fox).     Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 

Male. 
Fig.  17. — Conocephalus  spartinae  {Fox).    Chestnut  Neck,  New  Jersey.    Male. 
Fig.  18. — Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).    Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania.    Male. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  223 

Plate  XVIII 
Dorsal  (shaded)  and  lateral  outlines  of  male  cercus.    (X  10) 

Figs.     1  and    2. — Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).     Tray  Mountain,  Georgia. 
{Paratype.) 

Figs.     3  and    4. — Conocephalus    fasciatus     fascialus      (DeGeer).       Aweme, 
Manitoba. 

Figs.     5  and    6. — Conocephalus  fascialus  vicinus  (Morse).    Sisson,  California. 

Figs.     7  and    8. — Conocephalus  spinosus  (Morse).  Coronado  Beach, California. 

Figs.     9  and  10. — Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse).    Homestead,  Florida. 

Figs.  11  and  12. — Conocephalus  brevipennis  (Scudder).    Tinicum  Island,  Penn- 
sylvania. 

Figs.  13  and  14. — Conocephalus   resacensis    new    species.     Piper    Plantation, 
Bro\\TisviUe,  Texas.     (Type.) 

Figs.   15  and  16. — Conocephalus  nemoralis  (Scudder).    Asheville,  North  Caro- 
lina. 

Figs.   17  and  IS. — Conocephalus  occidenlalis  (Morse).    Sentinel,  California. 

Figs.  19  and  20. — Conocephalus  striclus  (Scudder).    Mt.  Ah-y,  Pennsylvania. 

Figs.  21  and  22. — Conocephalus  hygrophilus  new  species.     Milney)urg,  Louis- 
iana.    (Allotype.) 

Figs.  23  and  24. — Conocephalus  stictomerus  new  species.     Cedar  Springs,  New 
Jersey.     (Type.) 

Figs.  25  and  26. — Conocephalus  aigialus  new   species.     Wrightsville,    North 
Carolina.     (Type.) 

Figs.  27  and  28. — Conocephalus  nigropleurum    (Bruner).     West    Point,    Ne- 
braska.    (Type.) 

Figs.  29  and  30. — Conocephalus  altenuatus  (Scudder).    Vigo  County,  Indiana. 

Plate  XIX 

Dorsal  (shaded)  and  lateral  outlines  of  male  cercus.     (X  10) 

Figs.     1  and    2. — Conocephalus  nigropleuroides   (Fox).     Wrightsville,   North 

Carolina. 
Figs.     3  and    4. — Conocephalus  sparlinae  (Fox).    Chestnut  Neck,  New  Jersey. 
Figs.     5  and    6. — Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).     Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania, 
Figs.     7  and    8. — Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).    Wilmington,  North  Caro- 
Una. 
Stridulating  field  of  male  tegmen.     (X  71) 
Fig.     9. — Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).    Tray  Mountain,  Georgia.     (Para- 
type.) 
Fig.  10. — Conocephalus  fasciatus  jasciatus  (DeGeer).    Aweme,  Manitoba. 
Fig.  11. — Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse).    Homestead,  Florida. 
Fig.  12. — Conocephalus  nemoralis  (Scudder).    Asheville,  North  Carolina. 
Fig.  13. — Conocephalus  occidenlalis  (INIorse).    Sentinel,  California. 
Fig.  14. — Conocephalus    nigropleurum    (Bruner).      West     Point,    Nebraska. 

(Type.) 
Fig.  15. — Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).    Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


224      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Plate  XX 
Outline  of  ovipositor.     ( X  2) 
Fig.     1. — Conocephalus  allardi  (Caudell).     Tray  Mountain,  Georgia.     {Para- 
type.) 
-Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus  (DeGeer).    Aweme,  Manitoba, 
-Conocephalus  fasciatus  tncinus  (Morse).    Sisson,  California. 
-Conocephalus  spinosus  (Morse).    Coronado  Beach,  California. 
-Conocephalus  gracillimus  (Morse).    Homestead,  Florida. 
-Conocephalus  brevipennis  (Scudder).    Tinicum,  Pennsylvania. 
-Conocephalus  brevipennis  (Scudder).    Asheville,  North  Carolina. 
-Conocephalus  resacensis  new  species.    Piper  Plantation,  Brownsville, 

Texas.     (Allotype.) 
-Conocephalus  nemoralis  (Scudder).    Asheville,  North  Carolina. 
-Conocephalus  occidentalis  (Morse).    Sisson,  CaUfornia. 
-Conocephalus  sirictus  (Scudder).    Raleigh,  North  CaroUna. 
-Conocephalus    hygrophilus    new    species.     Virginia    Point,    Texas. 
(Type.) 
Fig.  13. — Conocephalus  strictomerus  new  species.     Cedar  Springs,  New  Jersey. 

{Allotype.) 
Fig.  14. — Conocephalus  aigialus  new  species.     Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 

(Allotype.) 
Fig.  15. — Conocephalus  nigropleurum  (Bruner).    Lincoln,  Nebraska.      (Para- 
type.) 
Fig.  16. — Conocephalus  attenuatus  (Scudder).    West  Point,  Nebraska. 
Fig.  17. — Conocephalus  nigropleur aides  (Fox).    Wrightsville,  North  Carolina. 
Fig.  18. — Conocephalus  spartinae  (Fox).    Chestnut  Neck,  New  Jersey. 
Fig.  19. — Conocephalus  saltans  (Scudder).    Fern  Hill,  Pennsylvania. 


Fig. 

2. 

Fig. 

3. 

Fig. 

4. 

Fig. 

5. 

Fig. 

6. 

Fig. 

7, 

Fig. 

8, 

Fig. 

9. 

Fig. 

10. 

Fig. 

11. 

Fig. 

12. 

Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  XV 


REHN  AND  HEBARD      AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  A'ol.  XLI. 


PI.   XVI. 


1  2 


17 


18 


REHN  AND  HEBARD -AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI    XVU. 


REHN  AND  HEBARD-  AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  XVIII. 


1 1 


12 


16 


20 


21 


23 


25 


27 


29 


22 


r-r 


30 


REHN  AND  HEBARD  — AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  XIX. 


13 


REHN  AND  HEBARD  — AMERICAN  TETTIGONliDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  XX. 


12 


13 


15 


<^ 


18 


19 


REHN  AND  HEBARD      AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  225 


STUDIES  IN  AMERICAN   TETTIGONIIDAE 
(ORTHOPTERA) 

VI. 

BY  JAMES  A.  G.  REHX  AND  MORGAX  HEBARD 

A  SYNOPSIS  OF  THE  SPECIES  OF  THE  GENUS 
CONOCEPHALUS  FOUND  IN  AMERICA  SOUTH  OF 
THE     SOUTHERN     BORDER     OF     THE     UNITED 

STATES  1 

In  a  recent  paper,-  the  authors  have  studied  the  species  of  the 
genus  Conocephalus  found  in  North  America  north  of  Mexico; 
in  that  paper  the  generic  references,  genotype,  description  and 
discussion  of  the  history  of  the  genus  and  its  then  recognized 
subgenera  have  been  fully  treated.  We  were  obliged  at  that 
time  to  examine  our  series  of  the  genus  from  the  other  portions 
of  America,  and,  finding  that  we  had  material  of  the  great  major- 
it}^  of  the  species  before  us  and  the  opportunity  to  correct  many 
misconceptions,  to  give  man}"  important  but  hitherto  wholly 
neglected  or  hurriedly  considered  characters,  as  well  as  to  establish 
a  number  of  very  confusing  names  as  synon^ans,  we  determined 
to  study  all  of  the  American  forms  of  the  genus.  The  present 
paper  is  bj^  no  means  as  complete  as  the  first  portion  of  the  study, 
for  in  much  of  the  territory  considered  there  has  been  little  or  no 
collecting  accomplished  and  the  series  before  us,  though  far 
larger  than  any  others  previously  studied,  contain  few  specimens 
of  some  species  and  none  of  several  of  which  the  types  are  inac- 
cessable  to  us  and  the  original  descriptions  of  the  same  vague 
and  uncertain.  Our  efforts  are  here  concentrated  in  defining  the 
species  known  to  us  as  accurately  as  we  are  able,  with  the  hope 
that  by  so  doing  many  of  the  difficulties  and  misconceptions  of 
the  past  may  be  eradicated  from  future  study  of  the  American 
forms  of  the  genus. 

1  Published  with  the  aid  of  the  Orthoptera  Fund. 

2  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xH,  pp.  155  to  224,  (1915). 

•       TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 
1.5 


226      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

The  following  key  includes,  in  addition  to  the  subgenera  recog- 
nized by  us  in  the  first  paper,  others  here  erected.  Unquestion- 
ably numerous  other  subgenera  exist  and  will  be  described  when 
careful  study  of  the  species  of  the  w^orld  is  made. 

Key  to  the  Subgenera  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus 

A.  Prosternum  bispinose. 

B.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  three  pairs  of  spurs. 

C.  Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  five  to 
seven  (normally  six)  well  spaced  spines. 

D.  Male  subgenital  plate  produced  in  long  sharp  spikes. 

E.  Productions    situated    meso-distad,    intervening   space   strongly 
obtuse-angulate  emarginate;  styles  absent. 

Dicellura  Rehn  and  Hebard 

EE.  Productions  situated  disto-laterad,   intervening  space  roundly 

emarginate;  awl-like  styles  present,  situated  on  ventral  surfaces  of 

lateral  productions.  Opeastylus  new  subgenus 

DD.  Male  subgenital  plate  with  distal  margin  more  or  less  decidedly 

truncate  with  no  decided  emargination  or  production;  small,  slender, 

fihform    styles    present    disto-laterad.  Xiphidion  Serville 

CC.  Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  nine  to 

ten  closely  set  spines.  .  Palotta  F.  Walker 

BB.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  five  spurs  (interno-dorsal 

spur  missing).     Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with 

six  well  spaced  spines.     Male  subgenital  phite  as  in  Xiphidion. 

Perissacanthus  new  subgenus 
BBB.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  a  single  pair  of  spurs 
(dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  absent)'.  Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median 
tibiae  armed  with  seven  to  eight  well  spaced  spines. 

Aphauropus  new  subgenus 
AA.  Prosternum  unarmed.  (Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median  tibiae 
armed  with  five  to  seven  well  spaced  spines.) 

B.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  three  pairs  of  spurs. 

Conocephalus  Thunberg 
BB.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  a  single  pair  of  spurs 
(dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  absent).     (Male  subgenital  plate  as  in  Xiphidion.) 

Anarthropus  Rehn  and  Hebard 

As  yet,  Dicellura  is  known  only  from  the  southern  Appalach- 
ian region  of  the  eastern  United  States,  Opeastylus  is  widely  dis- 
tributed in  temperate  and  subtropical  South  America  and  the 
only  subgenus  found  in  the  former  region,  Xiphidion  is  the 
dominant  subgenus  from  subtropical  South  America  northward 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  227 

and  is  circiimorbital  in  distribution,  Palotta  and  Conocephalus 
are  known  from  the  Old  World  only,  Perissacanthus  has  been 
found  only  in  Paraguay,  Aphauroyus  is  known  only  from  Tepic, 
Mexico,  while  Anarthropus  is  known  from  a  species  widely  dis- 
tributed in  the  United  States  and  southern  Canada,  and  from 
another  species  from  Java. 

The  genus  is  probably  found  everywhere  over  the  region  under 
consideration  south  as  far  as  the  extremity  of  the  mainland  of 
South  America.  Lack  of  material  from  northern  Mexico  is 
much  to  be  regretted.  The  following  forms,  treated  fully  in  the 
authors'  first  paper  on  the  genus,  are  unquestionably  present  in 
that  region,  Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus,  fasciatus  vicinus, 
spinosiis,  resacensis  and  strictus;  for  all  of  these  have  been  taken 
in  the  United  States  on  the  Mexican  border,  and  the  first  and 
third  of  these  forms  are  here  recorded  from  farther  southward. 
In  addition  Co7iocephalus  hygrophilns  and  spartinae  will  very 
possibly  be  found  to  occur  in  the  salt  marsh  vegetation  along 
the  Gulf  Coast,  south  of  the  Rio  Grande,  in  Mexico.  In 
desert  regions  the  genus  is,  as  in  the  United  States,  doubtless 
confined  to  mountains,  rivers,  streams,  lakes  and  irrigated  tracts 
where  a  constant  supply  of  water  is  to  be  found.  The  low  water- 
sheds of  the  Orinoco,  Amazon  and  La  Plata  systems  do  not  act 
as  controls  in  the  distribution  of  the  species,  but  the  main  chain 
of  the  Andes  appears  to  afford  an  absolute  barrier.  A  single 
species,  widely  distributed  in  North  America,  alone  is  known 
from  Bermuda.  The  Greater  Antilles  have,  apparently,  but  two 
species,  the  least  abundant,  C.  insvlaris,  peculiar  to  these  islands, 
the  other,  C.  cinereus,  in  addition  widely  distributed  from  central 
Mexico  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Amazon.  The  Lesser  Antilles, 
on  the  other  hand,  appear  to  have  but  one  species,  C.  saltafor, 
which  is  the  most  widely  distributed  and,  apparently,  the 
most  abundant  species  from  Costa  Rica  southward  throughout 
South  America  to  Paraguay  and  Eastern  Peru. 

The  following  table  illustrates  the  relationship  of  the  American 
forms  of  the  genus  known  to  us;  showing,  in  addition  to  the  forms 
here  studied,  the  position  of  the  forms  restricted  to  North  America 
which  have  been  treated  in  the  previous  paper. 


TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


228       STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


-longipes 

vitt  icoH  is 


cinereus 
fasciatus    fasciatus 
fasciatus   vicinus 
—  ictus 

spinosus 

nsularis 

iodes 


r—ins 


graci  n imus 
angust if rons 


brevipennis 
- resacensis 

—  unicoloK 


occidental  is 


. hygrophilus 


■  at ictomerus 


-aigialus 


I —  equatorialis 
-1-   saltator 
Lborelli 

, truncatus    .      , 

I  r versicolor 

I ochrotelus 


■  nigropleurum 

attenuatus 

nigropleuroides 


spartinae 


-strictoides 
leptopterus 


The  numbers  given  above  designate  the  six  subgenera  known 
from  America,  the  letters  indicate  the  American  groups  of  the 
very  large  subgenus  Xiphidion.  Of  these,  A,  B,  C  and  D  form 
more  or  less  of  a  unit,  while  E  contains  two  species  which  are 
nearly  intermediate  in  position  between  this  and  the  unit  formed 
by  the  groups,  G,  H  and  I,  all  three  of  which  latter  groups  are, 
however,  somewhat  more  widely  separated  one  from  the  other 
than  are  the  first  four  groups.  Group  F  is  distinctive.  Com- 
paring the  male  cerci  of  the  American  species  of  the  other  sub- 
genera with  those  of  the  species  constituting  groups  of  the 
subgenus  Xiphidion,  we  find  that  C.  (Dicellura)  allardi  agrees  best 
with  group  A;  the  two  species  C.  (Opeastylus)  longipes  and  ritti- 
collis  are  distinctive;  C.  {Perissacanthiis)  strictoides  agrees  best 
with  group  I;  C.  (Aphauropus)  leptopterus,  being  known  only 
from  the  female  sex,  can  not  in  this  respect  be  definitely  asso- 
ciated, though  the  general  structure  of  the  insect  suggests  that 
the  male  cerci  may  agree  best  with  group  F;  while  C.  (Anar- 
thropus)  saltans  is  distinctive. 

Material  Exaynincd. — We  have  studied  the  material  of  the 
genus  from  North  America  north  of  Mexico,  nearly  3800  speci- 
mens, and,  in  addition  to  a  series  of  nearly  100  specimens  prc^ 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  229 

vioiisly  correctly  recorded,  we  have  examined  and  recorded  in 
the  present  paper  804  specimens,  of  which  571  are  in  the  Hebard 
Collection  and  that  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Phila- 
delphia. The  combined  figures  form  a  total  of  about  4700 
American  specimens  of  Conocephalus. 

We  desire  to  express  our  deep  obligation  to  Mr.  A.  X.  CaudcU 
of  the  United  States  National  Museum,  Dr.  Samuel  Henshaw  of 
the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  and  Dr.  F.  E.  Lutz  of  the 
American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  for  the  great  privilege  of 
examining  and  studying  all  of  the  material  of  the  genus  contained 
in  the  collections  of  those  institutions.  With  the  exception  of 
McNeill's  exitiosum.  and  Bruners's  two  recently  described  species 
we  have  had  before  us  all  of  the  types  of  the  valid  forms  of  the 
genus  located  in  America. 

Key  to  Males  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus  found  in 
America  north  to  the  southern  border  of  the  United  States.^ 

(No  species  of  the  genus  with  prosternum  unarmed  is  known 
from  the  region  under  consideration.) 

A.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  distad  with  three  pairs  of  spurs. 

B.  Subgenital  plate  very  strongly  and  sharply  produced  latero-distad  in 

sharp  straight  spikes  which  are  weakly  divergent,  on  the  ventral  surfaces  of 

which  productions  are  situated  awl-like  styles,  distal  margin  of  plate  roundly 

emarginate  mesad.  (Subgenus  Opeastylus) 

C.  Form  moderately  slender.     Fastigium  of  vertex  little  over  one-half 

width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.     Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very 

broad.     Swollen  shelf  above  cereal  tooth  less  extensive.     Caudal  femora 

with  ventro-external  margins  armed  normally  with  two  and  three  spines. 

longipes  (Redtenbacher) 
CC.  Fonii  moderately  robust.  Fastigium  of  vertex  somewhat  more 
than  two-thirds  width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity  of 
lateral  lobes  exceedingly  broad.  Swollen  shelf  above  cereal  tooth  more 
extensive.     Caudal  femora  with  ventral  margins  imarmed. 

vitticollis  (Blanchard) 
BB.  Subgenital  plate  not  produced  disto-laterad,  disto-lateral  styles  small 
and  filiform,  distal  margin  of  jjlate  nearly  or  exactly  transverse. 

(Subgenus  Xiphidion) 
C.  Cerci  armed  with  a  heavy  mesal  (vertical)  tooth  so  that  its  base  is 
entirely  visible  from  above,  this  tooth  situateil  mesad. 
D.  Cerci  with  mesal  jjortion  not  contrastingly  swollen. 

'  See  p.  235  for  a  discussion  of  the  species  not  represented  in  om-  material. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


230      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

E.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  not  greatly  produced,  weakly  to  very 
decidedly  depressed,  and  with  apex  broad  and  rounded. 

F.  Tympanum  of  tegmina  not  unusually  elongate.  Convex 
callosity  of  lateral  lobes  not  very  broad.  Vertex  moderately  pro- 
duced. 

G.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  moderately  produced,  the  depres- 
sion of  the  same  being  general  and  not  more  decided  on  the 
inner  side. 

H.  Fastigium  of  vertex  about  two-thirds^  width  of  basal  an- 
tennal  joint.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  normally 
unarmed  (spines  when  present  never  more  than  one  to  three). 

I.  Eyes  moderately  large.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral 
lobes  very  narrow.  Abdomen  immaculate,  with  distal  half, 
including  cerci,  uniform  and  striking  yellow.  Distal  por- 
tion of  cerci  decidedly  depressed  and  narrowing  more  sharply 
to  the  more  narrowly  (but  still  rather  broadly)  rounded 
apex.     (Form  moderately  slender.)        cinereus  (Thunberg) 

II.  Eyes  decidedly  small.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral 
lobes  moderately  but  not  decidedly  broad.  Dorsum  of 
abdomen  trifasciate,  with  median  line  broad.  Distal  por- 
tion of  cerci  weakly  depressed,  scarcely  narrowing  to  the  very 
broadly  rounded  apex. 

J.  Form  slender.  Abdominal  fasciae  moderately  dis- 
tinct, colors  not  brilliant,  fasciatus  fasciatus  (DeGeer) 
JJ.  Form  moderately  slender.  Abdominal  fasciae  very 
distinct,  colors  brilliant  (particularly  so  in  life). 

fasciatus  vicinus  (Morse) 
HH.  Fastigium  of  vertex  as  wide  as  proximal  antennal  joint.* 
Ventro-e.xternal  margins  of  caudal  femora  normally  armed. 
I.  Form  moderately  robust.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral 
lobes  very  narrow.  Abdomen  immaculate,  with  distal  por- 
tion, including  cerci,  clear  pale  yellow.  Cerci  heavy, 
elongate,  with  distal  portion  decidedly  depressed,  scarcely 
narrowing  to  the  very  broadly  rounded  apex.  \'entro- 
extemal  margins  of  caudal  femora  bearing  normally  three 
and  four  spines.  spinosus  (Morse) 

^  Though  the  above  is  the  normal  condition  in  C.  cinereus,  this  usually  very 
constant  character  varies  occasionally  in  that  species  from  slightly  less  than 
two-thirds  of  to  fully  the  width  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint,  as  discussed  in 
the  specific  treatment. 

^  This  usually  very  constant  character  shows  a  decided  variability  in  C. 
ictus;  one  series  from  the  state  of  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  including  specimens  in 
which  the  fastigium  of  the  vertex  is  but  two-thirds  as  wide  as  the  proximal 
antennal  joint.  In  consequence  this  variation  is  important  in  determining 
material  from  thai  region  and  must  not  be  overk)oked. 


KEHN    AND    HEBARD  231 

II.  Form  very  robust  and  truncate.  Convex  callosity  of 
lateral  lobes  moderately  broad.  Distal  portion  of  abdomen, 
including  cerei,  tawny.  Cerci  similar  to  those  of  cinereus. 
Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora  bearing  normally 
two  and  three  spines.'^  ictus  (Scudder) 

GG.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  more  strongly  produced  and 
distinctly  curved  outward,  the  depression  of  the  same  being  more 
decided  on  the  inner  side.  (Form  very  robust.  Fastigium  of 
vertex  strongly  ascending,  greatest  width  slightly  less  than  one- 
half  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Eyes  large  and  protruding. 
Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  exceedingly  narrow.  Abdomen, 
including  cerci,  mahogany  red.  Ventro-external  margins  of 
caudal  femora  bearing  normally  three  and  four  spines.' 

angustifrons  (Redtenbacher) 
FF.  Tympanum  of  tegmina  unusually  elongate.  Convex  callosity 
of  lateral  lobes  very  broad.     Vertex  distinctly  produced.* 

G.  Coloration  not  unusually  brilliant;  dorsum  of  abdomen 
narrowly,  but  usually  strikingly,  trifasciate.  Cerci  normally 
green,  of  similar  type  to  those  of  fasciatus  but  distinctly  more 
elongate  and  attenuate,  with  distal  portion  very  strongly  de- 
pressed (as  in  C.  gracillimus).  Ventro-external  margins  of 
caudal  femora  sometimes  unarmed,  sometimes  supplied  with 
one  to  three  spines.  insularis  (Morse) 

GG.  Coloration  unusually  brilliant;  wings  iridescent;  dorsum 
of  abdomen  broadly,  but  not  strikingly,  trifasciate.  Cerci 
burnt  lake,  slightly  longer  than  in  fasciatus,  distal  portion  weakly 
but  distinctly  curved  outward,  with  broadly  rounded  apex 
briefly  but  strongly  depressed.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal 
femora  unarmed.  iriodes  new  species 

EE.  Cerci  with  distal  portion  very  greatly  produced,  very  elongate 
and  attenuate,  very  weakly  depressed  distad,  with  apex  strongly 
acuminate.  (Fastigium  of  vertex  about  one  and  one-half  times 
width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callositj^  of  lateral  lobes 
very  broad.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  normally  infuscated,  cerci  dark. 
Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed.)         strictus  (Hcudder) 

^  A  number  of  specimens  from  the  state  of  \'era  Cruz,  Mexico,  have  the 
ventral  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  unarmed,  but  are  otherwise  typical  of 
smaller  individuals  of  the  species,  as  are  the  spechnens  showing  the  variation 
remarked  in  the  preceding  foot-note. 

'  In  this  species  the  armament  of  the  ventral  margins  of  the  cephalic  and 
median  tibiae  is  decidedly  unusual,  in  every  specimen  before  us  at  least  one  of 
these  margins  bears  seven,  instead  of  six,  spines. 

8  As  in  C.  gracillimus,  which  has  the  vertex  even  more  distinctly  produced, 
the  occiput  ascends  evenly  toward  the  vertex,  the  vertex  ascending  slightly 
more  decidedly  but  very  nearly  in  the  same  plane. 

TRANS.  AM.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


232      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

DD.  Cerci  with  mesal  portion  contrastingly  swollen. 

E.  Form  moderately  slender.  Vertex  not  strongly  but  distinctly 
ascending,  fastigium  of  vertex  two-thirds  width  of  proximal  antennal 
joint.  Eyes  moderately  large.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
moderately  broad.  Abdomen  immaculate,  with  distal  portion,  in- 
cluding cerci,  pale  yellow  brown.  Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal 
femora  armed  with  four  to  six  spines.  unicolor  Bruner 

EE.  Form  very  slender,  distinctly  attenuate.  Vertex  not  ascending, 
fastigium  of  vertex  slightly  wider  than  proximal  antennal  joint. 
Eyes  normal.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very  broad.  Abdo- 
men immaculate  with  distal  portion,  including  cerci,  pale  yellowish. 
Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed. 

resacensis  Ilehn  and  Hebard 
CC.  Cerci  armed  with  a  more  delicate  ventral  (vertical)  tooth  so  that  its 
base  and  often  the  greater  portion  is  concealed  from  above,  mesal  portion 
of  cercus  very  contrastingly  swollen,  tooth  situated  at  proximal  base  of 
this  swelling,  (distal  portion  of  cercus  greatly  depressed). 
D.  Coloration  not  unusually  brilliant  or  distinctive. 

E.  Fastigium  of  vertex  slightly  less  to  slightly  more  than  one-half 
width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
moderately  broad.  Ventro-internal  margins  of  caudal  femora  armed. 
Discoidal  and  anal  fields  of  tegmina,  and  adjacent  portion  of  wings 
when  at  rest,  distinctly  darkened.  (Swollen  mesal  portion  of  cercus 
with  section  above  tooth  produced  overhanging  and  rather  sharply 
rounded,  distal  portion  elongate,  very  strongly  depressed,  particularly 
on  inner  side.  Form  moderately  slender.  Eyes  moderately  large. 
Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora  armed  normally  with 
four  and  four  spines.  Wings  iridescent.)  equatorialis  (Giglio-Tos) 
EE.  Fastigium  of  vertex  broader.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
very  narrow.  Ventro-internal  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed. 
Discoidal  and  anal  fields  of  tegmina,  and  adjacent  portion  of  wings, 
when  at  rest,  not  darkened. 

F.  Cerci  of  same  type  as  in  equatorialis  but  decidedly  elongate, 
varying  in  production  and  outward  curvature  of  distal  portion  to 
very  elongate.  Form  moderately  slender  to  moderately  robust. 
Eyes  moderately  large.  Fastigium  of  vertex  slightly  less  than,  to 
fully  two-thirds  as  broad  as  proximal  antennal  joint.  Ventro- 
external  margins  of  caudal  femora  armed  normally  with  two  and 
three  spines.^    (Wings  somewhat  iridescent.)      saltator  (Saussurc) 

^  In  five  specimens  from  the  large  series  from  Trinidad  and  Venezuela,  these 
margins  are  unarmed ;  in  four  specimens  from  considerable  series  from  Domin- 
ica and  Trinidad,  the  cephalic  and  meilian  tibiae  have  the  ventro-cei)halic 
margins  armed  with  seven,  instead  of  the  normal  six,  spines.  The  jiresent 
species  is  the  most  abundant  and  the  most  variable  over  the  greater  portion 
of  South  America,  and  material  nmst  be  studied  from  every  aspect  if  accurate 
results  are  to  be  obtained. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  233 

FF.  Cerci?i°  Form  decidedly  robust.  Eyes  distinctly  larger. 
Fastigium  of  vertex  slightly  less  than  two-thirds  as  broad  as  prox- 
imal antennal  joint.''  Ventro -external  margins  of  caudal  femora 
armed  with  four  to  five  spines.  borelli  (Giglio-Tos) 

DD.  Coloration  unusually  brilliant  and  distinctive.  (Form  moderately 
robust.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes  very  narrow.  Cereal  tooth 
dii'ected  strongly  meso-proximad. 

E.  Caudal  femora  with  ventral  margins  unarmed.  Abdomen  not 
unusually  colored.  (Fastigium  of  vertex  one-half  width  of  proximal 
antennal  joint.  Apex  of  tegmina  broadly  rounded,  truncate. 
Distal  portion  of  cercus  shorter  than  in  versicolor,  lateral  margins 
converging  to  the  acute  apex.)  truncatus  (Redtenbacher) 

EE.  Caudal  femora  with  ventro-external  margins  armed.  Abdomen 
conspicuously  and  remarkably  colored. 

F.  Fastigium  of  vertex  one-half  width  of  proximal  antennal  joint. 
Apex  of  tegmina  (in  brachypterous  condition  as  well)  sharjjly 
rounded.  Distal  portion  of  cercus  elongate  with  lateral  margins 
weakly  irregular  but  converging  very  gently  and  evenly  to  the 
rather  sharply  rounded  apex.  Caudal  femora  with  ventro-external 
margins  armed  with  three  to  five  spines. 

versicolor  (Redtenbacher) 
FF.  Fastigium  of  vertex  narrow  but  about  two-thirds  width  of 
proximal  antennal  joint.  Apex  of  tegmina  broadly  rounded,  trun- 
cate. Mesal  swollen  portion  of  cercus  more  ample  and  decidedly 
more  elongate  than  in  versicolor,  distal  portion  broad  and  elongate, 
with  lateral  margins  arcuato-convergent  distad  to  the  very  sharply 
rounded  apex,  thus  forming  a  very  narrow  got  hie  arch. 
Ventro-external  margins  of  caudal  femora  armed  with  five  to  eight 
spines.  ochrotelus  new  species 

AA.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  five  spurs,  the  interno- 
dorsal  spur  being  absent.  (Cephalic  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  six  well 
spaced  spines.     Male  subgenital  plate  as  in  Xiphidiott.) 

(Subgenus  Perissacanthus) 
(Form  very  slender.  Vertex  strongly  produced,  not  ascending,  fastigium  of 
vertex  slightly  more  than  one-half  width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Eyes 
rather  small  for  South  American  species.  Convex  callosity  of  lateral  lobes 
rather  narrow.  Apex  of  tegmina  broadly  rounded,  truncate.  Cerci  suggesting 
type  found  in  group  I  of  Xiphidion,  but  distinctive  in  the  characters  given  in 
the  specific  discussion.     Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora  unarmed.) 

strictoides  (Caudell) 

'"  Though  we  have  no  males  of  this  species  before  us,  we  arc  convinced, 
from  the  original  description  and  the  evident  close  relationship  shown  by  the 
females,  that  males  of  the  species  have  cerci  agreeing  at  least  in  general  form 
with  those  of  C.  saltalor. 

'1  Distinctly  narrower  than  in  material  of  C.  salkdor  where  the  ranges  of  the 
two  coincide. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.   SOC,  XLI. 


234      STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

AAA.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremity  with  one  pair  of  spurs,  the 
dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  of  spurs  being  absent.  (Agreeing  with  Anarthropus 
in  this  respect,  but  differing  in  the  armed  prosternum  and  annament  of  the 
cephalic  and  median  tibiae,  the  ventral  margins  of  which  are  armed  with  seven 
to  eight  well  spaced  spines.)  (Subgenus  Aphauropus) 

(Form  robust.  Vertex  not  decidedly  produced,  not  ascending,  fastigium  of 
vertex  two-thirds  width  of  proximal  antennal  joint.  Convex  callosity  of 
lateral  lobes  exceedingly  broad.  Tegmina  greatly  aborted  and  whollj-  con- 
cealed by  pronotum,  wings  absent.  Ventral  margins  of  caudal  femora 
unarmed.)  leptopterus  new  species 

In  the  above  key  it  must  be  noted  that  only  the  usually  most 
useful  and  also  the  most  distinctive  characters  are  given;  in 
numerous  cases  material  can  only  be  determined  properly  through 
careful  consideration  of  all  the  specific  details  which  are  given, 
as  far  as  we  are  able,  in  the  specific  treatment.  The  figures  are 
of  great  importance  in  showing  frequently  complicated  differences 
very  difficult  to  describe  clearly,  and  also  degrees  of  difference, 
while  for  females  only  characters  common  to  both  sexes  will  be 
found  in  the  above  key,  the  characters  peculiar  to  that  sex  being 
discussed  in  the  specific  treatment,  shown  by  figures,  and  tabu- 
lated in  part  on  pages  237  to  239. 

Many  species  have  individual  characters  of  decided  value, 
which  in  a  key  would  be  cumbersome  and  confusing.  Some  of 
these  are:  the  depth  of  the  fastigium  of  the  vertex  and  the  form 
of  its  lateral  margins,  the  shape  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pro- 
notum and  the  humeral  sinus,  the  minor  specific  differences  of  the 
male  tegminal  tympanum,  the  spination  of  the  genicular  lobes 
of  the  caudal  femora  and  the  coloration  of  the  genicular  areas  of 
the  same,  the  general  though  obscure  pattern  of  coloration  in 
species  not  strikingly  marked  and  the  length  of  the  styles  of  the 
subgenital  plate. 

Extremely  slight  variations  are  found  which  cannot  be  wholly 
overlooked,  but  which  can  hardly  be  considered  in  the  treat- 
ment of  each  species  without  giving  them  undue  emphasis. 
Such  is  the  fact,  only  determinable  after  examination  of  large 
series,  that  in  species  having  both  macropterous  and  brachyp- 
terous  forms,  the  latter  type  is  almost  always  accompanied  bj^  a 
slight  pronotal  change,  the  dorsum  of  the  pronotum  being  usually 
slightly  less  produced  caudad,  with  a  proportionate  reduction 
in  the  depth  of  the  humeral  sinus  and  the  caudal  margin  of  the 
lateral  lobes  becoming  slightly  less  sinuous  than  in  the  macrop- 
terous condition. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  235 

We  have  observed  that  the  antennal  length  is  decidedly  greater 
in  some  species  than  in  others,  but  accurate  measurements  of 
the  same  are  very  difficult  and  these  delicate  organs  are  found  to 
be  incomplete  in  so  many  cases  that  we  have  deemed  it  best  to 
omit  discussions  of  the  same. 

Efforts  to  include  all  the  known  species  in  the  keys  of  Redten- 
bacher/-  Saussure  and  Pictet/^  Karny"  and  Bruner'-^  without 
having  material  of  many  of  the  species  for  examination,  com- 
bined with  the  employment  of  such  usually  worthless  characters 
xis  tegminal  and  ovipositor  length — given  with  scarcely  any  re- 
gard to  the  extremes  of  variation  and  in  complete  disregard  of 
the  probabilit}'  of  macropterism  and  brachypterism  appearing  in 
the  same  species — has  made  these  keys  virtually  worthless  and  in 
many  cases  misleading  in  the  extreme. 

The  following  described  species  do  not  appear  to  he  included  in 
the  material  before  us.  In  future  studies  with  the  present  paper 
they  must  be  carefully  considered,  but  at  present  we  feel  only 
justified  in  giving  the  following  brief  remarks  resulting  from  study 
of  the  various  original  descriptions  and  in  tabulating  these  species 
from  the  same  source  as  far  as  possible  on  pages  238  and  239. 

caizanum 

1897.     [Xiphidium]  caizanum  Giglio-Tos,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  comp.  Univ- 
Torino,  xii,  no.  302,  p.  42.     [1  cf  :  Caiza,  Ecuador.] 

The  form  of  the  cerci  and  subgenital  plate  is  apparentl}^  differ- 
ent from  any  other  known  American  species.  The  species  very 
possibly  belongs  to  an  undescribed  subgenus,  apparently  between 
the  subgenera  DiceUura  and  Xiphidion. 

exitiosum 

1901.     Xiphidium  exitiosum   McNeill,   Proc.   Wash.   Acad.    Sci.,   iii,   p.   501, 
fig.  42.     [2  cf ,  3  9  ,  3  juv.:  Indefatigable  Island,  Galapagos  Islands.) 

This  species  is  so  poorly  described  and  the  rough  sketchy  out- 
line figure  of  the  female  so  unsatisfactory,  that  we  can  Init  state 
that  the  species  may  be  related  to  C.  cincrcus. 

•2  Verb.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  Gesell,  W'ieii,  .\li,  pp.  49.')-499,  (1891). 
"  Biol.  Cent.-Amer.,  Orth.  i,  pi).  396-397,  (1S9S). 
"  Abh.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  Gesell.  Wien,  xli,  pp.  85-94,  (1907). 
'5  Ann.  Carneg.  Mus.,  i.x,  pp.  372-374,  (June  1815). 

TRANS.   AM.   ENT.  SOC,   XLI. 


236      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

resinum 

1898.     Xiphidium  resinum  Saussure  and  Pictet,  Biol.  Cent.-Amer.,  Orth.,  ir 
p.  398,  pi.  xi.v,  fig.s.  26,  27.     [1  c? :  Orizaba,  Mexico.] 

The  brief  and  very  unsatisfactory  description,  accompanied 
by  good  figures  of  the  vertex,  affords  insufficient  evidence  for  the 
proper  placing  of  the  species.  It  ma}'  be  very  near  C.  angusti- 
frons,  or  instead  aUied  to  C.  gracillimus.  The  characters  given 
agree  with  avgustifrons  excepting  that  the  vertex  is  more  pro- 
duced, the  specimen  is  strongly  macropterous  and  the  caudal 
femora  have,  we  are  led  to  suppose,  the  ventral  margins  unarmed. 
The  vertex  is  decidedly  too  narrow  for  graciUimus.  The  species 
with  which  it  is  compared,  unispina,  is  a  member  of  the  genus 
Orchelimum. 

doryphorum 

1907.     Xiphidion  doryphorum  Karny,  Abh.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  Gesell.  Wien,  iv, 
p.  96.     [1    9  :  Uruguay.] 

This  diminutive  species  may  be  very  closely  allied  to  C.  stric- 
toides.  The  strongly  oblique  caudal  margin  of  the  lateral  lobes 
of  the  pronotum  and  different  measurements  indicate  that  it  is 
distinct.  Length:  body  9,  pronotum  3.3,  tegmen  0.3,  caudal 
femur  9.7,  ovipositor  11  mm. 

aberrans 

1901.     Xiphidium  aberrans  Redtenbacher,  Verh.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  Gesell.  Wien, 
xli,  p.  516.     [More  than  one  9  :  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Brazil.] 

The  nine  to  ten  spines  of  the  ventral  margins  of  the  cephalic 
tibiae  would  apparently  place  this  species  in  a  different  subgenus 
from  any  of  those  known  from  America.  The  fastigium  of  the 
vertex  is  narrow;  the  caudal  margin  of  the  lateral  lobes  is  dis- 
tinctly sinuate,  the  convex  callosity  oval  and  distinct. 

Of  the  species  previously  referred  to  this  genus  or  its  synonyms 
from  North  America,  Xiphidium  imispina  is  known  to  be  a 
member  of  the  genus  Orchelimum}^  We  must  also  bear  in 
mind  that  the  genus  Conocephalus  of  authors  has  applied  until 
recently,  not  to  the  present  forms,  but  to  those  American  species 
which  n>ust  now  be  placed  in  the  genera  Neoconocephalus  and 
Homocoryphus. 

"^  Viile  Rehn  and  Mcbard,  Trans.  Amer.  Entom.  Soc,  xli,  p.  81,  (191.5). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  237 

We  give  below  in  tabular  form  the  extremes  found  in  species 
in  tegminal  and  ovipositor  length  (in  millimeters),  and  have  also 
stated  the  general  form  of  the  ovipositor  and  the  results  obtained 
from  counting  the  spines  of  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the 
caudal  femora.  The  normal  counts  for  these  spines  give  the 
number  for  each  limb  individually,  the  extremes  are  based  on 
single  limbs. 

Tegmina  ^   •       •,  Spines  of  ventro- 

Macropterous  Brachypterous    "^''Po^'to''  external  margins 

ot  raudal  femora 

lorigipes  d'     15.. 3-20. 9      straight.  normally  2  and  3. 

9      16.9-23.3      7.4-9.8"  extremes  1  to  5. 

vitlicoUis  o"     12.8-19.8      straight.  none. 

?      14.6-20.7     7.6-10.2 

cinereus  cf     20.9  ranging  to  8'^  straight.  normally  0. 

9      19.8  ranging  to  9  7-11.2  U%  1  to  2 

f.  fasciatus  o^      11.7-19,3      straight.  normally  0. 

9      10-21 .1         7-9.9  13%  1  tO  3. 

/.  idcin us  d"     16.4-18.7     9 . 9-1 3 . 1  ^ ^    st raight .  normally  0 . 

9      15.6-18.5     10.6-13.9     7.5-13  4%ltj2. 

ictus  d     15.2-19.9     6-9.3-0  straight.  normally  2  and  3. 

9      19.1  4.8-10.1       9.3-13.9  14%  0. 

extremes  0  to  7. 
spinosus  cf      14.3-21 .1      very  weakly      normally  3  and  4. 

9      16.2-22.8      curved,  extremes  2  to  6. 

broader. 
7-10.1 

insularis  cf      18.6  ranging  to -^  9. 1        straight.  normally  0  and  1. 

9      19.3  ranging  to  11.3        8.9-10.1  417o  0. 

extremes  0  to  3. 

"^  Our  measurements  are  taken  from  the  base  of  the  basal  i)lica  to  the  ai)ex 
of  the  ovipositor.  Redtenbacher  gives  10.2  mm.  for  the  maximum  ovipositor 
length  of  this  species,  measuring  probably  from  the  juncture  of  the  subgenital 
plate  and  ovipositor;  this  measurement  is  not  constant,  due  to  the  mobility 
of  the  subgenital  plate,  and  would  frequently  exceed  the  dimension  given  by 
us  by  about  .4  mm. 

'5  In  this  species  the  intergradation  between  the  extremes  of  the  macrop- 
terous and  semi-macropterous  condition  is  gradual,  and  mnnerons  intermed- 
iate specimens  are  before  us. 

'^  No  truly  brachypterous  form  occurs  in  this  geographic  race,  the  material 
treated  in  this  column  being  more  accuratelj'  termed  senii-maciopterous. 

-"Tegminal  length  of  one  intermediate  male  11.4  mm.,  and  of  one  inter- 
mediate female  13.9  mm.  This  is  the  only  American  species  known  to  us  in 
which  intermediates  are  found,  though  rarely,  between  a  strongly  macrop- 
terous and  a  strongly  brachypterous  condition. 

^' As  in  cinereus,  the  intergradation  between  the  extremes  of  the  macrop- 
terous and  semi-macropterous  condition  is  gradual. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


238     STUDIES    IN   AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


Macropterous  Brachypterous         Ovipositor 

iriodes  cf  15.2-16.4      nearly  straight. 

9  16.2-19.3     7.3-7.9 

angusLifrons        d"  8.2-9.4         nearly  straight. 

9  15.9  6.5-8.7         8-10 

resacensis*         cP  7.1-8.8         straight. 

9  5.6-6  15.2-15.6 

unicolor*  cf  17  nearly  straight. 

9  18.4-18.9     14.7-16.4 

stridus  d"  15.7-17.8     5.1-7.3         nearly  straight. 

9  15.4-22         2.8-5.8         17.7-32.3 

equatorialis        o"  17.3-19.6     12.2-14.6     nearly  straight  . 

9  18.1-19.5     1P2-1522       7.2-9.9« 

saltator  &  15-20.4         5.8-8.8         weakly  curved 

9  16.7-21.3  3.3-6.1  to  nearly 
straight. 
8.4-14.9 

horelli*  &  4^2  distinctly 

9  2.5"-3,9      curved. 

7.82'-10.1 

truncatus  cf  5 . 2-5 . 8         weakly  but  dis- 

9  2.6-2.9         tinctly  curved. 

8-8,9 

versicolor*  cf  19"  5.5-^-7.6      nearly  straight. 

9  20.3-22=^      626-726  925_i3 

ochrotelus**        d"  4.9  and  5.2^6 

9  ? 

strictoides*         &  7.6-7.9         nearly  straight. 

9  322-3.522       21.1-2422 

leptopterus**      cf  nearly  straight. 

9  concealed.     30. 1 

INCERTAE  SEDIS2": 

caizanum**       cT      "4"  ? 

9      

exitiosum  a'      "6"  "very  slightly 

curved." 

9      "8"  "12" 


Spines  of  ventro- 
external  margins 
of  caudal  femora 

none. 


normally  3  and  4. 
extremes  1  to  7. 
none. 

normally  4  and  5. 
extremes  4  to  6. 
none. 

normally  4  and  4. 
extremes  1  to  6. 
normally  2  and  3. 
-2%  0. 
extremes  0  to  6. 

normally  4  and  5. 
extremes  4  to  5. 


normally  4  and  4. 
extremes  3  to  5. 
extremes  5  to  8. 


"none." 


"none." 


22  This  measurement  is  taken  from  the  original  description. 

23  Though  the  extremes  of  the  series  before  us  are  as  given  here,  we  find  that 
a  length  of  over  8.  mm.  is  very  exceptional  in  the  present  species. 

2''  Giglio-Tos  gives  this  measurement  in  his  description  of  the  female  of  this 
species. 

26  Giglio-Tos   gives   this  measurement   m    his   original  description  of    the 
synonymous  fcsUic. 

2'''  In  this  unique  tyi)e  the  tegmina  are  not  of  ecjual  length. 

27  The  following  data  is  ((uoted  from  the  various  original  descriptions. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  239 

Tegmina  ^.    .       -^  Spines  of  ventro- 

Macropterous  Brachypterous         Ovipositor  external  margins 

of  caudal  femora 

resinum**  cf     "19"  ?  none      (by     infer- 

9      ence). 

aberrans*         _  cf      "subrectus."  "none." 

9      "17-20.5"     "8.5-9" 

doryphorum**    (^      "rectus."  "none." 

Q  ...      "0.3"  "11" 

In  the  species  marked  with  an  asterisk  not  sufficient  material 
is  known  to  give  the  probable  extremes  of  the  above  diinensions, 
those  marked  with  two  asterisks  are  known  from  the  unique 
types. 

In  the  known  females  of  the  species  here  considered,  the  ovi- 
positors of  all  range  from  scarcely  arcuate  to  straight  excepting 
in  C.  borelli  and  C.  truncatus,  and  in  C.  spinosus  the  arcuation  is 
nearly  as  pronounced  as  in  those  species,  accompanied  by  a  dis- 
tinctive shape. 

Comparison  with  an  analogous  chart -^  in  the  authors'  first 
paper  on  the  present  genus  shows,  that  in  tropical  America  fewer 
species  are  known  to  develop  both  macropterous  and  brachypter- 
ous conditions  than  in  the  United  States.  This  is  doubtless 
partially  due  to  the  fact  that  our  knowledge  of  the  tropical  species 
is  in  almost  every  case  more  limited.  In  future  time,  experi- 
mentation and  study  will  doubtless  bring  to  light  many  interest- 
ing factors  governing  the  development  and  relative  abundance 
of  the  macropterous  and  brachypterous  condition  in  the  species 
of  this  genus. 

Subgenus  Opeastylus^^  new  subgenus 

The  subgenus  includes  two  species,  both  from  temperate  and 
subtropical  South  America. 

Type  of  Subgenus — Conocephalus  I'itticoUis  [Locusta  vitticoUis] 
(Blanchard). 

Subgeneric  Description. — Prosternum  bispinose.  Subgcnital 
plate  of  male  very  strongly  and  sharply  produced  disto-laterad 
in  sharp  straight  spikes  which  are  weakly  divergent,  on  the  ven- 
tral surfaces  of  these  productions  are  situated  awl-like  styles, 

28  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xli,  p.  167,  (1915). 

25  From  67r£as=awl  and  (rTOXoj=a  pillar  (the  stj'les),  in  allusion  to  the 
awl-like  styles  of  the  male  subgenital  plate  in  the  species  of  the  subgenus. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


240      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

above  which  the  produced  portions  are  bent  suddenly  upAvard 
thence  again  horizontal,  their  apices  reaching  as  far  as  the 
extremity  of  the  enlarged  proximal  portion  of  the  styles;  between 
these  productions  the  distal  margin  of  the  plate  is  roundly  emar- 
ginate  at  an  angle  of  a  little  less  than  ninety  degrees.  Ventral 
margins  of  cephalic  and  median  femora  armed  with  six  well 
spaced  spines.  Caudal  tibiae  armed  at  distal  extremities  with 
three  pairs  of  spurs.     Size  medium  for  the  genus. 

Conocephalus  longipes  (Redtenbacher)  (PI.  XXII,  fig.  1;  XX,;  1,  2,  32 
and  33;   XXIV,  1.) 

1891.  Xiphidium  longipes  Redtenbacher,  Verh.  k.-k.  zool.-bot.  Gesell.  Wien, 
xli,  p.  505,  pi.  iv,  figs.  81  a  and  b.  [Buenos  Aires  [Argentina];  Montevideo 
[Uruguay];  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  and  Santa  Catharina  [Brazil].] 

The  present  insect  is  closely  related  to  C.  vitticolUs,  but  may 
be  readily  separated  by  the  narrow  fastigium  of  the  vertex, 
more  slender  form,  less  extensive  enlarged  portion  of  male  cerci 
overhanging  the  cereal  tooth,  somewhat  narrower  ovipositor  in 
the  female  and  armed  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora. 

Redtenbacher  has  given  a  portion  of  the  major  differences, 
but  has  misrepresented  others  in  his  brief  and  unsatisfactory 
original  description. 

Vertex  rather  decidedly  produced  for  the  genus.^"  Fastigium 
of  vertex  but  little  over  one-half  as  wide  as  proximal  antennal 
joint,  narrowing  with  a  distinct  but  weak  concavity  to  the  facial 
suture,  when  seen  from  front  distinctly  twice  as  deep  as  great- 
est width.  Eyes  small.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  of  moderate 
width,  cephalic  margin  weakly  arcuate,  with  scarcely  a  trace  of 
the  ventro-cephalic  angle,  to  the  broadly  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle  which  is  a  little  less  than  ninety  degrees,  caudal  margin 
weakly  arcuate  to  the  broad  and  distinct  humeral  sinus,  convex 
callosity  very  l)road.  Tegmina  long  and  slender, ^^  particularly 
toward  the  sharply  rounded  apex;  tympanal  field  of  males  rather 

'"  This  species  and  C  gracillimus  have  the  vertex  more  distinctly  produced 
than  in  any  other  American  forms  known  to  us,  and  agree  in  having  the  occiput 
ascending  evenly  toward  the  vertex  and  the  vertex  ascending  slightly  more 
decidedly  but  very  nearly  in  the  same  plane.  In  other  respects  the  two  si)ecies 
are  greatly  dissimilar. 

31  The  extremes  of  tegminal  length  for  this  and  the  o^^her  species  here  treated 
are  given  in  tubular  form  on  pages  237  to  239. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  241 

large  for  the  genus,  nearly  quadrate.  Male  cercus  moderately 
stout  and  rather  short;  with  a  long  slender  weakly  incurved 
ventral  tooth,  which  is  directed  weakly  proximo-ventrad,  situated 
just  distad  of  the  median  point;  above  this  tooth  the  shaft  of  the 
cercus  is  produced  in  an  overhanging  shelf,  which  extends  nearly 
two-thirds  the  distance  to  the  base  of  the  cercus  and  is  narrow 
but  evenly  rounded  in  outline;  beyond  the  tooth  the  shaft  of  the 
cercus  narrows  regularly  and  rapidly  to  the  sharply  rounded 
apex  and  is  somewhat  flattened  vertically  on  inner  side,  not 
depressed.  No  approach  toward  brachypterism  is  apparent,  the 
decided  amount  of  variation  in  tegminal  length  in  the  twenty- 
three  specimens  before  us  being  due  to  a  general  greater  or  lesser 
size  development,  which  in  this  series  we  believe  to  be  the  result 
of  local  environmental  conditions.  The  caudal  femora  vary 
similarly  in  length,  cf  11-12.8,  9  11.8-14.8  mm.;  the  genicular 
lobes  are  normally  bispinose;  the  genicular  areas  are  not  darkened; 
the  ventro-external  margins  are  armed  in  the  eighteen  perfect 
individuals  before  us  as  follows: 

Number  of  spines,  1-1  1-2     1-3  1-4     2-2     2-3     2-4 

Number  of  specimens,  2  13         12         11 

Number  of  spines,  3-3  3-4     3-5  4-5     5-5 

Number  of  specimens,  2  4         2         1         1 

The  dorsum  of  the  abdomen  bears  on  each  side  an  indistinct 
pale  yellowish  line. 

The  localities  represented  in  the  typical  series  and  the  material 
before  us  cover  the  entire  known  range  of  the  species.  The 
localities  represented  by  our  series  of  twenty-four  recorded  speci- 
mens are:  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  BraziP^-  Sapucay,  Paraguay;  Mis- 
iones,  Buenos  Aires,  Chacras  de  Coria  and  San  Ignacio,  Province 
of  Mendoza,  Argentina.  We  have  but  three  unrecorded  speci- 
mens of  the  insect. 

Puerto  Camera,  Alto  Parand.  Paraguay,  XII.  9,  19i:3.  (C.  Schrottkv),  1    9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.]. 
Carcarana,  Santa  Fe,  Argentina,  1  cf ,  1   9 ,  [.\.  N.  8.  P.]. 

^-  Two  females  before  us  from  this  locality  are  paratypes,  sent  to  the  .-\cad- 
emy  of  Natural  Sciences  by  Saussure. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 
16 


242      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Conocephalus  vitticoUis   (Blanchard)   (PI.  XXII,  fig.  2;  XXIII,  3  and  4; 

XXIV,  2.) 
1851.    Locusta  vitticoUis  Blanchard,  in  Gay,  Hist,  fisica  polit.  Chile,  ZooL,  vi,  p. 

46,  Orth.  pi.  II,  figs.  5,  a  and  b.     [Coquimbo  Province,  Chile.] 

This  species,  which  replaces  C.  longipes  in  Chile,  is  a  closely 
related  form,  but  readily  separable  by  the  characters  given  under 
that  species. 

Vertex  not  as  much  produced  as  in  longi/pes  and  accordingly 
slightly  less  ascending.  Fastigium  of  vertex  over  two-thirds 
width  of  proximal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  distinct 
concavity  to  facial  suture,  when  seen  from  front  about  one  and  two- 
thirds  times  as  deep  as  greatest  width.  Eyes  moderately  large. 
Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  similar  to  those  of  longipes  excepting 
that  they  are  distinctly  broader  and  the  ventro-cephalic  angle  is 
noticeable  as  a  very  broadly  rounded  obtuse-angulation,  convex 
callosity  exceedingly  broad.  Tegmina  proportionately  shorter 
than  in  longipes,  becoming  extremely  slender  distad  toward  the 
sharply  rounded  apex;  tympanal  field  of  males  as  in  longipes. 
Male  cerci  much  as  in  longipes  but  proportionately  shorter  and 
more  compact,  with  portion  overhanging  tooth  thicker  and  ex- 
tending a  full  two-thirds  of  the  distance  to  the  base  of  the  cercus. 
No  approach  toward  brachypterism  is  apparent  though  the 
measurements^^  show  decided  variability  due  to  a  general  greater 
or  lesser  size  development^^;  the  proportionate  tegminal  length 
when  compared  with  that  of  longipes  is  distinctly  less  than  in  that 
species.  The  caudal  femora  vary  similarly  in  length,  cT  10.7- 
14.3,  9  12.9-15.6  mm.;  the  genicular  lobes  are  normally  bi- 
spinose;  the  genicular  areas  are  not  darkened  ^^;  the  ventral  mar- 
gins are  unarmed.  The  dorsum  of  the  abdomen  is  frequently 
infuscated  in  the  present  species  and  in  such  material  the  narrow 
lateral  yellowish  lines,  found  weakly  indicated  in  longipes,  are 
very  striking. 

33  Vide  page  237. 

3*  The  large  series  from  El  Olivar,  Chile,  averages  very  decidedly  larger  than 
any  of  the  other  specimens  before  us.  A  warmer  and  more  humid  environ- 
ment accompanied  by  more;  luxuriant  vegc^tation  ap])arently  ])rodu('('s  a  de- 
cided size  increase  in  many  s])('cies  of  Orthoptera. 

35  In  some,  more  richly  colored  specimens  of  this  and  other  species,  the  tissue 
in  drying  is  found  to  settle  to  a  certain  extent  in  th(>se  areas,  and  careful  exam- 
ination is  sometimes  necessary  to  detect  the  fact  that  such  (iarkeuing  is  due 
to  discoloration. 


EEHN    AND    HEBARD  243 

The  species  is  known  only  from  Chile,  from  the  province  of 
Coquimbo  southward  to  Valdivia.  The  Andes  undoubtedly 
separate  its  distril:)ution  from  that  of  longipes. 

Specimens  Examiticd:  (5();  22  males,  12  females,  10  immature  males  and  22 
immature  females. 

El  Olivar,  Colchagua,  Chile,  1,  1»H)5,  (C.  8.  Reed),  19  d",!  9,  10  juv.  cf, 
22  juv.  9,  [A.  N.  8.  P.]. 

Penco,  Concepcion,  Chile,  II,  1904,  (C.  S.  Reed),  1   9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Concepcion,  Concepcion,  Chile,  II,  10,  1904,  (C.  8.  Reed),  1  a",  [A.  X.  8.  P.]. 

Hualqui,  Concepcion,  Chile,  II,  25,  1904,  (C.  8.  Reed),  2   9  ,  [A.  X.  8.  P.]. 

Coronel,  Concepcion,  Chile,  I,  1904,  (C.  S.  Reed),  1  d",  1   9  ,  [A.  X.  8.  P.]. 

Lota,  Concepcion,  Chile,  I,  1904,  (C.  S.  Reed),  1   9,  [A.  X.  8.  PJ. 

8ubgenus  Xiphidion  8erville 
1S31.     Xiphidiim  8erville,  Ann.  8ci.  X"at.,  xxii,  p.  159. 
1912.     XipltvlioH  Karny,  Cen.  Ins.,  fasc.  135,  Subfam.  Conocephalinae,  {).  8. 

Conocephalus  cinereus  Thunberg  (PI.  XXII,  fig.  12;  XXIII,  5  and  6.) 

1.S15.     C[oiu)C(jjli.(tlu.s]  cinereus  Thunberg,  Mem.  Acad.  Imp.  8ci.  8t.  Pet.ers- 

bourg,  V,  ]).  273.     [Jamaica.] 
1S74.     Orchelimnm  ortnni  8cud(ler,  Proc.  Bost.  8oc.  X'^at.  Hist.,  wii,  p.  265. 

[Peruvian  IMaran  )n.] 

Thunberg's  description  is  very  brief  and  unsatisfactory,  but 
recent  collections  made  in  Jamaica  have  enabled  us  to  place  this 
species  beyond  question. 

Constant  misconception  of  C/a.sc/a<;/.s' has,  however,  resulted 
in  the  present  insect  being  recorded  as  that  species  many  times, 
by  Burmeister,  Gundlach,  Redtenbacher,  Griffini,  Saussure  and 
Pictet,  Karn}',  Morse  and  Rehn,  while  semi-brachypterous  indi- 
viduals from  Cuba  have  been  recorded  as  hrevipennis  by  Bolivar 
and  Gundlach,  and  from  Cuba,  Jamaica  and  the  Bahamas  by 
Rehn.  To  these  mistakes  have  been  added  misidentifications 
as  snltator  by  Redtenbacher,  Brunner  and  Saussure  and  Pictet 
and  as  fasciatum  variety  saltator  by  Griffini.  All  of  these  difficul- 
ties were  due  to  the  then  universally  supposed  importance  of  teg- 
minal  length  and  complete  disregard  of  the  not  as  readily  observed 
male  genitalic  characters,  the  form  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the 
pronotum  and  the  color  pattern  in  both  sexes. 

Examination  of  the  type  of  Scudder's  Orchelimum  ortoni  proves 
that  it  is  an  absolute  synonym  of  the  present  species,  based  upon 
a  unique  dried-alcoholic  female  in  the  macropterous  condition. 

The  present  insect  is  related  to  C.  fasciatus,  differing  from  that 

TR.'VNS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


244      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

species  mainly  in  the  somewhat  more  robust  form;  larger  and 
more  prominent  eyes;  broader  and  differently  shaped  lateral 
iobes  of  the  pronotum;  immaculate  abdomen,  the  distal  half  of 
which  in  males  of  cinereus  is  uniform  and  striking  yellow  in  life 
(in  various  specimens  varying  in  shade  from  cadmium  to  capu- 
cine  yellow),  and  in  the  male  cerci  being  more  elongate  with  the 
distal  portion  decidedly  depressed  and  lateral  margins  of  same 
distinctly  converging  (this  more  noticeable  as  the  distal  portion 
is  decidedly  more  elongate  than  in  fasciatus) ,  and  with  the  apex 
more  narrowly  but  still  broadly  rounded.  The  male  cerci  are  con- 
colorous  with  the  distal  portion  of  the  abdomen  in  this  species; 
in  fasciatus  they  are  green  unless  discolored  in  drying. 

Vertex  not  strongly  but  distinctly  ascending.  Fastigium  of 
vertex  normally  about  two-thirds,  varying  occasionally  from  less 
than  two-thirds  to  fully  the  width  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint, 
narrowing  with  a  distinct  but  very  weak  concavity  to  facial 
suture,  when  seen  from  front  about  one  and  one-half  times  as 
deep  as  greatest  width.  Eyes  moderately  large  and  prominent. 
Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  broader  than  in  fasciatus,  cephalic  mar- 
gin moderately  oblique  and  nearly  straight  to  the  broadly  rounded 
obtuse-angulate  ventro-cephalic  angle,  thence  nearly  straight  to 
the  sharply  rounded  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  distinctly  less 
than  ninety  degrees,  caudal  margin  weakly  sinuous,  nearly 
straight  to  the  shallow  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  very  nar- 
row. Tegmina  macropterous,  varying  to  a  semi-brachypterous 
condition  in  all  large  series  from  various  portions  of  the  range  of 
the  species,  apex  of  tegmina  always  sharply  rounded.  Male  cerci 
as  described  above.  The  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are 
normally  bispinose^'^;  the  genicular  areas  are  not  darkened;  but 
sixteen  of  a  series  of  over  one  hundred  perfect  specimens  before  us 
have  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  armed  as 
follows: 

Number  of  spines,  0-1       0-2       1-1       1-2      2-2      2-3 

Number  of  specimens,"  6  16  111 

3^  As  in  almost  all  of  the  species  showing  this  condition,  rare  individuals  are 
found  having  one,  two  or  three  of  these  lobes  unispinose,  and  very  rarely  this 
is  tnie  for  all  four  of  the  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femoru.  In  species 
having  these  lobes  normally  unispinose,  a  bispinose  condition  of  even  one  or 
two  of  the  lobes  is  very  rarely  found. 

''From  the  Bahamas,  one"  .Jamaica,  five;  Costa  Rica,  one;  Panama,  one; 
Venezuela,  one;  FlViich  (!uian;i,  two;  Peru,  five  (of  six  before  us.)- 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  245 

In  females  the  yellow  area  of  the  distal  portion  of  the  abdo- 
men is  reduced  in  size  and  decidedly  less  brilliant  than  in  males. 

The  specimens  from  Puntarenas,  and  Rio  Grande,  Costa  Rica, 
have  the  vertex  unusually  narrow,  appreciably  less  than  two- 
thirds  the  width  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint;  a  number  of 
specimens  have  the  vertex  decidedly  wider  than  usual,  and  the 
specimens  from  St.  Thomas,  West  Indies,  and  Medellin,  Mexico, 
have  this  width  fully  equal  to  that  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint. 
In  spite  of  such  variation  in  this  and  a  few  other  species,  the 
character  may  be  said  to  be  on  the  whole  of  considerable  diag- 
nostic value,  particularly  when  considered  in  conjunction  with 
other  important  characters.  No  single  characters  may  be  relied 
upon  for  specific  determinations  in  the  present  genus  without 
disastrous  results. 

Measiiretncnts  {in.  iiiilliiudcrs)  of  extremes 

Length  of  tecmen  Length  of  raudal  femur  Length  of 

ovipositor 

o"^  9.0'  9 

Havana.  Cuba      10.9-17.3  11.1-19.7  10.1-12.9  10.9-14.3         S-10.7 

Montego    Bay, 

Jamaica...       9.4-17.1  9-17.1  9.2-12.1  9.9-12.3          7-9.2 

Costa  Rica. ...      13 . 9-19 . 2  12 . 3-lS .6  12 . 2-13 . 2  12 . 7-13 .2       9.1-9.7 

Ancon,  Panama     14.9-18.7  15.7-19.8  13-13.4  13.6-14.4     10.1-11.2 

La  Pedrita,  Ven- 
ezuela             13- U).  9  1.1. 7-16.9  12-12  2  12.7-13.1       8.S-8.9 

Cayeime,  French 

Cuiana     ...          17.2  19.4  13.2  14.0               10.1 

Ea.'^tern  Peru  .        19-20.9  19.1  13. 3-1."). 4  14.7                 9  4 

At  Montego  Bay,  Jamaica,  a  series  was  taken  in  sliort  grass 
along  the  Montego  River — these  specimens  are  distinctly  depaup- 
erate; specimens  taken  in  areas  of  heavier  grass  near  the  jungle 
at  the  same  locality'  are  of  normal  size.  Observation  of  the 
species  elsewhere  in  the  field  in  Jamaica  and  Panama,  convinces 
us  that  the  considerable  variation  in  size  and  tegminal  length  is 
due  chiefly  to  immediate  environment;  local  luxuriance  of  vc^ge- 
tation  appears  to  be  usually  accompanied  by  local  aggrandize- 
ment of  individuals  of  the  species  of  this  and  many  oiher  genera 
of  Orthoptera. 

The  present  insect  is  known  from  the  Bahamas,  Cuba,  Haj'ti, 
Porto  Rico  and  adjacent  smaller  islands,  Jamaica,  continental 
America  from  A'era  Cruz,  Mexico,  southward  through  Costa  Rica 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


246      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

and  Panama  to  northern  South  America,  where  it  is  known  south- 
eastward as  far  as  Cayenne,  French  Guiana,  and  southwestward 
as  far  as  Contamano,  Peru.  It  is  the  dominant  species  of  the 
genus  only  in  the  Bahamas,  Greater  Antilles  and  northernmost 
Lesser  Antilles. 

In  the  present  instance,  we  have  included  below  material 
previously  misidentified  and  now  before  us,  to  assist  in  future 
distributional  and  other  studies. 

Specimens  Examined:  200;  104  males,  77  females,  6  immature  males  and  13 
immature  females. 

Nassau,  New  Providence  Island,  Bahamas,  I,  31,  190-4,  (Hebard;  in  short 
grass),  2  cf ,  2  9  ,^«  [Hebard  Cln.];  VI,  28,  1904,  (G.  M.  Allen),  1  cf,  1  9," 
[M.  C.  Z.],  (aU  semi-macr.).4o 

Guane,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  24  to  26,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  6  d^,  5  9,1 
juv.  9  ,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (3  cf ,  3   9  semi-macr.). 

North  of  Vinales,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  16  to  22,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  1 
cT,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.]. 

Pinar  del  Rio,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  9  to  24,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  4:d',  5 
9,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.]. 

Cabanas,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  5  to  8,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  4  d",  [Am. 
Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],   (3  semi-macr.). 

Havana,  Cuba,",  I,  23,  1904,  (Hebard),  6  cf,  1  9,1  juv.  9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]; 
(C.  F.  Baker),  1  cf ,  2  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (2  c^,  1  9  semi-macr.). 

Cayamas,  Oriente,  Cuba,  XII,  21  to  II,  28,  (E.  A.  Schwarz),  2  d',  2  9, 
[LT.  S.  N.  M.],  (1  9  semi-macr.). 

Cristo,  Oriente,  Cuba,  X,  3,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  2  juv.  9,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist.]. 

Guantanamo,  Oriente,  Cuba,  X,  4  to  8,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  5  cT,  3  9,2  juv. 
9,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (3  cd',  4   9  semi-macr.). 

Baracoa,  Oriente,  Cuba,  IX,  15  to  X,  4,  1901,  (A.  Busck),  2  c/",  3  9,  [U.  S. 
N.  M.],  (3   9  semi-macr.). 

San  Francisco  Mountains,  San  Domingo,  IX,  1905,  (A.  Busck),  5  cf ,  3  9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Mona  Island,  Porto  Rico,  II,  21  to  26,  1914,  1  d^,  3  juv.  cf ,  2  juv.  9 ,  [Am. 
Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  {(f  semi-macr.). 

38  Recorded  by  Rehn  as  A',  hrevipenne,  Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  xxii, 
p.  116,  (1906). 

33  Recorded  by  Morse  as  X.  Jaaciatum,  Psyche,  xii,  p.  20,  (1905). 

^0  The  less  usual  conditions  of  tegminal  development  are  given  in  ])arcn- 
theses  at  the  end  of  each  record  in  the  i)resent  paper  except  where,  in  certain 
species,  it  has  been  thought  best  to  give  the  condition  for  each  specimen. 
Macr.  =  macroi)terous  and  brach.  =  brachyi)terous.  Dried  alcoholic  material 
is  also  indicated  by  "dr.  alch." 

^1  The  semi-ma cropterous  material  of  this  series  has  been  recorded  as  X. 
hrevipenne  (in  part),  the  macropterous  as  A',  fasciahun  (in  part)  by  Rehn, 
Cent.  Exp.  Sta.  Rept.  Cuba,  p.  216,  (1909). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  247 

Mayaguez,  Mayaguez,  Porto  Rico,  XII,  18,  1911,  II,  23,  1912,  (C.  W. 
Hooker),  1  d",  1  9,"  [U.  S.  N.  M.],  (semi-macr.);  I,  1899,  (A.  Busck),  1  9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Arecibo,  Arecibo,  Porto  Rico,  VII,  30  to  VIII,  1,  19U,  2  juv.  a  ,  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.]. 

San  Juan,  Porto  Rico,  VIII,  2  and  3,  1914,  1  juv.  a",  1  juv.  9  ,  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.].^2 

Bayamon,  San  Juan,  Porto  Rico,  I,  1899,  (A.  Busck),  2  o",  [U.  S.  X.  M.], 
(1  semi-macr.). 

Rio  Piedras,  Humacao,  Porto  Rico,  VI,  1902,  (O.  W.  Barrett),  2  cf,  1  9," 
[A.  X.  S.  P.];  IX,  24,  1912,  (T.  H.  Jones),  1  cf ,  [U.  S.  X.  'SI.]. 

Arroyo,  Guayama,  Porto  Rico,  II,  1899,  (A.  Busck),  1  d",  2  9«  [U.  S.  X.  M.], 
(1   9  semi-macr.). 

Culebra  Iskmd,  Porto  Rico,  II,  1899,  (A.  Busck),  2  9  ,'-  [U.  S.  X.  M.],  (semi- 
macr.,  dr.  alch.). 

Vieques  Islaji.l,  Porto  Rico,  III,  27,  1900,  (C.  W.  Richmond),  1  9,"  [I'.  S. 
N.  M.]. 

St.  Thomas,  West  Indies,  VIII,  2,  (A.  Busck),  1  cf ,  1   9  ,  [V.  S.  X.  M.]. 

Lapknd,  Catadupa,  Jamaica,  III.  9,  1911,  1  9,  [Am.  Mus.  Xat.  Hist.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Montego  Bay,  Jamaica,  III,  6,  1911,  [Am.  Mus.  Xat.  Hist.],  1  9  ;  XI,  3  and 
4,  1913,  (Hebard),  6  d",  5  9,  [Hebard  CIn.],  (5  cf ,  3  9  semi-macr.). 

Mandeville,  Jamaica,  XI,  6,  1913,  (Hebard;  grassy  pasture),  1  cf ,  [Hebard 
Chi.]. 

Rio  Cobre  near  Bogwalk,  Jamaica,  X,  25,  1913,  (Hebard;  open  gi'assy  areas), 
2  cf ,  1   9,  [Hebard  Chi.],  (1  cf,  semi-macr.). 

Grange  Lane,  Jamaica,  X,  25,  1913,  (Hebard;  heavy  grass  near  forest),  1  cf, 
1   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Kingston,  Jamaica,  X,  23,  1913,  (Hebard;  grassy  pasture),  8  c?',  7  9  ,  [Hebard 
CIn.],  (7  c?,  5   9  semi-macr.). 

Stony  Hill,  Jamaica,  X,  25,  1913,  (Hebard), 2  c?,  [Hebard  Chi.],  (semi-macr.). 

Hope  Gardens,  Jamaica,  II,  22,  1911,  1  cf,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (semi- 
macr.). 

MedeUin,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  IX,  1895,  (L.  Bruner),  1  9,  [Hebard  Cln.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Old  Vera  Cruz,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  XII,  8,  1909,  (F.  C  Bishopp),  1  cf , 
[U.  S.  X.  M.],  (semi-macr.). 

San  Rafael,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  (C.  H.  T.  Tovvnsend),  1  c^,  1  9,  [Hebard 
CIn.],  (semi-macr.). 

^-Recorded  by  Rehn  as  X-  fa.^ciatum,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xxix,  p.  134, 
1903. 

«  Recorded  by  Rehn  as  X.  fasciatum,  Bull.  .\m.  Mus.  Xat .  Hist .,  xxviii, 
p.  76,  (1910). 


TR.\XS.  AM.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


248      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Isla  del  Coco,  Costa  Rica,  III,  1902,  (P.  Biolley),  2  d^,  2  ?,  [A.  N.  S.  P.], 
(semi-macr.). 

Gulf  of  Nicoya,  Costa  Rica,  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Puntarenas,  Costa  Rica,  II,  1907,  (P.  Biolley;  strand,  leaves  of  Ipomaca),^ 
1  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (semi-macr.). 

San  Jose,  Costa  Rica,  III  and  VI,  1904  to  1906,  1160  meters  elevation,  (P. 
Biolley),  3  9,^*  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (1  semi-macr.). 

Rio  Grande,  Costa  Rica,  III,  6,  1902,  (M.  Gary),  1  d",  [Hebard  Cln.],  (semi- 
macr.). 

Carillo,  Costa  Rica,  III,  1902,  (P.  Biolley),  1   9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Guatel,  Costa  Rica,  (C.  F.  Underwood),  1  o^,«  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Paraiso,  Costa  Rica,  IV,  20.  1910,  (P.  P.  Calvert),  1  9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (semi- 
macr.). 

Juan  Vinas,  Costa  Rica,  VII,  31,  1909,  (P.  P.  Calvert),  1  9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Siquires,  Costa  Rica,  VIII,  3,  1903,  (M.  A.  Carriker,  Jr.),  2  a",  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Ancon,  Canal  Zone,  Panama,  XI,  12,  1913,  (Hebard;  open  marshy  grass- 
land), 6  cf,  6  9,  (1  cf,  2  9  nearly  semi-macr.). 

La  Piedrita,  Venezuela,  II,  16,  1911,  (S.  Brown),  14  c?,  2  9,4  juv.  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.],  (8  cT  semi-macr.). 

Cali,  Cauca  Valley,  Colombia,  V,  26,  1914,  (H.  S.  Parish),  3  o^,  [A.  N.  8.  P.], 
(2  semi-macr.). 

Cayenne,  French  Guiana,  1  cT,  (W.  Schaus),  [U.  S.  N.  M.];  1  9,  (Ex  Saus- 
sure,  labelled /a .scia^ MS),  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (dr.  alch.). 

Rio  Maranon,  Peru,  1  9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.],  type  oi  Orchelimum  ortoni  Scudder,  (dr. 
alch.). 

Rio  Pacaya,  Peru,  VII,  1912,  1   9  ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Contamano,  Rio  Ucayali,  Peru,  X-XII,  1912,  3  c^,  2  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (dr. 
alch.). 

Conocephalus  fasciatus  fasciatus  (DeGeer)**^ 

1773.     Locudn  Jascwtn  De  Gecr,  Mem.  I'Hist.  Ins.,  iii,  p.  458,  pi.  40,  fig.  4. 
[Pennsylvania.] 

This  species  has  been  widely  confused  in  studjdng  tropical 
American  material  with  the  allied  but  distinctive  C.  cinereus,  and 
with  the  very  diiferent  C.  saltator.     Careful  study  of  the  very 

*^  The  finding  of  a  specimen  on  strand  vegetation,  from  which  spot  we  have 
an  example  of  C-  spinosus,  is  not  surprising.  C.  spinosus  has  been  taken  in 
salt  marsh  at  Coronado  Beach,  California,  a  few  feet  from  grasses  and  strand 
plants  where  C.  fasciatus  vicinus  is  to  be  found.  The  present  species  supplants 
C.  f.  fasciatus  and  its  race  and  is  found  imder  similar  local  environmon^^al  con- 
ditions. 

■"^  Recorded  by  Rehn  as  A',  fasciatuin,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  190.5, 
p.  826,  (1906). 

^^  For  a  more  detailed  discussion  of  the  present  species,  vide  Rehn  and 
Hebard,  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  xU,  p.  170,  (1915). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  249 

large  series  of  these  species  before  us  shows  conckisively,  that  the 
present  insect  is  found  only  in  North  America  southward 
through  northern  Mexico  on  the  Gulf  coast  as  far  as  ^'era  Cruz, 
and  also  on  the  island  of  Bermuda.  With  no  material  of  the 
genus  from  northern  Mexico,  we  are  unable  to  state  how  far  south- 
ward the  ranges  of  fasciatus  fasciatus  and  fasciatus  vicinus 
extend,  though  both  races  occur  along  the  Mexican  bound- 
ary. The  single  small  specimen  from  Vera  Cruz,  in  the  fairly 
large  series  of  the  genus  from  that  region  before  us,  would  sug- 
gest that  the  species  is  not  found  farther  south.  Study  of  the 
Bermudan  fauna  shows /asc/oius  s.s.  to  be  the  sole  representative 
of  the  genus  on  that  island,  one  male  and  three  females  before  us 
not  differing  at  all  from  typical  material  of  the  species. 

Under  cinereus  and  saUator  the  "frequent  misconceptions  of  the 
present  species  are  discussed.  Normally  the  form  of  the  lateral 
lobes  of  the  pronotum  in  fasciatus  s.s.  and  fasciatus  vicinus  is 
particularly  distinctive  when  compared  with  that  of  the  other 
American  species  of  the  genus. 

Vertex  not  strongly  but  distinctly  ascending.  Fastigium  of 
vertex  fully  to  very  slightly  more  than  two-thirds  the  width  of 
the  proximal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  distinct  but  very 
weak  concavity  to  facial  suture,  when  seen  from  front  about  one 
and  one-half  times  as  deep  as  greatest  width.  Eyes  decidedly 
small.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  rather  narrow,  cephalic  margin 
evenly  and  distinctly  convex  to  the  rather  broadly  rounded 
ventro-caudal  angle,**^  thence  weakly  but  distinctly  convex  to  the 
distinct  humeral  sinus;  convex  callosity  moderately  broad.  Teg- 
mina  always  macropterous  in  typical  fasciatus,  varying  to  semi- 
brachypterous  in  the  western  race  fasciatus  vicinus,  in  which  race 
this  condition  is  the  normal.  Male  cerci  rather  short  and  stout, 
mesal  portion  very  slightly  larger  than  proximal  portion,  with  a 
very  broad  and  heavy  mesal  (vertical)  internal  tooth  which  is  ])er- 
pendicular  to  the  shaft  of  the  cercus  and  directed  inter no-mesad 
with  sharp  thorn-like  apex  weakly  decurved.     In  both  races  of 

"Variation  occnirs  in  which  this  margin  becomes  weakly  concave  before 
reaching  the  ventro-caudal  angle  and,  in  such  si)ecimens,  the  ventro-cephalic 
angle  is  in  consequence  weakly  indicated  and  the  form  of  the  lateral  lobes 
more  similar  to  the  general  type  found  in  the  species  of  the  present  subgenus. 

TRANS.   AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


250      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

fasciatus  the  abdomen,  particularly  in  males,  is  distinctly  tris- 
triate,  which  contrasts  strongly  in  that  sex  with  the  green  cerci/^ 
In  addition  to  nearly  one  thousand  recorded  specimens  which 
have  been  recently  examined  by  us,  we  here  record  a  single 
female. 

Vera  Cruz,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  XII,  1SS7,  (L.  Bruner),  1    9  ,  (Hebard  Cln.]. 

Conocephalus  ictus  (Scudder)  (PI.  XXII,  figs.  3,  13  and  20;  XXIII,  7,  8 

and  9;  XXIV,  3.) 
1859.     X[iphidium]  me.ricanum  Saussure,  Rev.  et  Mag.  de  Zuol.,  2<^  ser.,  xi,  p. 

208.     [Mexico]. 
1875.     Xiphidimn  ictum  Scudder,  Proc.  Bost.  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xvii,  j).  461. 

[Mexico;  Guatemala]. 

Saussure's  name,  Xiphidium  mexicanum,  based  uponniacrop- 
terous  examples  of  this  species,'*^  is  unfortunately  not  available 
at  the  present  day;  the  present  use  of  the  name  Conocephalus 
for  the  genus  then  called  Xiphidium  prevents  the  use  of  his 
■specific  name,  as  on  the  same  page  of  the  work  in  which  the 
present  species  is  described,  and  having  line  priority,  we  find 
Conocephalus  mexicanus  described,  which  species  is  now  placed 
in  the  genus  Neoconocephalus.  Scudder  described  brachypterous 
examples  of  the  same  species  as  Xiphidium  ictum,  which  specific 
name  must  be  used  as  the  first  available  for  the  species. 

The  position  of  the  present  insect  is  between  C.  cinereus  and 
C.  spinosus,  from  both  of  which  species  it  differs  decidedly  in 
general  appearance;  the  males  suggesting  very  heavy  and  deeply 
colored  males  of  C.  stricius,  while  the  females  suggest,  to  some 
degree,  large  and  very  heavy  examples  of  that  sex  of  C.  brevi- 
pennis.  From  cinereus  this  species  differs  in  the  much  more 
robust  structure,  more  truncate  form,  normally  broader  vertex, 
decidedly  more  quadrate  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  and 
decidedly  larger  tympanum  of  the  male  tegmina  with  much 
longer  stridulating  vein.     The  male  cerci  of  the  two  species  are 

^8  In  life,  certain  species  of  the  genus  have  the  cerci  green;  this  excellent 
character  can  not  be  used  for  dried  material  as  the  green  coloration  often  fades 
or  even  completely  disappears  in  drying. 

^9  We  have  before  us  a  brachypterous  male  specimen  taken  by  Sumi(?hrast 
in  Mexico,  received  from  Saussure  and  identified  by  him  as  his  A',  mexicanum, 
probably  originally  from  the  same  series  on  which  Scudder's  name  is  in  part 
based. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  251 

quite  similar,  the  ovipositor  of  idus  is  of  the  normal  type  but 
averages  decidedly  longer  and  distinctly  broader  than  in  cincreus. 
When  compared  with  spinosus  the  present  species  is  found  to 
differ  in  the  more  robust  structure,  much  more  truncate  form, 
very  much  more  quadrate  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotuni,  longer 
stridulating  vein  of  male  tegminal  tympanum,  different  colora- 
tion and  very  different  genitalic  characters  of  l)oth  sexes.  The 
species  is  decidedly  variable  in  several  usually  very  constant 
characters  for  the  species  of  the  genus. 

Size  medium  to  large,  form  very  robust.  Vertex  not  strongly 
but  distinctly  ascending.  Fastigium  of  vextex  broad,  greatest 
width  fully  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint .^^  one  and  one-half 
times  as  deep  as  wide,  narrowing  with  a  distinct  concavity  to 
facial  suture.  Eyes  of  medium  size,  moderately  protruding. 
Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  rather  broad,  cephaUc  margin  straight 
to  the  broadly  rounded  ventro-cephalic  angle,  then  straight  and 
more  nearly  horizontal  than  usual  to  the  sharply  rounded  nearly 
rectangulate  ventro-caudal  angle,  caudal  margin  distinctly  but 
weakly  convex  to  the  shallow  humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  mod- 
erately broad  and  distinct.  Tegmina  normally  semi-brachyp- 
terous,  reaching  distal  extremity  of  male  abdomen  and  covering 
about  two-thirds  of  female  abdomen,  broad,  \^dth  distal  portion 
narrowing  rather  sharply  and  immediate  apex  sharply  rounded. 
We  have  before  us  several  specimens  in  which  the  tegmina  are 
unusually  truncate  and  in  these  the  immediate  apex  is  very 
broadly  rounded.  Rarely  specimens  are  macropterous.  i\Iale 
tegminal  tympanum  very  large,  not  elongate,  stridulating  vein 

50  A  series  of  four  cf ,  one  9  and  one  juv.  9  from  Texolo,  Vera  Cruz,  Moxico» 
have  the  vertex  unusually  narrow,  two-thirds  the  width  of  the  i)n)xunai 
antennal  joint  in  the  males  and  about  four-fifths  the  width  of  the  same  m 
the  females,  with  sides,  as  would  be  expected,  less  concave,  'fhe  specimens 
are  otherwise  inseparable  from  other  smaller  indivi(hials  of  the  species. 


TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


0-0 

0-1 

1-1 

1-2 

1-3 

1-4 

2-2 

12 

6 

2 

5 

7 

1 

1 

2-3 

2-4 

2-6 

3-3 

3-4 

3-5 

4-4 

16 

3 

1 

7 

6 

3 

6 

4-5 

4-6 

4-7 

5-5 

5-6 

5-7 

4 

2 

1 

2 

3 

1 

252      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

unusually  long  with  veins  prominent.  Male  cerci^'  as  in  cinereus 
{vide  key).  Subgenital  plate  with  distal  margin  truncate  be- 
tween the  rather  long  disto-lateral  styles  (these  .7  mm.  in  length). 
The  caudal  femora  are  heavy,  with  genicular  areas  usually  very 
dark  in  color;  the  genicular  lobes  are  normally  bispinose;  the 
ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed  in  the 
eighty-nine  perfect  specimens  before  us  as  follows: 

Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens, 
Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens. 
Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens. 

The  series  of  12  specimens  with  these  margins  unarmed  *are 
from  the  State  of  Vera  Cruz;  the  great  majority  having  more 
than  eight  spines  in  all  are  from  Lower  California. 

The  large  series  before  us  shows  variability  in  size,  vertex,  lat- 
eral lobes  of  pronotum,  tegmina  and  particularly  apex  of  the  same, 
male  cerci,  ovipositor  length,  coloration  of  genicular  areas  of  the 
caudal  femora  and  armament  of  the  ventro-external  margins 
of  the  same;  which  is  convincing  evidence  that  the  present  insect 
is  one  of  the  most  plastic  of  the  American  species  of  the  genus. 

Measurements  {in  millimeters)  of  extremes 

y.  Length  of 

O"  body 

San  Jof^edelCabo, 

Lower  California  13-14.5 

Tepic,  Mexico ...       14 . 3 

Orizaba,  Mexico .  12 . 4-15 . 4 

Medellin,  Mexico      13 . 7 

51  The  entire  series  of  males  before  us  from  Lower  California  and  Tepic, 
Mexico,  have  the  distal  portion  of  the  cercus  somewhat  wider  than  normal  with 
apex  more  broadly  rounded  (though  not  nearly  as  broadly  rounded  as  in  C. 
spinosus).  No  other  note^vorthy  variation  occiu-s  in  the  series  and,  as  we 
have  found  that  in  eastern  Mexico  there  is  occasionally  a  marked  contrast  in 
the  degree  of  production  and  narrowness  of  the  distal  portion  of  the  cercus,  we 
do  not  consider  that  sufficient  differentiation  has  taken  place  to  waiTant  the 
recognition  of  a  western  geograjjhic  race. 

A  male  before  us  from  Santa  Rosa,  Mexico,  has  the  distal  portion  of  the 
cercus  unusually  produced  for  the  species  ajid  narrowing  decidedly  to  the  very 
sharply  rounded  apex.  In  a  single  specimen  of  the  very  large  series  of  C. 
hrcvipennis  before  us,  a  similarly  unusual  development  has  occurred. 


Length  of 
pronotum 

Length  of 

tegmcn 

Length  of 
caudal  femur 

Length  of 
cercus 

3.6-4.2 

8.3-11.4 

11.6-14.2 

1.7-1.9 

3.8 

16.8* 

13.2 

1.7 

3.6-4.1 

8.2-9.3 

11.6-14.6 

1.6-1.8 

3.7 

7.9 

13 

1.7 

REHX    AND    HEBARD 


253 


& 

Length  of 
body 

Length  of 
pronotum 

Length  of 
tegnien 

Length  of 
caudal  femur 

Length  of 
cercua 

Santa       Rosa, 

Mexico 

15.5 

4.2 

19.9* 

15  7 

1.9 

La     Zaouulpa, 

Mexico 

15.5 

3.7 

15.2* 

13.9 

19 

Tonala,   Mexico . 

14.5 

3.8 

17.8* 

13.8 

1.8 

Cacao      Trece 

Aguas,   Guate- 

mala   

ll.S-15 

3.3-3.8 

6-S .  3 

12.2-13.6 

1  ()-1.8 

San  Marcos.  Nic- 

aragua   

13-14.3 

3 . 3-3 . 7 

7 . 3-8 .  t) 

12-12  6 

1   7-1. 8 

9 

Length  of 
ovipositor 

San  Jose  del  Cabo, 

Lower  California 

12-15.3 

3.7-4.3 

8.8-19.1* 

14-15.3 

12  5-13.9 

Orizaba,  ^Mexico . 

13-13.3 

3.3-3.7 

t) .  3-(5 . 5 

12.9-13.2 

10.6-12 

Jalapa,  Mexico.  . 

12.7 

3.7 

5.9 

12  8 

9.3 

Medellin,  Mexico 

13-18 

3.7-3.9 

5 . 8-6 . 3 

13-14  7 

10  1-12.8 

Secanquin, Guate- 

mala   

13.7 

3.8 

4.8 

12.5 

10  3 

San       Marcos, 

Nicaragua .... 

14-16 

3  .7-3.8 

6.8-8 

13.7-13.9 

12-12.3 

Of  the  four  males  and  one  female  which  are  macropteroiis  and 
are  marked  with  an  asterisk  above,  the  length  to  the  apex  of  the 
wing  is  20.6,  24.8,  19.9,  23.3  and  24.3  mm.  respectively. 

In  coloration  the  present  species  has  the  medio-longitudinal 
stripe  of  head  and  pronotum  very  striking;  shining  and  very  dark 
blackish  brown,  usually  ver}'  narrowly  margined  with  yellowish. 
The  general  coloration  is  pale  green.  The  male  sex  has  the 
ventro-proximal  portion  of  the  abdomen  green,  the  concealed 
portion  argus  brown  bilineate  dorso-laterad  with  buff,  the  entire 
distal  portion  including  the  cerci  uniform  tawny,  varying  in 
different  examples  to  ochraceous  tawny.  In  females  the  abdomen 
is  suffused  with  brown  dorsad,  bilineate  with  a  paler  shade  dorso- 
laterad. 

The  species  is  not  known  from  without  the  range  defined  i)y 
the  localities  given  below. 

In  addition  to  a  number  of  specimens  j)reviously  recorded  as 
this  species  or  as  the  synonymous  A',  mexicanum,  we  Ikm'c  record 
the  following  series  of  103  specimens;  43  males,  46  females,  4 
immature  males  and  10  inunature  females. 


TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


254      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

San  Jose  del  Cabo,  Lower  California,  Mexico,  19  cT,  IS  9,3  juv.  d^, 
[Hebard  Cln.],  (1   9  macr.,  1   9  semi-macr.,  all  dr.  alch.)- 

Tepic,  Tepic,  Mexico,  2  d",  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (1  d",  macr.,  all  dr.  alcli.). 

Venis  Mecas,  Mexico,  I,  6,  1878,  (E.  Palmer),  1   9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Jalapa,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  VI,  1894,  1  cf ,  1   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (dr.  alch.). 

Cordoba,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  VI,  11  and  12,  (F.  Knab),  1  o",  1  9,2  juv.  9  , 
[U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Orizaba,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  I,  1892,  2   9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Medellin,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  IX  to  XI,  1895,  (L.  Bruner),  1  d',  5  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 

Otoj'ac,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  XI  to  XII,  1887,  (L.  Bruner),  2  cf ,  2  9,  [He- 
bard Cln.]. 

Santa  Rosa,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  VIII,  (Wm.  Schaus),  1  cf ,  [Hebard  Cln.], 
(macr.). 

La  Buena  Ventura  Plantation,  near  Santa  Rosa,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico,  VII, 
13,  1909,  (A.  Petrunkivitch;  swept  from  grasses),  1   9 ,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.]. 

Cuernavaca,  Morelos,  Mexico,  VII,  7,  1900,  5000  ft.,  (C.  C.  Deam),  1  9, 
[U.S.  N.  M.],  (dr.  alch.). 

Cuautla,  Morelos,  Mexico,  VII  1o  VIII,  3,  1903,  (W.  L.  Tower),  4  (f',  5  9, 
5  juv.  9  ,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.]. 

Jojutla,  Morelos,  Mexico,  VIII,  6,  1903,  (W.  L.  Tower),  2  o^  2  9  ,  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.]. 

Matamoros,  Morelos,  Mexico,  VIII,  12,  1903,  (W.  L.  Tower),  1  d',  [Am. 
Mus.  Nat.  Hist.]. 

Tonala,  Chiapas,  Mexico,  VIII,  1,  1909,  (A.  Petrunkivitch),  1  d",  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.],  (macr.). 

La  Zacualpa,  Chiapas,  Mexico,  VIII,  11,  1909,  (A.  Petrunkivitch),  1  d", 
[Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (macr.). 

Secanquin,  Guatemala,  IV,  14,  1905,  (A.  McLachlan),  1  d",  1  9,2  juv.  9, 
[U.  S.  N.  M.],  (dr.  alch.). 

San  Felipe,  Retalhuleu,  Guatemala,  II,  23,  1905,  1  9,  [U.  S.  N.  M.],  (dr. 
alch.). 

Cacao  Trece  Aguas,  Alta  Vera  Paz,  Guatemala,  III,  24  and  IV,  25,  (Schwarz 
and  Barber),  4  d",  1  juv.  d',  1  juv.   9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.]. 

Quirigua,  Izabal,  Guatemala,  II,  1912,  (W.  P.  Cockerell),  1  9 ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.], 
(dr.  alch.). 

San  Marcos,  Nicaragua,  (C.  F.  Baker),  2  d',  2  9  "  [A.  N.  S.  P.  and  Morse 
Cln.l. 

Conocephalus  spinosus  ( Morse) *^ 

UiOl.     Xijihi'liiiiH   sj/ino.suni    Morse,  Can.   Ent.,   xxxiii,   p.  201.     [Coronado, 
California.] 

^'  Recorded  by  Rehn  in  Baker  as  X.  propinquum  and  there  also  queried  by 
Morse  as  X.  gossi/pii,  Invertebr.  Pacifica,  i,  p.  78,  (1905). 

S3  For  further  data  on  this  species  see  Rehn  and  Ilel)ar(l,  Trans.  Am.  Ent. 
Soc,  xh,  p.  180,  (1915). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  255 

When  compared  with  its  nearest  relative,  C.  fasdatus,  the  pres- 
ent species  is  found  to  differ  in  the  more  robust  form,  wider 
vertex,  larger  (normal)  eyes,  differently  shaped  lateral  lobes  of 
the  pronotum  and  very  narrow  convex  callosity  of  the  same, 
immaculate  abdomen  with  distal  portion  pale  yellow  (in  males 
this  coloration  including  the  cerci  and  showing  in  this  respect  a 
greater  similarity  to  C.  cinereus),  heavier  and  decidedly  longer 
cerci  with  straight  distal  portion  broader  and  very  tlecidedly 
depressed  for  a  much  greater  distance,  ventro-external  margins 
of  the  caudal  femora  bearing  normally  a  number  of  heavier 
spines  and  ovipositor  which  is  heavier  and  differs  in  outline  from 
all  other  American  species  in  being  noticeably  widest  meso-distad. 

Vertex  weakly  ascending.  Fastigium  of  vertex  as  wide  as 
l)roximal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  with  a  decided  concavity  to 
facial  suture,  when  seen  from  front  about  one  and  one-third 
times  as  deep  as  wide.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  deep,  cephalic 
margin  straight,  ventro-cephalic  angle  l)roadly  rounded,  ventral 
margin  straight  and  oblique  to  the  sharply  rounded  ventro-caudal 
angle,  caudal  margin  sinuous  and  nearly  perpendicular  to  the  dis- 
tinct hum(M-al  sinus.  Cereal  tooth  much  as  in  fasciatus  Init  sit- 
uated relatively  proximad,  this  due  to  the  elongation  of  the  mesal 
and  distal  portions  of  the  cercus  in  the  present  species.  The 
genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  bispinose;  the 
genicular  areas  are  not  darkened;  the  ventro-external  margins  of 
the  caudal  femora  are  armed  in  the  eight  perfect  specimens  from 
lower  California  before  us  as  follows: 

Numl)er  of  spines,  2  2     2-3     2-4     3  3     3-4     4-4     4-G 

Number  of  specimens,  1  1  1  1       2'^'         1  1 

The  above  material  agrees  fully  with  the  types  except  that  the 
specimens  average  in  all  proportions  somewhat  larger.  The 
single  specinuMi,  recorded  below  from  Costa  Rica,  is  perfectly 
typical  except  that  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora  are  unarmed. 

'^  One  of  these  specimens  bears  a  single  si)ine  on  one  of  the  venlro-inteinal 
niartrins  of  the  caudal  femora. 


TH.^NS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


256      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Measurements  (in  millimeters)  of  extremes 
San  Jose  del  Cabo,  Lower  California,  Mexico 


O  o3  0|3  O'^  O 

-*j>i  *3s  -i^c  -w-s  *^r 

MT3  Mo  Mt;,  Ms  acf; 

flo  cti  si'  Cc;  Co 

(uja  ojo,  tui:-  ojc  ojo 

M  I-)  1-^  hJ  hJ 


<j^  14.9-16.6     3.4-3.8       16.8-21.1     13.6-13.9  2.2-2.3  

9  13-16.7         3.2-4         18.3-22.8     13.6-15.3  9.5-10.1 

Puntarenas,  Costa  Rica 

cT  14.9  3.3  14.3  13.2  2  


The  present  species  is  now  known  on  the  Pacific  coast  from 
Coronado  Bay,  California,  to  Puntarenas,  Costa  Rica.  It  is  a 
halophytic  insect,  the  only  species  of  the  genus  known  as  yet 
from  the  salt  marshes  of  the  Pacific  coast. 

In  addition  to  10  recorded  specimens  which  have  been  recently  examined 
by  us,  we  here  record  the  following  series  of  11  specimens;  6  males  and  5 
females. 

San  Jose  del  Cabo,  Lower  California,  Mexico,  5  cf,  5  9,  [Hebard  Cln.], 
(dr.  alch.). 

Puntarenas,  Costa  Rica,  II,  1907,  (P.  BioUey;  strand,  on  leaves  of  I pomaen), 
1  cf ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Conocephalus  insularis   (Morse)    (PI.  XXII,  fig.   14;  XXIII,  10  and   11; 
XXIV,  4.) 

1905.     Xiphi'lium  insularis  Morse,  Psyche,  xii,  p.  20.     [Stranger  Cay,  Bahama 
Islands]. 

The  present  insect  is,  as  stated  by  Morse,  closely  allied  to  C. 
gracillimus,  but  differs  from  that  species  in  the  wider  and  less 
produced  vertex  (width  of  same  two-thirds  that  of  proximal 
antennal  joint),  broader  and  decidedly  shallower  lateral  lobes  of 
the  pronotum  which  causes  the  ventro-cephalic  angle  to  become 
more  prominent, ""^  slightly  less  attenuate  form  and  proportion- 
ately shorter  limbs.  As  in  the  other  species  of  group  C,  gracil- 
limus and  iriodes,  the  convex  callosity  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the 
pronotum  is  very  broad.  A  semi-macropterous  form  is  present 
in  this  species,  which  is  found  to  grade  without  a  break  into  a  very 

55  "Distinctly  polygonal  in  outline  instead  of  triangular,"  Morse,  (in  com- 
parison with  C.  gracillinius).  This  is  rather  too  brief,  for,  although  the  lateral 
lobes  of  the  pronotum  in  gracillimus  show  a  nearer  approach  to  a  triangular 
form,  the  ventro-cephalic  angle  is  distinct  in  that  species  also,  though  very 
broadly  rounded. 


0-1 

0-2 

1-1 

1-2 

2-2 

2-3 

10 

2 

2 

3 

1 

2 

REHN    AND    HEBARD  257 

strongly  macropterous  condition.  Only  a  strongly  macropterous 
phase  has  been  found  in  graciUimus.  In  darker  specimens  the 
abdomen  is  strikingly  marked  as  in  graciUimiis  with  three  narrow 
dark  bands,  one  mesal  and  the  others  lateral,  the  two  intervening 
spaces  forming  iisualty  bright  3'ellow  bands.  In  such  specimens 
the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  are  usually  marked  mesad  with 
a  diffused  dark  postocular  stripe.  The  cerci  are  of  the  same  form 
as  in  gracillimus  and  bright  green  in  coloration  during  life.  The 
genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  bispinose;  the 
genicular  areas  are  not  darkened;  unlike  graciUimus  the  ventro- 
external  margins  are  often  armed  with  one  to  three  very  small 
spines,  in  the  series  of  thirty-four  perfect  specimens  before  us  20 
being  armed  as  follows: 

Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens. 

Of  twenty-four  Cuban  specimens  before  us  sixteen  are  macrop- 
terous to  varying  degrees,  while  the  entire  series  of  thirteen 
examples  from  Jamaica  are  semi-macropterous. 

Of  the  two  species  of  the  genus  found  in  both  Cuba  and  Jamaica, 
this  insect  is  much  the  less  numerous,  being  found  rarely  and  then 
in  small  numbers  in  open  areas  of  short  grass.  The  species  is  now 
known  from  Nassau,  New  Providence  Island,  Mangrove  Cay 
and  Stranger  Cay,  Bahamas;  Cuba;  Hayti  and  Jamaica. 

In  addition  to  the  tj'pe,  a  macropterous  male,  we  have  examined  the  follow- 
ing series  of  43  specimens;  28  males,  10  females,  2  immature  males  and  6  im- 
mature females. 

Guane,  Pinar  del  Rio.  Cuba,  IX,  24  to  2(1,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  2  d" ,  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.],  (macr.) 

North  of  Viiiales,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  IG  to  22,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz).  4  o", 
19,2  juv.  ?  ,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (2  cf ,  1  9  ,  macr.). 

Pinar  del  Rio,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  9  to  24,  1913,  (F.  E.  Ltitz),  7  d",  1 
9  ,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.],  (4  cj",  1   9  macr.). 

Cabanas,  Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba,  IX,  r>  to  8,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  2  d,  [Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.],  (  1  cf  macr.). 

Havana,  Cuba,^^  (C.  F.  Baker),  2  o^  [A.  X.  S.  P.j;  I.  23,  1904.  (Hebard), 
1  o^,  [Hebard  Cln.],  (1  macr.). 

Jesus  del  Monte,  Havana,  Cuba,  I,  23,  1904,  ( Hebard >,  1  juv.  o",  1  juv. 
9,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

5^  The  macropterous  six'cimeii  was  recorded  as  A'./rt.sa«/».s-  (in  part)  and  the 
semi-macropterous  specimens  as  A',  brevipenni.s  (in  part)  by  Rehn,  Cent. 
Exp.  Sta.  Rept.  Cuba,  p.  21G.  (1909). 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 
17 


258      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Cayamas,Oriente,  Cuba,  III,  7  to  VI,  10,  (E.  A.  Schwarz),  3  9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.], 
(macr.). 

Cristo,  Oriente,  Cuba,  X,  3,  1913,  (F.  E.  Lutz),  1  juv.  9,  [Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist.]. 

Baracoa,  Oriente,  Cuba,  (A.  Busck),  1   9 ,  [V-  S.  N.  M.],  (macr.). 

San  Domingo,  (M.  A.  Frazer),  1   9  ,  [M.  C.  Z.]. 

Montego  Bay,  Jamaica,  HI,  6,  1911,  1  cf ,  [A.  M.  N.  H.];  X,  29,  to  XI,  3, 
1913,  (Hebard;  scant  grasses  on  hillside  near  forest),  5  d',  1  juv.  cf,  [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Kingston,  Jamaica,  X,  23,  1913,  (Hebard;  grassy  pasture),  1  d",  1  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 

Stony  Hill,  Jamaica,  X,  25,  1913,  (Hebard;  grasses  in  oi)ening  of  forested 
hills),  19,2  juv.    9 ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

Hope  Gardens,  Jamaica,  X,  23,  1913,  (Hebard;  grassy  pasture),  3  d",  1  9, 
[Hebard  Cln.]. 

Conocephalus    Modes  ^"    new  species   (PI.  XXI,    tig.  6;   XXII,  5   and   23; 
XXIII,  12  and  13;  XXIV,  5.) 

This  insect  with  C.  graciUinms  and  C.  insularis  forms  a  group 
(E)  of  the  subgenus  Xiphidion  agreeing  in  the  slender  form, 
broad  convex  callosity  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  elon- 
gate male  tegminal  tympanum  and  distinctive  color  pattern.  The 
present  species  resembles  insularis  somewhat  the  more  nearly, 
agreeing  with  that  species  in  the  form  of  the  vertex,  but  having 
the  ventro-cephalic  angle  of  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum 
less  pronounced  (as  in  graciUimus).  The  coloration  of  iriodes  is 
normally  much  more  intense  than  in  either  of  the  above  species, 
the  tympanum  of  the  male  tegmina  even  more  elongate,  while  the 
male  cerci  are  very  different,  showing  a  distinct  resemblance  to 
the  similar  but  more  decidedly  specialized  type  found  in  the 
otherwise  different  and  distinctive  C.  angusiijrons. 

Tijpe:  &;  Kaiteur,  British  Guiana.  July  31,  1911.  (F.  E. 
Lutz.)      [American  Museum  of  Natural  History.] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  medium,  form  slender,  coloration  distinctive. 
Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex,  when  seen  from  lateral  aspect,  weakly  but  distinctly 
ascending  above  the  plane  of  the  occiput  (much  as  in  insularis).  Fastigium 
of  vertex  approximately  two-thirds  the  width  of  basal  antennal  joint,  narrow- 
ing with  a  distinct  concavity  to  facial  suture,  when  seen  from  front  api)rox- 
imately  twice  as  deep  as  wide.  Eyes  moderately  large,  not  imusually  pro- 
truding. Lat(>ral  lobes  of  jjronolum  vertical,  cephalic  margin  broadly  convex 
to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  very  sharjjly  rounded,  caudal  margin  weakly 
convex  to  the  broad  and  shallow  hunicral  sinus,  convex  callositj^  very  broad. 
Tegmina  elongate  and  slender,  narrowing  dcH-idedly  to  sharply  nninded  ai)ex, 

6' From  ipico577s  =  like  the  rainbow,  in  allusion  to  the  strikingly  beautiful 
iridescence  of  the  wings  and  transparent  ])ortions  of  the  male  teguiin.al  lympa- 
num. 


REHN    AND  HEBARD 


259 


t>Tnpanum  very  elongate  (deoidcdly  more  longitudinal  than  in  (jracillvnus  or 
insularis),  veins  and  veiiilets  of  tegmina  decided;  wings  more  than  usually 
narrow.  Cerci  heavy  and  not  very  elongate  (decidedly  shorter  than  in  insu- 
laris, a  little  longer  than  in  C.fasciatus),  w'ith  mesal  portion  not  contrastingly 
swollen,  armed  with  a  heavy  mesal  (vertical)  tooth,  which  is  flat  and  broad  at 
the  base,  situated  intern:)-mesad  and  directed  slightly  cephalad  of  peri)eudicular 
to  shaft,  distal  third  of  ccrcus  showing  a  distinct  but  weak  outward  cm-vature 
with  broadly  rounded  apex  briefly  but  decidedly  depressed.  Subgenital  plate 
with  distal  margin  weakly  but  distinctly  convex  between  the  short  disto-lateral 
.styles.  Cephalic  and  median  limbs  as  in  insularis,  caudal  limbs  similar  to 
those  of  that  species  (swollen  proximal  portion  narrowing  more  abrui)tly  and 
decidedly  than  in  gracillimus),  with  genicular  lobes  bispinose  but  with  ventral 
margins  unarmed.  Caudal  tibiae  with  the  three  pairs  of  distal  sjnirs  small,  the 
dorsal  pairs  and  interno-ventral  sj^urs  being  only  slightly  heavier  than  the 
larger  tibial  spines. 

Allotype:   9  ;  data  same  as  type  but  taken  August  7,  1911. 

Description  of  Allotype. — Very  similar  to  lype  with  little  difference  in  size. 
Tegmina  similar  with  exception  of  sexual  ditTerences.  Ovipositor  very  similar 
to  that  of  insularis,  short,  very  slender,  virtually  straight  but  with  distal 
third  ha\-ing  a  very  weak  upward  curvature.  Subgenital  plate  flat,  with 
lateral  margins  turned  upward  roundly  but  sharph'  and  embracing  the  base 
of  the  ovipositor,  brief  distal  margin  of  flat  surface  transverse. 

Mrasurtntcnts  (in  niillinu'ters) 


Kaiteur,  British  Guiana. 

Type 1.5.2  3  l().l 

Kaiteur,  British  ( Juiana, 

Paratypes 14-1  L  7     3  . 1-3 .3     1.5 . 2-l() .  4     12 

Rockstone,     British 

Guiana 13.7  3.2  Iti 

9 

Ciudad   Bolivar,  \'ene- 

zuela   14. .5  3.3  19.3 

Maripa,     Rio     Caura, 

Venezuela  14  3.2  17.2 

Kaiteur.  Brit  ish  Guiana, 

Allotype    13  3.3  1C..3 

Ireng  River  near  lioi- 

aima,  Brazil 13.2  3  1(1.2 

Bonito,    Pernambuco, 

Brazil 14.  (S  3  IS.  7 

TK.\XS.  .^M.  ENT.  SOC,   XLI. 


M  3 

tc  j; 

12 . 1 

1.8 

.4-13.2 

1   (i-1 . 7 

12.  i) 

1.7 

Length  of 

ovipositor 

14 

7.9 

13.2 

7.() 

12.7 

7.4 

12.  S 

7  3 

13.4 

7.S 

260      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Coloration. —  cf.  Head  and  pronotum  burnt  lake,  with  the 
exception  of  the  occiput  and  dorsum  of  the  pronotum,  which 
have  the  medio-longitudinal  stripe  very  deep  burnt  lake  and  the 
remaining  portions  buff  yellow.  Eyes  prussian  brown  varying 
to  cinnamon  in  different  individuals.  Tegmina  infuscated,  with 
veins  shamrock  green,  hyaline  areas  of  tympanum  iridescent; 
wings  with  hyaline  portion  iridescent  and  with  costal  margin  and 
brief  distal  exposed  (when  at  rest)  portion  rather  strongly  infus- 
cated. Abdomen  buff  yellow  considerably  infuscated,  with 
broad  median  and  lateral  stripes  of  burnt  lake,  ccrci  burnt  lake. 
Limbs  tawny,  washed  with  burnt  lake. 

o  .  Head,  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  (below  a  very  narrow 
postocular  stripe  of  burnt  lake)  and  femora  shamrock  green 
somewhat  infuscated.  The  buff  yellow  lateral  margins  of  the 
burnt  lake  medio-longitudinal  stripe  of  the  occiput  and  dorsum 
of  the  pronotum  are  decidedly  broader  than  in  the  male,  on  the 
pronotum  extending  over  the  dorsal  portions  of  the  lateral  lobes. 
Tegmina,  including  veins,  infuscated;  wings  as  in  the  male. 
Abdomen  colored  much  as  in  that  sex.  Ti])iae  and  ovipositor 
hazel,  weakly  suffused  with  greenish. 

The  Venezuelan  females  are  the  palest  examples  before  us  and 
lack  dark  markings  on  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum, 
while  the  dark  abdominal  stripes  are  greath^  reduced  in  breadth. 

Specimens  Examined:  9;  4  males  and  5  females. 

Ciudad  Bolivar,  Venezuela,  IX,  1909,  (M.  A.  Carriker,  Jr.),  1  9  ,  [A.  X.S.P.l. 

Maripa,  Rio  Caura,  Venezurla,  X,  1909,  (M.  A.  Carriker  Jr.),  1  cf,  [A.  X. 
S.  P.]. 

Ireng  River  near  Roraima,  Brazil,  VIII,  9,  1911,  (Crampton),  1  9  .  pnralype, 
[Hebard  Cln.l. 

Kaitem-,  British  Guiana,  VII,  ol  to  Vlll.  7.  1911  (F.  E.  Lutz),  3  d",  1  9, 
type,  allotype,  paratypes,  [A.  !\I.  X.  H.l. 

Rockstone,  British  Guiana,  \'il,  S,  1911,  (Cramjitoii  and  Lutz).  1  o"',  para- 
type,  [A.  M.  X.  H.]. 

Bonito,  Province  of  Pernait.bueo,  Brazil,  MI,  1S,S3.  (A.  Koebele),  1  9, 
[U.  S.  X.  M.],   (dr.  alch.). 

Conocephalus  angustifrons    (Redtenbacher)    (PI.    XXII,   figs.    6  and   15; 

XXIII,  14  and  If);  XXI\',  (i.) 
1S91.     Xiphidium  angustifrons  Redtenbacher,  Verh.  Zool.-Bot.  Gesell.  Wien, 

xli,  p.  524.     [Santa  Fe  de  Bogota  and  Tolima,  Colombia.]    . 

The  present  insect  bears  a  close  general  rc^scMublance  to  the 
brachypterous  condition  of  ('.  sdlhilor,  but  may  l)e  readily  scp- 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  261 

arated  by  the  very  different  fastigiuin  of  Iho  vertex,  coloration 
(which  in  hfe  is  probably  very  distinctive  and  in  dried  specimens 
before  us  is  still  striking  in  the  male  sex  and  in  a  few  of  the  fe- 
males), larger  and  more  bulging  eyes  and  male  cerci  which  are 
very  different  from  any  other  South  American  species,  being  of 
the  type  found  in  C.  brevipennis,  but  differing  from  that  species 
in  proportions,  contour  of  apical  portion  and  external  instead  of 
mesal  position  of  apex. 

The  ventro-cephalic  margins  of  the  cephalic  and  median  tibiae 
are  also  distinctive  in  having,  in  ever}''  specimen  before  us,  from 
one  to  the  four  of  these  margins  armed  with  seven  instead  of  the 
normal  six  spines  ^^-  this  is  never  found  in  saltator  in  the  regions 
where  the  distribution  of  the  two  species  is  coextensive,''^  in 
which  regions  the  ovipositor  of  the  present  species  also  averages 
distinctly  shorter. 

The  species  agrees  in  width  of  vertex  with  C.  versicolor  but  is 
otherwise  very  different.  Giglio-Tos  considered  his  A",  fcstae^'^ 
(  =  versicolor)  more  nearly  related  to  the  present  species  than  we 
find  is  the  case  after  study  of  all  the  American  species. 

Size  medium,  form  veiy  robust,  coloration  unusual.  Fastigium 
of  vertex  narrow  and  strongly  ascending  above  plane  of  occiput 
but  not  unusually  produced,  greatest  width  slightly  less  than 
one-half  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint,  two  and  one-half  times 
as  deep  as  wide,  narrowing  very  slightly  to  facial  suture.  Eyes 
large  and  protruding.  Lateral  loljes  of  pronotum  of  moderate 
width,  cephalic  margin  straight  to  the  broadly  rounded  ventro- 
cephalic  angle,  then  straight  to  the  narrowly  rounded  ventro-cau- 
dal  angle,  caudal  margin  weakly  concave  and  often  subsinuate, 
humeral  sinus  exceedingly  weak  or  wholly  absent,  convex  cal- 
losity   exceedingly    narrow    but    distinct.     Tegmina    normally 

^^  The  careful  work  of  Gip;lio-ToH  is  shown  by  his  remarks  on  tliis  less  not  ice- 
able  differentiation,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  eoinp.  I'niv.  Torino,  xi,  no.  2'A'2, 
p.  29,  (1896);  a  character  which  had  been  wholly  overlooked  by  Redtenbacher. 

"  Fou'r  depauperate  brachypterons  individuals  of  C-  mltalor  from  Dominica 
and  Trinidad  a^ree  in  this  respect,  and  represent  the  only  specimens  of  the 
subgeiuis  Xiphidion  which  possess  a  supplementary  seventh  spine,  excei)tins 
material  of  C.  aiujusiijrons;  moreover  such  depauperate  females  from  those 
islaruls  have  the  o\-ipositor  length  quite  as  short  as  in  the  present  siiecies. 

«o  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  comp.  Univ.  Torino,  xiii,  no.  311,  p.  93,  (1S98). 

TR.WS.  .\M.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


262      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

abbreviate,  lanceolate,  with  apex  sharply  rounded. ^^  Male  teg- 
minal  tympanum  unusually  small,  short  and  broad,  with  veins 
prominent.  Cerci  short,  proximal  two-thirds  heavy  with  mesal 
(vertical  and  longitudinal)  internal  tooth  heavy  at  base,  directed 
mesad  and  perpendicular  to  the  shaft  of  the  cercus,  distal 
third  of  cercus  directed  strongly  outward  with  broadly  rounded 
apex  external  instead  of  mesal  in  position,  this  third  decidedly 
flattened  and  slanting  toward  the  internal  margin  with  the 
flattened  portion  merging  with  the  proximal  swollen  portion 
gradually,  much  more  evenly  than  in  brevipennis.  Subgenital 
plate  with  distal  margin  truncate  between  the  very  short  disto- 
lateral  styles,  which  are  set  in  slightly  but  appreciably  raised 
sockets.  Cephalic  and  median  tibiae  with  from  one  to  all  of  the 
ventral  margins  bearing  seven,  instead  of  the  normal  six,  spines. 
Caudal  femora  heavy  and  elongate,  bearing  on  their  ventro- 
external  margins  spines  which  are  heavier  than  is  usual.  Ovi- 
positor short,  very  weakly  curved  and  virtually  straight. 

Measurements  {in  millimeters) 

3 
C  O  3  O  jj  O]^  O 

.c.  J30  J3JJ  jajs  jz% 

MT3  Mo  MS,  Ms  Mfc 

ao  au  aj?  sS  coJ 

_7i  0.J2  oa  dS  <Uc  aj" 

cr  iJ  ^  >j\                  hj^ 
Juan     Vinas,     Costa 

Rica    13-14  3.3-3.6  8.2-9.4  12.7-12.8  1.6-1.7 

Rio     Grande,     Costa 

Rica    13-14  3.3-3.6  8.2-8.6  12.3-12.4  1.7-1.8 

San  Jose,  Costa  Rica  .  12.7  3.4  8.8                  13              1.8 


9 


Length  of 
ovipositor 


Juan  Vinas,Costa  Rica  12  3.3  7.1  13.3  S.9 
Rio     Grande,     Costa 

Rica    15  3.7  8.6  13.7  9.3 

Carillo,  Costa  Rica.  .  16  3.9  8.7  14.6  10 

Carillo,  Costa  Rica  .  .  1.5  3.6  15.9  14.8  9.6 

San  Jose,  Costa  Rica  .  11.5  3.3  7  12.4  8.6 

Cincinnati,   Colombia  12.8-14.2     3.3-3.4  6.5-6.9  12-13.1  8-9.6 

La  Combre,  Colombia  15  3.4  7.6  13.7  8.6 

«'  The  single  macropterous  specimen  of  the  species  known,  has  the  tcgmina 
moderately  broad,  as  in  the  nuu-ropterous  condition  of  C.  saltator,  with  apex 
not  quite  as  narrowly  roundeil  as  in  the  bracliypterous  condition. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  263 

Color  Notes. — Males.  Head,  pronotuiii,  thorax,  togmina  and 
base  of  abdomen  forest  green;  the  niedio-dorsal  stripe  of  head 
and  pronotum  brownish  oUve  and  weakly  defined  with  no  trace 
of  pale  lateral  coloration.  Eyes  dark  brown.  All  femora  tawny, 
genicular  areas  of  caudal  femora  deep  bay,  tibiae  tawny  strongly 
washed  with  green.  All  of  abdomen  excepting  basal  portion 
mahogany  red,  cerci  of  the  same  color.  In  the  females  the 
coloration  is  less  intense,  the  abdomen  Ijeing  decidedly  less  vivid.^- 

The  perfect  material  before  us  shows  the  following  armament 
of  the  ventro-cephalic  margins  of  the  cephalic  and  median  tibiae: 
Number  of  spines,  6-6     6-7     7-7     7-8 

Specimens  with  cephalic  tibiae  so  armed,  0         4       12         1 

Specimens  with  median  tibiae  so  armed,  6         8         3         0 

Two  specimens  of  this  series  have  one  of  the  ventro-caudal 
margins  of  the  cephalic  tibiae  armed  with  but  five  spines,  while 
one  individual  has  the  ventro-caudal  margin  of  one  of  the  median 
tibiae  armed  with  seven  spines. 

The  genicular  lobes  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  bispinose, 
a  single  specimen  in  the  series  before  us  has  one  of  these  lobes 
unispinose.  The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora 
are  armed  in  the  seventeen  perfect  specimens  before  us  as  follows: 
Number  of  spines,  1-2      2-3      2-4      3-3      3-4      3-5 

Number  of  specimens,  12  15  4  1 

Number  of  spines,  4-4      4-5      4-7 

Number  of  specimens.  111 

The  present  species  is  known  from  Punta  di  Sabana  and  Colon, 
Panama,  in  addition  to  the  original  localities  and  those  given 
below.  It  appears  to  be  generally  distributed  at  somewhat 
higher  elevations  than  salfafor.  The  coloration  suggests  to  us 
the  possibility  of  the  insect  being  an  inhabitant  of  the  luxuriant 
vegetation  in  and  about  the  forests  rather  than  the  grasslands. 

Specimens  Examined:  19;  6  males,  11  females  and  2  immature  males. 

San  Jose,  Costa  Rica,  1160  meters  elevation.  (P.  BioUey),  1  9  ;  1  cf,  [all 
Hebard  Cln.]. 

Carillo,  Costa  Rica,  VIII,  to  IX,  19(«,  (C.  F.  X'nderwood),  2  9,  [Hebard 
Cln.],  (1  macr.). 

"The  females  before  us  from  South  America  are  much  discolored;  such 
poorly  preserved  material  is  foimd  to  lose  almost  all  traces  of  distinctive  color- 
ation. 

TRAXS  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


264      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Rio  Grande,  Costa  Rica,  III,  6,  1902,  (M.  Gary),  2  o^,  1  9,1  juv.  d", 
[Hebard  Gin.]. 

Juan  Vinas,  Gosta  Rica,  III,  12,  1902,  (L.  Bruner),  3  d',  1  9  ,  [Hebard  Gin.]; 
VI,  28,  1909,  (P.  P.  Calvert),  1  9  ,  [A  N.  S.  P.]. 

Zent,  Gosta  Rica,  IX,  26,  (F.  Knab),  19,1  juv.  d',  [U.  S.  N.  AI.]. 

Cincinnati  near  Santa  Marta,  Colombia,  VII,  9  to  10,  1913,  4000  to  5000  ft., 
(M.  A.  Carriker  Jr.),  3  9  ,  [Hebard  Cln.]. 

La  Gombre,  Cordillera  Occidentale  near  Call,  Colombia,  V,  19,  1914,  (H.  S. 
Parish),  1    9,  [A.  X.  8.  P.]. 

Conocephalus  unicolor  (Bruner)  (PI.  XXI,  fig.  3.) 

1915.     Conocephalus  imicolar  Bruner,  Ann.  Garneg.  Mas.,  ix,  p.  374.     (June.) 

[Gorumbd,  Brazil.]     [Macropterou.s.] 
1915.     Co7iocephalus  recticaudus    Bruner,    Ann.    Garneg.    Mus.,    ix,    p.   374. 

(June.)  (In  part?)     [Gorumba,  Brazil.]     [Brachypterous.] 

This  species,  with  C.  resacensis,^^  forms  group  E  of  the  sub- 
genus Xiphidion,  these  species  showing  a  distinct  tendency  toward 
the  general  form  of  the  male  cerci  found  in  groups  G,  H  and  I. 
The  present  insect  has  this  tendency  somewhat  the  more  pro- 
nounced, as  may  be  observed  by  reference  to  the  descriptions. 
In  general  appearance  the  specimens  before  us  resemble  large 
macropterous  individuals  of  C.  cinereus,  but  the  somewhat  nar- 
rower vertex,  longer  limbs,  larger  male  tegminal  tympanum, 
more  ample  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  heavily  armed  ventro- 
external  margins  of  caudal  femora,  distinctive  male  cerci  and 
different  ovipositor  show  how  chstinct  the  two  species  really  are. 

Description  of  d^. — Size  large,  form  graceful  but  with  limbs  and  wings 
large  and  decidedly  elongate.  Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex,  when  seen  from 
lateral  aspect,  not  strongly  but  distinctly  ascending  above  the  plane  of  the 
occiput  (much  as  in  cinereus),  fastigium  of  vertex  slightly  less  than  two-thirds 
the  width  of  proximal  antennal  joint,  nearly  two  and  one-half  times  as  deep  as 
wide  and  narrowing  with  a  very  weak  concavity  to  facial  suture.  Eyes  mod- 
erately large  and  not  unusually  protruding.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with 
cephalic  margin  straight  to  the  very  broadly  rounded  ventro-cephalic  angle, 
then  straight  to  the  sharply  rounded  ventro-caudal  angle  (which  is  distinctly  less 
than  a  right  angle),  caudal  margin  weakly  convex  to  the  broad  and  very  shallow 
humeral  sinus,  convex  callosity  distinct  and  moderately  broad.  Tegmina 
elongate,  slender,  narrowing  gradually  to  sharply  rounded  apex,  veins  and 
veinlets  very  delicate,  tympanum  large  and  distinctly  longitudinal  with  veins 
pronounced,  stridulating  vein  short  with  only  proximal  half  decidedly  swollen. 
Cerci  elongate  with  i)roximal  i)ortion  stout,  mesal  port  ion  elongate  anil  decid- 
edly but  evenly  enlarged,  at  base  (vertical  and  longitudinal)  of  mesal  tiiird  is 
situated  a  large  flattened  internal  horizontal  looth  directed  a  little  ccijlialad 

fi3  Described  in,  Trans.  Am.  Knt.  Soc.,  xli,  p.  188,  (1915). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  265 

with  immediate  apex  sharp  and  decurved,  distal  portion  of  cercus  elongate, 
horizontally  strongly  depressed,  lateral  margins  converging  evenly  and  decid- 
edly to  sharply  rounded  apex.  Subgenital  plate  with  distal  margin  weakly 
convex  between  the  short  disto-lateral  styles.  Cephalic  and  median  limbs 
well  developed  but  with  spination  not  unusually  heavy.  Caudal  femora 
elongate  with  proximal  portion  decidedly  swollen,  ventro-external  margins 
armed  with  a  number  of  very  small  stout  spines,  genicular  lobes  strongly 
bispinose,  genicular  areas  very  weakly  infuscated. 

Descripiion  of  9  . — Very  similar  to  type,  size  slightly  larger.  Tegmina 
similar  to  d'  except  for  sex  differences.  Ovipositor ''^  elongate,  nearly  straight 
but  with  a  perceptible  downward  curvature. ''=  Subgenital  plate  flat  with 
lateral  margins  turned  upward  roundly  and  embracing  the  base  of  the  ovi- 
positor, very  brief  distal  margin  of  flat  surface  transverse. 

Measurements  {in  inilliineters) 

u 

3 

"3  0=  c-  o]^  o  :rt 

Corumba,  Brazil  -3""  -5"  -"  -2'  -:  -^'' 

cj^    10.1  :i.<,)  17  15.7  2.:>  

9     17.4           3.'t  IS.  9  17.1  ....  16.4 

9     17.1  :^7  IS.  4  15.3  14.7 

The  other  female  before  us  has  the  lateral  lobes  of  the  pro- 
notuni  distinctly  shallower  with  the  ventral  margin  distinctly 
less  obliciue,  the  specimen  is  however  unciuestionably  conspecific. 

The  coloration  of  the  species  is  not  unusual,  the  general  color 
being  pale  green  (much  faded  in  these  specimens)  with  the  medio- 
longitudinal  stripe  of  head  and  pronotum  subobsolete.'^''  In  the 
male  sex  the  distal  portion  of  the  abdomen,  including  the  cerci, 
is  pale  yellow  brown;  this  is  weakly  indicated  in  the  females. 
The  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are  very  briefly  and 
weakly  infuscated. 

"  In  both  females  before  us  the  dorsal  valves  of  the  ovipositor  surpass  the 
ventral  valves  by  .7  mm.  This  is  unusual  in  the  genus  but  is  probably  of  little 
value  as  a  specific  character. 

^^  In  the  other  topotypic  female  before  us,  the  downward  curvature  of  the 
ovipositor,  though  still  suggested,  is  even  less  pronounced. 

•"^  In  but  one  of  the  three  decidedly  faded  specimens  before  us  this  stripe  is 
indicated  on  the  dorsum  of  the  vertex,  with  margins  alone  defined  by  weak 
l)arallel  lines  on  th(>  pronotum. 


TRAXS.  AM.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


266      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

In  the  three  specimens  before  us  the  armament  of  the  ventro- 
external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  is  4-4,  4-5  and  5-6  spines. 

The  species  is  an  inhabitant  of  the  lowlands  (probably  marshes) 
of  the  upper  Paraguay. 

Specimens  Examined:  3;  1  male  and  2  females. 

Corumba,  Brazil,  III,  (H.  H.  Smith),  1  d^,  2  9  ,  topotypes,  [U.  S.  N.  M.  and 
A.  N.  S.  P.]. 

Conocephalus  equatorialis  (Giglio-Tos)  (PI.  XXIII,  figs.  16  and  17.) 
1898.     X[iphidium]    equaloriale   Giglio-Tos,    Boll.    Mus.    Zool.   Anat.    comp. 
Univ.  Torino,  xiii,  no.  311,  p.  92.     [Gualaqiiiza  and  San  Jose,  Ecuador.] 

The  present  species  finds  nearest  relationship  in  C.  saltator, 
differing  from  macropterous  examples  of  that  species  in  the 
narrower  vertex,  darker  coloration  of  the  discoidal  and  anal  fields 
of  the  tegmina  and  adjacent  portions  of  the  wings  when  at  rest, 
more  iridescent  hyaline  area  of  the  wings,  green  or  greenish  cerci 
of  similar  general  form  but  distinctly  less  specialized,  and  ovi- 
positor which  is  normally  shorter  than  in  typical  saltator.  Fur- 
thermore the  present  insect  is  the  only  American  species  known 
to  us  which  always  has  the  ventro-internal  margins  of  the  caudal 
femora  armed.  In  the  examination  of  several  thousand  examples 
of  other  American  species  of  the  genus,  but  seven  specimens,  two 
C.  fasciatus  fasciatus,  one  C.  spinosus,  one  C.  saltator  and  three 
C.  attenuatus,  have  been  found  by  us  bearing  a  single  spine  on 
one  of  the  ventro-internal  margins  of  the  caudal  femora. 

Size  medium  to  small,"  form  moderately  slender.  Fastigium 
of  vertex  narrow,  greatest  width  slightly  less  than  to  slightly  more 
than  one-half^  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint,  two  and  one-half 
to  two  and  three-fourths  times  as  deep  as  broad,  narrowing  with 
scarcely  any  concavity  to  facial  suture.  Eyes  moderately  large, 
but  slightly  protruding.  Cephalic  margin  of  lateral  lobes  broadly 
convex  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle,  with  the  ventro-cephalic  angle 
very  weakly  indicated,  ventro-caudal  angle  sharply  rounded  (dis- 
tinctly less  than  a  right  angle),  caudal  margin  nearly  straight  (very 
weakly  convex)  to  the  distinct  but  shallow  humeral  sinus,  convex 

^7  The  typical  series  from  Ecuador,  of  which  a  pair  are  in  tlie  Academy, 
averages  decidedly  smaller  than  the  material  here  recorded  and  the  tegmina 
of  many  specimens  of  that  series  are  semi-macro pterous. 

"8  Material  having  this  greatest  width  of  vertex  is  from  British  Guiana,  this 
does  not  appear  to  be  the  normal  condition  for  the  species. 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  267 

callosity  moderately  broad.'''-*  Tegmina  elongate,  slender,  nar- 
rowing evenly  to  the  rather  sharply-  rounded  apex,  male  tympa- 
num much  as  in  saltcttor.  The  species  is  apparently  normally 
macropterous,  only  occasional  specimens  being  semi-macropterous 
over  the  greater  portion  of  its  range,  but  the  type  series  demon- 
strates that  in  Ecuador  a  semi-macropterous  condition  is  often 
found.  Male  cerci  similar  to  those  of  saltator  but  not  as  elon- 
gate, the  enlarged  portion  very  slightly  overhangs  the  base  of 
the  tooth  and  the  margins  of  the  distal  portion  are  slightly  con- 
vergent, thus  making  the  apex  rather  sharply  roun(l(>d.  Sub- 
genital  plate  with  distal  margin  weakly  convex  between  the  rather 
long  disto-lateral  styles.  Caudal  femora  much  as  in  saltator, 
but  with  both  ventro-external  and  ventro-internal  margins 
armed;  genicular  lobes  normally  bispinose;  genicular  areas 
apically  darkened;  the  ventro-external  margins  are  armed  in  the 
thirty-one  perfect  specimens  before  us  as  follows: 
Number  of  spines,  12      2-3      2-4      3-3      3-4      4-4 

Number  of  specimens,  1  12  19  7 

Number  of  spines,  4-5      4-6      5-3       5-5      5-6 

Number  of  specimens,  6  1111 

The  ventro-internal  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  also 
armed,  as  follows: 

Number  of  spines,  0-1       0-2       1-1       1-2       1-3      2-2 

Number  of  specimens,  9  1  7  111  2 

The  ovipositor  is  short,  slender  and  usually  almost  straight. 

Meatiwremetttti  {in  niilUnieters) 


■£>.  -52  5|  -54  -3 

M—  Mj  Mjj  M-  aft; 

^  Ji  J^  Si  c-2  p 

Rio  Mato,  Vene- 
zuela             1:3. 2-14       3.3-3.5     13.9-19.6       13  3-U       1   S-1  9 

Bartica, British  Ciui- 

ana 12.6-15.5       3-3.4       13.9-17.1     12.8-13  9     lS-1.9 

"3  In  the  original  description,  Giglio-Tos  states  that  the  convex  callosity  is 
narrow;  it  is  narrow,  but  when  (-ompared  ^"ith  the  other  American  species  we 
can  but  describe  it  as  we  have  done  above.  The  shades  of  meaning  for  such 
characters  are  very  difficult  to  express  and  uniformity  is  difficult  to  maintain 
even  in  one  and  the  same  paper. 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


268      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 


°  °l  '°s  °^  J,^ 

:S>.  :==  SB  5-3  5  3 

g"©  -i-  Ctu  C<S  CO 

O"  ^  _;  -J  -^  - 

Contamano,  Peru .  .  13.5  3.4  19.2  13.9  1.9 

Gualaquiza, Ecuador, 

imrahji>e 11  2.9  12.2  ....  1.7 

Length  of 
$  ovipositor 

Rio     Mato,     Vene- 
zuela       U  3.3  18.7  14  7.4 

Bartica,British  Gui- 
ana        13-14.5       3.3-3.7       18.7-19       13.4-14.2     7.2-8'° 

Contamano,  Peru. .      13.8-14.2     3.3-3.4       19-19.5       13.9-14.7     7.7-7.9 

Gualaquiza, Ecuador, 

pamiupe. 12  3  13.3  12.4  7.2 'i 

A  female  before  us  from  Perene,  Peru,  has  the  ovipositor  length 
8.3  mm. 

We  have  thought  it  best  to  give  the  measurements  of  the  two 
paratypes  before  us  from  Ecuador,  for  although  inseparable 
from  the  other  specimens  here  recorded,  they,  and  as  is  shown  by 
Giglio-Tos  in  his  description,  the  entire  series  from  Ecuador,  are 
decidedly  smaller  with  shorter  tegmina.  This  variation  may, 
however,  be  due  rather  to  local  environmental  conditions  than 
to  purely  geographic  influences. 

The  type  series  is  dried  alcoholic,  fresh  material  before  us  shows 
the  following  coloration.  Male:  Head  and  pronotum  (except- 
ing the  very  dark  medio-dorsal  brownish  black  stripe),  thorax, 
exposed  portions  of  the  five  proximal  dorsal  alxlominal  segments, 
entire  ventral  surface  of  abdomen,  cerci,  sul:)genital  plate,  cephalic 
and  median  limbs  and  bases  of  caudal  femora,  lettuce  green. 
Proximal  (concealed)  portion  of  dorsum  of  abdomen  dark  brown 
mesad,  bordered  laterad  with  yellowish,  distal  four  dorsal  seg- 
ments of  abdomen  and  adjacent  portions  of  caudal  femora  ochra- 
ceous  orange  fading  gradually  into  the  green  portions.     Tegmina 

'°  A  single  female  in  this  series  has  the  ovipositor  unusually  long,  9.9  mm.  in 
length. 

"Giglio-Tos  gives  7.5-8  nun.  as  tlie  extremes  of  ovipositor  length  in  the 
type  series.  Our  measurement  is  taken,  as  elsewhere  in  the  ]:)resen1  jjaper, 
from  the  base  of  the  basal  plica  to  the  ai)e\  of  the  ovipositor;  his,  doubtless 
from  the  juncture  of  subgenital  plate  and  ovipositor  to  apex  of  the  latter, 
thus  adding  on  an  average  about  .4  mm.  to  the  ovipositor  length  when  com- 
pared with  our  methoil  of  measuring  the  same. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  269 

and  adjacent  portions  of  wings  when  at  rest  very  dark  and  sug- 
gesting a  suffused  continuation  of  the  medio-dorsal  stripe,  hya- 
line portion  of  wings  iridescent  and  wing  veins  burnt  hike  (in 
this  respect  suggesting  the  otherwise  distinctive  ('.  iriodes). 
Genicular  areas  of  caudal  femora  apically  darkened.  A  darker 
phase  of  the  species  also  occurs  in  which  the  green  color  is  sup- 
planted by  yellowish  brown.  The  female  resembles  the  male  in 
coloration  excepting  that  the  abdominal  colors  are  much  paler 
and  more  indistinct. 

The  localities  given  below  and  those  of  the  type  series  define 
the  known  distribution  of  the  species. 

In  addition  to  a  paratypic  pair  from  Gualaquiza,  Ecuador,  \vc  havo  had  \h'- 
fore  us  the  following  series  of  38  specimens;  15  males  and  23  females. 

Rio  Mato,  Venezuela,  X  to  XI,  1909,  (M.  A.  Carriker  Jr.),  3  o",  1  9, 
lA.  S.  N.  P.],  (1  d"  semi-macr.). 

Bartica,  British  Guiana,  XI,  30,  1912  to  III,  6,  1913,  (H.  S.  Parish),  10  d", 
16  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (2  d"  semi-macr.). 

Rockstone,  British  Guiana,  VII,  9,  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz),  1  9  ,  [A.  M. 
N.H.]. 

Paramaribo.  Dutch  Guiana,  (K.  Mayo),  1  o',  2  9,  [A.  X.S.  P.],  (1  o^  1  9 
semi-macr.). 

Perene,  Peru,  1   9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Contamano,  Rio  Ucayali,  Peru,  X  to  XII,  1912,  1  c^,  2  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
{dr.  alch.). 

Conocephaius  saltator    (Saussure)  (PI.  XXII,  fig.   16;  XXIIl,   18,  19,  20' 

21,  22  and  23.  i 
1859.     Xiiphi'lium]  saltator  Saussure,  Rev.  et  Mag.  de  Zool.  2e  ser.  xi,  p.  208. 

[Guiana.]     [Macropterous    9  •] 
1875.     Xiphulium    meridionale  Scudder,  Proc.   B<;)st.    Soc.    Xat.   Hist.,    xvii, 

p.  460.     [Brazil.]     [Brachypterous  9 .] 
1901.     Xiphi'lvnn  propinquum  Redtenbacher,   Vorh.  k.-k.   zool.-bot.   Gesell. 

Wien,   xli,   p.   522.     [Guatemala;   Merida,   Venezuela;  St.   Vincent,   Lesser 

Antilles.]     [Brachypterous  series.] 
1901.     Xiphrliiim  hrachypterum  Redtenbacher,  \'crh.  k.-k.    yahA. -hoi.  Gesell. 

Wien,  xli,  p.  523.     [Venezuela;  Colombia;   Brazil;  Peru.]      [Brachypterous 

series.] 

The  description  of  saltator  is  very  brief,  but,  although  we  iiave 
been  unable  to  examine  the  type,  \\c  are  convinced  that  it  con- 
stitutes the  basis  of  the  present  species.  The  present  insect  is 
the  dominant  species  in  the  Guianas,  tlie  only  other  form  found 
there  to  which  could  apply  Saussure's  very  bric^f  description  being 
macropterous  C.  cinereus,  which  speci(>s  we  have  from  ("ayeime, 

TR.\NS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


270      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

French  Guiana,  labelled  fasciatus  bj^  Saussure.  Scudder's  type 
of  meridionalis,  now  before  us,  is  a  female  showing  the  extreme 
of  the  braehypterous  condition  and  having  a  decidedly  longer 
and  weakly  (though  more  noticeably)  curved  ovipositor  than 
normal;  this  specimen  he  quite  naturally  believed  to  be  an  unde- 
scribed  species.  It  remained  for  Redtenbacher,  however,  to 
throw  the  nomenclature  surrounding  this,  the  dominant  and  most 
plastic  species  in  tropical  America,  into  hopeless  confusion.  In 
1891  that  author,  in  his  "Monographic  der  Conocephaliden," 
sorted  out  all  macropterous  examples  of  the  present  species, 
recording  them  as  X.  Jasciatum  and  probably  as  A',  saltator  in 
company  with  other  macropterous  examples  of  fasciatus,  cinereus 
and  probably  other  species;  he  then,  having  divided  the  braehyp- 
terous material  into  two  series,  erected  the  synonyms  propincpium 
and  hrachypterum,  suggesting  the  affinity  of  iiemorale  (for  which 
he  erected  the  synonym  X.  curtipenne  on  the  previous  page)  and 
gossijpii  (Scudder's  synonym  of  C.  hrevipennis)  to  propin- 
qman,  and  Scudder's  meridionale  to  hrachypterum — the  value  of 
the  resultant  key  may  be  imagined.  Without  long  study  of  the 
series  which  Redtenbacher  had  before  him  it  will  be  impossible 
to  say  to  what  species  each  individual  record  belongs,  but  the 
data  given  above  will  need  but  little  modification.  Karny,  in  his 
"Revisio  Conocephalidarum,"  has  made  few  changes  from  Red- 
tenbacher's  work  which  paper  has  succeeded  only  in  bringing  con- 
fusion to  the  study  of  this  and  doubtless  the  other  American 
groups  of  the  subfamily.  The  species  is  to  be  found  in  the  lit- 
erature frequently  quoted  as  the  above  synonyms  and  also  as 
fasciatus  J  ~ 

This  insect,  whose  position  in  the  genus  is  between  C.  equato- 
rialis  and  C.  borelli  in  group  G  of  the  subgenus  Xiphidion,  is  the 
most  abundant  and  widely  distributed  of  the  tropical  American 
species.  As  is  often  the  case  with  such  species  very  great  varia- 
tion is  found,  and  in  the  present  case  material  from  various  por- 
tions or  often  from  the  same  portion  of  its  range  exhibits  diversity 
in  width  of  vertex,  form  of  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  length 
and  form  of  tegmina,  production  of  male  c(>rci  (which,  however, 
never  differentiate  from  the  typical  general  contour,  thus  fixing 

"Recorded  by  Giglio-'I'os,  lioU.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  com]).  I'liiv.  Torino,  ix, 
no.  ISI,  ]).  40,  (1894),  as  A'.  Jaaciahuit  fr,)in  Sai\  I'cdro  Province,  Farafiuay, 
and  as  A',  hrnchiiplcritm  from  Asuncion  and  San  I'chIto  Province,  Paraguay, 
(macropterous  and  l)rachyi)1('rous  examples  prot)ably). 


REHN    AXD    HEBARD  271 

with  certainty  males  of  the  species),  length  and  degree  of  weak 
curvature  or  straightness  of  the  ovipositor,  coloration  of  the 
genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  and  armament  of  the  ventro- 
external  margins  of  the  same.  Even  in  the  armament  of  the 
ventro-cephalic  margins  of  the  cephalic  and  median  tibiae,  three 
specimens  from  Dominica  and  Trinidad  have  seven  instead  of  the 
normal  six  spines,  a  condition  elsewhere  found  in  the  American 
species  only  in  C.  angustifrons,  in  which  form  it  apparently 
always  occurs.  It  would  seem  that  several  species  or  at  least 
geographic  races  must  exist,  but  this  is  certainly  not  the  case. 
Certain  variations,  it  is  true,  are  found  to  be  the  usual  condition 
over  certain  regions,  but  these  are  not  fixed,  and  the  same  varia- 
tion can  almost  invariably  be  found  in  other  more  t^'pical  series; 
often  two  series  of  the  most  distinctive  appearing  variations  are 
from  the  same  locality  and  we  are  inclined  to  believe  that  immedi- 
ate environment  has  as  much  or  more  to  do  with  the  majority  of 
such  differences  as  geographic  influences. 

The  species  has  been  compared  with  its  nearest  ally,  ('.  equa- 
torialis,  under  that  species. 

As  the  species  is  nowhere  fully  described  we  here  give  the  char- 
acters for  a  typical  male  and  female  as  a  basis  for  further  discus- 
sion of  the  characters  and  variations  of  the  species. 

Bartica,  British  Guiana,  I,  10,  1913,  (H.  S.  Parish),  [A.  X.  S.  P.].  Size 
medium,  form  moderately  slender.  Vertex  not  strongly  but  distinctly  ascend- 
ing. Fastigium  of  vertex  moderately  broad,  greatest  width  two-thirds  that  of 
proximal  antennal  joint,  when  seen  from  front  about  twice  as  deep  as  broad, 
narrowing  with  a  weak  concavity  to  facial  suture.  Exes  moderately  hirge 
and  but  shghtly  protruding.  Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with  cephalic  margin 
broadly  arcuate  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  with  the  ventro-cejihalic  angle  very 
weakly  indicated,  ventro-caudal  angle  sharply  rounded  (distinctly  less  than  a 
right  angle),  caudal  margin  almost  straight  (nearly  imperceptibly  subsinuate), 
humeral  sinus  subobsolete,  convex  callosity  very  narrow  (often  sulxibsolete). 
Tegmina  elongate,  moderately  broad,  narrowing  evenly  to  the  rather  sharjjly 
rounded  apex;  male  tegminal  tympanum  not  large,  weakly  longitudinal, 
stridulating  vein  not  unusually  elongate.  Male  cerci  decidedly  elongate, 
proximal  portion  stout,  widening  strongly  and  briefly  swollen  so  as  to  over- 
hang a  small  ventro-internal  tooth,  which  is  situated  at  the  proximal  base  of 
the  mesal  portion  and  directed  meso-proximad  with  the  sharp  apex  strongly 
decurved,  from  near  the  base  of  this  tooth  to  the  apex  of  the  cercus  the  entire 
cercus  (excepting  the  proximo-external  portion)  is  very  greatly  ilepresseil, 
slanting  strongly  toward  the  internal  margin,  this  elongate  portion  is  not  in  a 
line  with  the  base  of  the  cercus  but  is  directed  moderately  ovitward  so  that  the 

TR.\N-S.  .\.M.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


272      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

external  margin  of  the  cercus  is  broadly  concave,  the  distal  produced  portion 
has  the  margins  subparallel  with  the  apex  rather  broadly  rounded.  Subgenital 
plate  with  distal  margin  weakly  convex  between  the  rather  short  disto-lateral 
styles  (which  are  very  slightly  shorter  than  in  equatorialis) .  Caudal  femora  not 
elongate  for  the  genus,  proximal  portion  decidedly  swollen,  ventro-external 
margins  bearing  a  few  small  spines.  Ovipositor  moderately  long,  very  slender 
and  very  weakly  curved  (almost  straight). 

Two  brachypterous  examples  from  the  same  locality  agree  in  every  respect 
excepting  in  the  humeral  sinus,  which  is  wholly  obsolete, '»  and  in  tegminal 
and  wing  length. 

Series  from  Venezuela  and  Panama  agree  almost  perfectly 
with  those  from  Guiana.  The  brachypterous  specimens  demon- 
strate that  the  degree  of  sharpness  of  the  rounded  apex  of  the 
tegmina  varies  somewhat,  as  does  also  the  degree  of  reduction  of 
the  tegmina. ^^ 

Large  series  from  Trinidad  show  numerous  specimens  with  the 
vertex  very  slightly  narrower  than  normal,  while  the  majority  of 
the  large  macropterous  males  and  two  large  brachypterous  males 
■  have  the  cerci  abnormally  elongate,  the  flattened  distal  portion 
being  greatly  produced  and  curved  outward  with  the  immediate 
apex  sharply  rounded.  This  condition  is  due  to  elongation  and  is 
decidedly  variable  in  degree ;  the  extremes  would  suggest  distinct 
specific  status,  but  in  general  contour  no  differences  exist  and  all 
intermediate  conditions  are  present. 

The  smallest  brachypterous  individuals  from  Trinidad  agree 
well  with  a  depauperate  condition  found  predominant  in  the 
Lesser  Antilles.  These  specimens  are  distinctly  smaller  than 
typical  brachypterous  material,  the  male  cerci  are  slightly 
more  attenuate  while  the  ovipositor  is  shorter,  some  individuals 
showing  as  well  the  extreme  condition  of  tegminal  al)l)reviation 
for  the  species. 

A  series  of  large  macropterous  and  brachypterous  specimens 
from  Philadelphia,  Costa  Rica,  have  the  cerci  decidedly  produced 

'3  Macropterism  is  often,  if  not  always,  accompanit  d  by  an  api)r(  ciable  jiro- 
duction  of  the  caudal  margin  of  the  dorsum  of  tlu-  i)r()notinn  and  a  rosultai.t 
increase  in  the  depth  of  the  humeral  sinus. 

'*  This  variation,  the  weakly  or  not  suffused  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal 
femora  and  th(>  very  weakly  arcuate  or  almost  straight  ovipositor,  appears  to 
constitute  the  means  by  which  Rcnltenbacher  sei)arated  his  series  into  what 
he  called  brachyplermn  and  prnpittquum.  Careful  consideration  would  have 
shown  these  characters  to  be  mere  variations  and  ea<'h  found  to  various  degrees 
in  various  specimens. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  273 

but  not  to  the  degree  of  the  maximum  from  Trinidad.  Other 
specimens  from  Guatel,  Costa  Rica,  are  normal  in  this  and  other 
characters. 

Southward  from  Guiana  through  Brazil  the  insect  appears 
to  become  slightly  more  robust.  In  a  series  from  Contanamo, 
Peru,  this  is  appreciable,  while  in  these  the  brachypterous  speci- 
mens have  the  humeral  sinus  very  weakly  indicated  and  the 
macropterous  specimens  have  it  slightly  more  decided.  The 
male  cerci  of  these  specimens  are  also  slightly  more  robust. 

A  series  from  Santa  Ana,  Peru,  taken  at  an  elevation  of  three 
thousand  feet,  are  all  verj'  depauperate,  averaging  the  smallest 
of  any  series  l^efore  us,  but  otherwise  normal. 

The  consideral)le  series  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Brazil  and  Sapu- 
cay,  Paraguay,  shows  the  features  found  in  the  series  from  Con- 
tanamo, Peru, still  more  pronounced,  though  with  some  individual 
variation,  in  the  Sapucay  females  the  ovipositor  shows  the  great- 
est length  found  in  the  species  excepting  in  the  females  from  the 
Alto  Parana  (Puerto  Cantera),  Paraguay. 

The  only  geographic  differences  appear  to  be  the  slight  increase 
in  general  robustness  in  the  southward  (listril)ution  in  South 
America  and  various  ranges  in  ovipositor  length,  which,  when  we 
consider  the  plasticity  of  the  species,  certainly  do  not  warrant 
the  erection  of  a  geographic  race. 

Mcdsurcmettts  {in  nnl'imeters)  of  extreiytes 


O  o3  O-  C~  O 

_r._  ^'q  _;;0  ^~  _~    "> 

M-j'  Mc  5fii_  ^-  ifii 

■71                          t^  ta.  Si  Ci;  £u 

Long     Dittoii, 

Dominica     ...        11.7-14  2.9-3.3  5.8-0.3  11-11   7  2-2.2 

Philadelphia, 

Costa  Rica...           13.5  3.2  18  9  13.6  2.3 

Philadelphia, 

Costa  Rica...      13.2-14.8  3. 3-3.(5  0.0-7.(1  13.4-14.2  2.3-2.4 

Rio  Mato,  Ven- 
ezuela        1.5 .  .5-16 .5  3.2-3.3  10.9-19.7  129  2  . 3-2 . 4 

La  Piedrita,  Ven- 
ezuela             12.5  3.4  0.3  13.7  2.3 

Caparo,Trini(la<l      14.3-10.4  3-3.4  15-18  9  12-14.3  2.1-2.0 


TRANS.  AM.  EXT.  .SQC,  XLI. 
18 


274      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


o  c  3  2  a  03^  O 

ja  JO  ;=§  jafl  j;2 

S-o  "m§  Mg)  "!'§  Mg 

flo  ct-  re  fls  Co 

QJ^  CC-  "^fJ  G>o  wO 


Caparo,  Trinidad  14.2-15.2  3.1-3.3  6.4-6.5  11.7-13.8  2-2.6 
Bartica,     British 

Guiana 13.3-15. 3  3 . 2-3 .7  17 . 3-18 .8  12 . 6-14  2-2 . 2 

Bartica,      British 

Guiana 14  3.7  7.4                13.3  2.2 

Para,  Brazil  ...  .          13.3  3.1  17.3               12.7  2 

Tijuca,  Brazil    .  .  11.5-13.4  2.7-3.3  7.1-7.2  11-13.3  1.8-2.2 
Chanchamayo, 

Peru    15.4  3.4  20.4                13.9  2.3 

Contamano,  Peru  13.4-13.6  3-3.3  17.4-18.9  12.8-13.4  2-2.1 

Contamano,  Peru  11.8-13.4  3.1-3.6  7.3-7.9  12.7-12.8  1.9-2.2 
Santa  Ana,  Peru, 

3000  ft 10 . 8-12  . 7  3-3 .4  6 . 3-8 .6  10 . 3-12  1 . 9-2 

Sapucay,Paraguay  15-165  3.6-3.7  20  13.4-14.4  2.1-2.2 

Sapucay,Paraguay  12.9-15.4  3.3-3.6  7.3-8.8  12.1-13.7  2.1-2.3 
Extreme  range  of 

variation    ....  10.8-16.5  2.9-3.7  5.8-8.8  10.3-14.4  2-2.6 

15-20.4 


-t3 .  JO  —'a  Aj^  J  d 

&•§  ^e  =?!  S'i  gf 

9               ^^  ^°-  ^"  ^^  -2  = 

Laudet,  Dominica          12.8  3.2  3.3  8.4 

Long     Ditton, 

Dominica....      12.2-14.3  3.7-3.8  3.3-4.2  12.9  9-9.9 

Philadelphia, 

Costa  Rica  ..  .        14.5-18  3.6-3.7  19.2-20.1  14.8-15.2  12.9-13 

Philadelphia, 

Costa  Rica...          14.5  3.8  6.1  15.8  12.8 

Rio  Mato,  Ven- 
ezuela          14-16 . 5  3 . 3-3 .7  17 . 3-19 . 2  13 . 8-15  10 . 6-11 . 8 

La  Piedrita,  Ven- 
ezuela        12 . 5-13 .8  3 . 4-3 . 6  4-5 .2  13 . 1-15  10 . 4-1 1 

Caparo,  Trinidad       15.5-18  3.6-3.7  16.7-19  14.9-15.9  9.9-12.1 

Caparo,  Trinidad        15.5-16  3.7-3.8  5.1-5.2  14,2-15.3  11-11.1 

Trinidad 12.7  3.4  3.7  12.8  9.7 

Bartica,      British 

Guiana" 14.6-15.3  3.4-3.6  17.7-19.4  13.8-14  9.7-10.6 

'5  This  series  is  topotypic  and,  agreeing  in  every  respect  with  t  he  brief  orig- 
inal description,  may  be  considered  typical. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD 


_  o 

5  3 


St.  Jean,   French 

Guiana 14  3.3  18.2  14.3                12.7 

Brazil.     {Type  of 

meridionalc.)  .  .  13.2  3.7  5.1  13.1              12.7'« 

Tijuca,  Brazil    ..  13.3-15  3.6-3.8  4.4-5.0  13.4-15       11.7-13.4 

Perene,  Peru 14  3.3  20.8  13.4               11.7 

Contamano,  Peru  14.8  3.5  19  13.6               11.6 

Contamano,  Peru  13-14 .7  3 . 6-3 .8  4 . 9-5 .2  13.7-14. 3     10 . 3-1 1 . 7 
Santa  Ana,  Peru, 

3000  ft 12.3  3.3  5.6  V2                 10.6 

Alto  Parana,  Par- 
aguay   14   1  3.7  21  14.6                14.1 

Puerto    Canteni, 

Paraguay 17.4-19.2  3.4-4  20.2-21.7  14.1-14.6     12.7-14.9 

Puerto     Cant  era, 

Paraguay 15.2  3.8  7.1  14.6              13.4 

Sapucay,Paraguay  15.7-16,4  3.4-3.8  18.8-21.3  13.4-14.2     13. 3-13. S 

Sapucay,Paraguay  14-16.6  3.3-3.8  4.8-5.7  13-13  8         12-13.3 
Extreme  range  of 

variation 12 . 2-19  . 2  3  2-4  3 . 3-6 .1  12-15.9        8 . 4-14  . 9 

16.7-21.7 

In  this  species  the  head  and  pronotum  (excepting  for  a  well 
defined,  but  not  very  dark,  brown  medio-longitudinal  stripe), 
limbs  (excepting  that  the  genicular  areas  of  the  caudal  femora  are 
often  somewhat,  but  not  heavih%  suffused  with  l^rown),  thorax 
and  proximal  exposed  portion  of  abdomen,  green;  dorsum,  and 
in  males  all  of  distal  portion  of  al)domen  including  cerci  (which 
are  in  some  series  uniform  in  color,  but  in  others  nuich  suffused 
with  green)  tawny  with  paler  lateral  stripes  weakly  indicated  in 
concealed  proximal  portion.  Females  have  the  dorsum  of  the 
abdomen  usually  uniform  tawny  or  ])rownish,  but  in  some  exam- 
ples the  paler  lateral  stripes  appear  and  are  occasionally  con- 
tinued to  the  base  of  the  ovipositor. 

The  ventro-cephalic  margins  of  the  cephalic  femora  ar(>  armed 
with  6  and  7  spines  in  three  spcM'imens  l)efore  us,  and  with  7  and 
7  in  one.     Three  of  these  are  from  Long  Ditton,  Dominica,  the 

"'  Scudder  gives  the  ovipositor  length  as  13  mm.  Our  measurement  of  this 
dimension  are  all  taken  from  the  base  of  the  basal  plica  to  the  ajiex  of  the  ovi- 
positor, hence  the  slight  differvnce. 

TR.\XS.  .\M.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


0-0 

0-1 

0-2 

0-3 

0-4 

1-1 

1-2 

5 

11 

9 

1 

1 

15 

20 

1-3 

1-4 

1-5 

2-2 

2-3 

2-4 

2-5 

10 

6 

1 

19 

23 

12 

1 

3-3 

3-4 

3-5 

3-6 

4-4 

4-5 

5-5 

13 

26 

5 

1 

7 

6 

2 

276      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

other  from  Port  of  Spain,  Trinidad,  which  specimen  has  the  ven- 
tro-cephahc  margins  of  the  median  femora  armed  with  7  and  7 
spines.  In  these  specimens  the  extra  (proximal)  seventh  spine 
is  decidedly  smaller  than  any  of  the  others  and  abnormal  in  ap. 
pearance;  in  C.  a7igustifrons  this  spine  is  much  more  like  the 
other  six. 

The  ventro-external  margins  of  the  caudal  femora  are  armed 
in  the  one  hundred  and  ninetj'-four  perfect  specimens  before  us 
as  follows: 
Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens. 
Number  of  spines, 
Number  of  specimens, 
Number  of  spines. 
Number  of  specimens, 

Of  the  five  specimens  with  these  margins  unarmed,  four  are 
.from  Trinidad  and  one  from  Venezuela.  The  Paraguayan  series 
average  nearer  the  maximum  number  than  do  the  others  and  one 
specimen  bears  a  single  spine  on  one  of  the  ventro-internal  mar- 
gins as  well;  otherwise  every  series  exhibits  about  the  same 
amount  of  variability. 

The  genicular  lo])es  of  the  caudal  femora  are  normally  bispinose, 
in  the  series  before  us  one  of  these  lobes  is  unispinose  in  thirteen 
specimens,  two  are  so  in  one  specimen,  while  all  are  in  this  con- 
dition in  one. 

Specimens  Examined:  276;  114  males,  1.51  females,  4  immature  males  and  7 
immature  females. 

Montserrat,  West  Indies,  III,  1,  1S94,  (H.  G.  Hubbard),  1  o^  [U.  S.  N.  M.], 

(brach.). 

Pointe  a  Pitre,  Guadeloupe,  West  Indies.  VI.  6,  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz), 
2  d^,  1  9.  [A.  M.N.  H.],  (brach.). 

Roseau,  Dominica,  West  Indies,  VI,  S,  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz),  1  d', 
[A.  M.  N.  H.],  (brach.). 

Laudet,  Dominica,  West  Indies,  VI,  12,  1911.  (Crampton  and  Lutz),  1  cf , 
1   9,  [A.  M.  N.  H.],  (brach.). 

Long  Ditton,  Dominica,  West  Indies,  VI,  20.  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz), 
7  cf,4  9.  [A.  M.  N.  H.],  (brach.). 

Martinique,  West  Indies,  VII,  26,  190.5,  (A.  Ikisck),  1  9,  [V.  S.  X.  M.], 
(brach.). 

Saint  Lucia,  West  Indies,  XI,  25,  1912,  (H.  8.  Parish),  1  9,  [A.  X.  8.  P.], 
Macr.). 

San  Mateo,  Costa  Rica,  I,  1903,  250  meters  elevation,  (P.  BioUey),  1  9, 
Hcbard  Chi.],  (macr.). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  277 

Rio  Grande,  Costa  Rica,  III,  G,  1912,  (M.  Gary),  1  Q,  [Hebard  Gin.], 
(brach.). 

Pozo  Azul,  Gosta  Rica,  1    9  ,  [Hcbard  Gin.],  (macr.) 

Juan  Viiias,  Gosta  Rica,  XI,  1906,  (Wni.  .Schaus),  1  9,  [r.  S.  X.  M.j, 
(brach.). 

Siquirres,  Gosta  Rica,  VII,  3,  1903,  (M.  A.  Garrikcr  Jr.),  2  9,  [Hcbard  Gin.], 
(1  brach.). 

Guatel,  Gosta  Rica,  IV,  20  to  22,  1902,  (G.  F.  Underwood),  1  cf ,  2  9,  [He- 
bard  Gin.],  (brach.). 

Philadelphia  Banana  Ranch,  Gosta  Rica,  (F.  Knab),  5  d",  4  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.], 
(3  cf,  1    9   brach.). 

Ancon,  Ganal  Zone,  Panama,  XI,  12  and  l(i,  1913,  (Hebard;  lush  grasses  on 
hillside).  3  cf ,  3  9,  [Hebard  Gin.],  (brach.). 

Old  Panama,  Panama,  XI,  13.  1913,  (Hebard;  grasses  near  jungle),  3  d',  3 
9,  [Hebard  Ghi.],  (brach.). 

Zone  limit  three  miles  west  of  Empire,  Panama,  XI,  14,  1913,  (Hebard; 
grasses  near  jungle),  2  c?,  [Hebard  Gin.],  (brach.). 

Gulebra,  Ganal  Zone,  Panama,  (H.  H.  Rousseau),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.],  (macr.; 
dr.  alch.). 

Buenaventura,  Golombia,  V,  7  and  S,  1914,  (H.  S.  Parish),  2  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
(brach.). 

Gali,  Golombia,  V,  2(5,  1914,  (H.  S.  Parish),  1   9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (brach.). 

San  Esteban,  Venezuela,  X  to  XI,  1910,  (M.  A.  Garriker  .Jr.),  2  d",  2  9,1 
juv.  o^,  [A.  X.  S.  P.]. 

La  Guira,  Venezuela,  (Robinson),  1   9,  [M.  G.  Z.],  (macr.). 

Rio  Mato,  Venezuela,  X  and  XI,  1909,  (M.  A.  Garriker  .Jr.),  3  d",  0  9, 
[A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr.). 

Las  Quiguas,  Venezuela,  IX,  1910,  (M.  A.  Garriker  Jr.),  2  d",  2  9,2  juv. 
9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (adults  brach.). 

Gariaquito,  Venezuela,  I,  18  to  22,  1911,  (8.  Brown),  1  d^,  4  9,1  juv.  cd, 
[A.  X.  S.  P.],  (adults  brach.). 

La  Piedrita,  Venezuela,  II,  16,  1911,  (.S.  Brown),  2  o^,  5  9,  [A.  X.  .S.  P.], 
(brach.). 

Buelta  Tri.ste,  Venezuela,  II,  20,  1911,  (S.  Brown),  1  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
(brach.). 

Port  of  Spain,  Trinidad,  VI,  19  to  20,  190.3,  (A.  Busck),  5  d',  2  9, 
[U.S.X.  M.],  (2  d"  macr.). 

Gaparo,  Trinidad,  VIII,  1913,  (S.  M.  Klages).  15  o^  28  9,  [Hel)anl  Gin.], 
(2  d^,  .5    9  brach.). 

Heights  of  Aripo,  Trinidad,  VIII,  20  to  IX.  21,  1909,  (M.  A.  Garriker  Jr.), 
4  d',  7  9,2  juv.  d,  1  juv.  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (1  o",  2  9  macr.). 

Garenage,  Trinidad,  VIII,  1909,  (M.  A.  Garriker  Jr.),  2  d",  1  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
(9   macr.). 

Bartica,  British  Guiana,  XII,  3,  1912,  to  III,  28.  1913,  (H.  S.  Parish),  11  d, 
21  9  ]A.  X.  S.  P.],  (1  d,  brach.);  V,  8,  1901,  (R.  J.  Grew,  1  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.], 
(macr.). 

TRAX.S.   AM.  EXT.   SOC,  XLI. 


278      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

Georgetown,   British  Guiana,  VII,  2,   1911,    (Crampton  and  Lutz),   1    cf, 
[A.  M.  N.  H.],  (macr.). 

Rockstone,  British  Guiana,  VII,  S  and  9,  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz),  1  d", 
1   9,  [A.  M.  N.  H.],  (9  macr.). 

Tumatumari,  British  Guiana,  VII,  11,  1911,  (Crampton  and  Lutz),  2   d", 
[A.  M.N.H.],  (Imacr.). 

Paramaribo,  Dutch  Guiana,  (K.  Mayo),  4  d',  5  9,  [A.  N.  S.  P.],  (2  d^,  4  9 
macr.). 

St.  Jean,  Maroni  River,  French  Guiana,  VI,  (Wm.  Schaus),  1  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.], 
(macr.). 

Pard,  Brazil,  (C.  F.  Baker),  1  d^,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr.). 

Igarape-Assu,  Para,  Brazil,  I,  17,  1912,  (H.  8.  Parish),  1  d",  [A.  S.  X.  P.], 
(macr.). 

Tijuca,  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Brazil,  IV,  9  to  11,  1913,  (M.  Burr),  8  d',  5  9,1 
juv.   9 ,  [A.  N.  S.  P.  and  Oxford  Univ.  Mus.]. 

Perene,  Peru,  III,  1900,  1   9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr.). 

Chanchamayo,  Peru,  1  d",  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr.). 

Santa  Ana,  Eastern  Peru,  3000  ft.,  (Yale  Peruvian  Exp.  1911),  5  d',  1  9, 
1  juv.   9  ,  [U.  S.  N.  M.],  (adults  brach.,  dr.  alch.). 

Contamano,  Rio  Ucayali,  Peru,  X  to  XII,  1912,  10  d',  3  9,1  juv.  9, 
[A.  N.  S.  P.],  (3  d^,  1   9  macr.,  dr.  alch.). 

Alto  Parand,  Paraguay,  III,  1914,  1  9  ,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr.). 

Puerto  Cantera,  Alto  Parana,  Paraguay,  XII,  9,  1913,  (C.  Schrottky),  3  9 , 
[A.  X.  S.  P.],  (2  macr.)." 

Sapucay,  Paraguay,  I,  5-III,  21,  1900  to  1905,  (W.  T.  Foster),  7  c?,  19  9, 
1  juv.  9  ,  [U.  S.  X.  M.  and  Hebard  Cln.],  (3  d',  9  9  macr.). 

Conocephalus  borelli  (Giglio-Tos)  (PI.  XXII,  figs.  21  and  24.) 
1897.     X[iphi(liu)»]   borellii  Giglio-Tos,    Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  comp.  LTniv. 
Torino,  xii,  no.  302,  p.  41.     [San  Lorenzo  and  Caiza,  Bolivia.] 

The  present  insect  is  represented  in  the  material  before  us  by 
but  two  females,  which  agree  with  the  original  description  but 
are  slightly  larger  than  the  maximum  measurements. 

These  specimens  show,  as  Giglio-Tos  states,  that  the  species  is 
very  near  C.  saltator  (that  author,  however,  using  the  synonymous 
name  X.  hrachypterum).  When  compared  with  brachypterous 
but  otherwise  typical  females  of  saltator,  we  find  our  specimens, 
as  Giglio-Tos  has  observed,  to  be  differentiated  by  the  decidedly 

"  This  series  has  been  recorded  in  part  by  Caudell,  the  macropterous  indi- 
viduals correctly,  the  brachypterous  examples  as  the  synonymous  merulionale, 
Proc.  U.  S.  Xat.  Mus.,  xxx,  p.  242,  (1906),  and  macropterous  specimens 
correctly  by  Rehn,  Proc.  Acad.  Xat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1907,  p.  393,  (1907).  In 
following  Redtenbacher's  Monograph,  subsequent  authors  have  ahnost  with- 
out exception  been  led  into  the  error  of  considering  the  macropterous  and 
brachypterous  conditions  of  llie  present  insect  separate  specific  units. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  279 

broader  tegmina  with  apices  truncate  and  very  broadly  rounded 
(very  much  more  so  than  in  any  examples  of  saltator),  with  veins 
decidedly  less  cUstinct  and  by  the  much  more  decidedly  curved 
ovipositor.  The  males  are  said  to  have  the  distinguishing  char- 
acters of  the  tegmina  equally  pronounced.  We  find  the  wings 
of  the  females  to  be  distinctly  aborted,  but  not  reduced  to  a 
filiform  condition.  We  do  not  consider  the  incision  of  tiie  female 
subgenital  plate  given  by  Giglio-Tos  to  be  of  any  value. 

In  addition  to  the  characters  given  above,  we  would  say  that 
in  the  specimens  before  us  the  form  is  distinctly  heavier  than 
even  the  extreme  of  this  tendency  found  in  saltator  in  Paraguay'. 
The  eyes  are  distinctly  larger  and  more  protruding,  while  the 
vertex  is  narrower  than  is  normal  in  saltator,  being  slightly  less 
than  two-thirds  the  width  of  the  proximal  antennal  joint,  and 
decidedly  deeper,  being  two  and  three-fourths  times  as  deep  as 
greatest  width,  with  sides  distinctly  but  weakly  convergent, 
almost  straight.  The  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum  have  the 
cephalic  margin  broadly  rounded  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  with 
the  ventro-cephalic  angle  weakly  indicated,  the  ventro-caudal 
angle  is  sharply  rounded,  the  caudal  margin  straight  with  the 
humeral  sinus  absent,  the  convex  callosity  is  very  narrow.  The 
latero-dorsal  pale  bands  of  the  abdomen  are  slightly  more  dis- 
tinct than  in  any  specimens  of  saltator  before  us,  while  the  gen- 
icular areas  are  contrastingly  darkened.  The  ovipositor  is  not 
only  more  decidedly  curved  than  in  that  species  but  differs  also 
in  shape,  narrowing  appreciabh'  from  the  median  point  to  the 
acute  apex,  which  narrowing  begins  in  saltator  near  the  apex  as 
is  normal  for  the  great  majority  of  the  American  species.  The 
specimens  before  us  have  the  ventro-external  margins  of  the 
caudal  femora  armed  with  4  and  5  and  5  and  5  spines,  which  are 
heavier  than  normal  in  the  allied  species.  Their  measurenumts 
are:  length  of  body  15.5-16.3,  pronotum  3.7-4,  tegmen  3  3.9, 
caudal  femur  15.4-16,  ovipositor  9.7-10.1  and  width  of  tc^gmen 
2.6-2.7  mm. 

Specimeiis  Examined:  2;  2  females. 

Sapucay,  Paraguay,  I,  24,  to  25  ami  II,  1901,  (\V.  T.  Fo^^ter),  2  9  [V .  S.  X. 
M.  and  Hcbard  Cln.].  (t^rach.). 


TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


280      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

Conocephaius  truncatus   (Redtenbacher)    (PI.  XXII,  figs.   7,   17  and  22; 

XXIII,  24  and  25;  XXIV,  7). 
1901.     Xiphidium  truncatum  Redtenbacher,     Verb.    k.-k.     zool.-bot.   Gesell. 

Wien,   xli,   p.   522.     [Brazil] 

In  general  form,  tegminal  structure,  vertex  and  male  cerci 
the  present  insect  shows  its  close  affinity  to  C.  versicolor  and  C. 
ochrotelus.  In  the  last  two  characters  it  more  closely  agrees  with 
the  former  species;  the  cerci  are,  however,  less  elongate  with 
swollen  portion  overhanging  the  tooth  more  decided  and  distal 
portion  narrowing  to  a  sharper  apex.  In  the  tegminal  structure 
close  affinity  is  shown  to  ochrotelus.  In  coloration  and  unarmed 
ventral  margins  of  the  caudal  femora,  it  agrees  with  neither  of 
the  above  species. 

Size  medium,  form  moderately  robust.  Vertex  not  strongly 
but  distinctly  ascending,  narrow,  greatest  width  one-half  that  of 
proximal  antennal  joint,  about  two  and  three-fourths  times  as 
deep  as  wide,  sides  straight  and  very  weakly  convergent.  Eyes 
moderately  large  and  decidedly  protruding.  Antennae  greenish 
with  each  joint  weakly  annulate  with  brown  at  the  suture,  not 
of  the  extreme  length  found  in  versicolor.  Lateral  lobes  of  pro- 
notum  with  cephalic  margin  convex  to  the  sharply  rounded  ven- 
tro-caudal  angle,  ventro-cephalic  angle  weakly  defined,  caudal 
margin  subsinuous,  almost  straight,  humeral  sinus  absent,  convex 
callosity  very  narrow.  Tegmina  of  male  similar  to  those  of 
ochrotelus  but  with  veinlets  distinct  and  large  tympanum  con- 
siderably more  elongate,  distinctly  longitudinal;  wings  small  and 
aborted,  about  half  as  long  as  tegmina.  Tegmina  of  female  small 
rounded  pads,  usually  overlapping  dorsad;  wings  small  aborted 
pads  of  nearly  equal  length.  Male  cerci  with  liasal  third  mod- 
erately stout,  mesal  third  distinctly  swollen  and  decidedly  pro- 
duced above  a  rather  long  and  slender  ventral  tooth,  which  is 
straight  to  the  sharp  and  decurved  apex,  the  tooth  situated 
proximad  of  the  middle  and  directed  meso-proximad,  distal 
portion  of  cercus  directed  weakly  outward,  distinctly  and  evenly 
flattened,  with  margins  converging  evenly  to  the  acute  apex. 
Subgenital  plate  of  male  truncate  between  the  rather  short  disto- 
lateral  styles.  Ovipositor  short  and  weakly  but  distinctly  arcuate 
dorsad.  Subgenital  plate  of  female  flat  with  lateral  margins 
strongly  and  rather  broadly  curved  upward,  embracing  the  base 
of    the    ovipositor.       Caudal     femora    with     proximal    portion 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  281 

decidedly   swollen,  genicular    lobes    bispinose,    ventral    margins 
unarmed. 

Coloration. — Male:  Head  excepting  eyes  and  dorsal  surface, 
lateral  lobes  of  pronotum,  body  and  exposed  proximal  portion 
of  abdomen,  cephalic  and  median  limbs  and  greater  part  of 
swollen  portion  of  caudal  femora  light  oriental  green,  caudal 
margin  of  pronotum,  tegmina,  abdomen  and  cerci  uniform  cinna- 
mon. Remaining  portions  of  caudal  limbs  greenish  washed  with 
cinnamon,  excepting  the  genicular  lobes  which  are  briefly  suf- 
fused with  chestnut.  Medio-dorsal  stripe  of  head  and  pronotum 
very  broad,  shining  blackish  brown,  with  pale  margins  buffy 
and  wider  than  is  usual.  Eyes  chestnut  l)rown.  In  the  female 
the  coloration  is  similar,  excepting  that  the  abdomen  shows 
traces  of  darker  longitudinal  stripes  on  the  dorsum  and  sides,  in 
one  specimen  before  us  these  stripes  being  pronounced,  those  on 
the  sides  darkest,  chestnut  brown.  The  coloration  of  part  of  the 
series  is  apparently  well  preserved. 

Mcasuretneuts  {in  miUinietcrs)  of  extreines 


a  o 
Pctropolis,  Brazil.   ^"^ 

cT    10.. 5-13 

9     12     -U 

Specimens Exaniiiic'l:  17;  6  males  and  11  females. 

Petropolis,  Rio  de  .Janeiro,  Brazil,  IV,  12  to  14,  1913,  (M.  Burr),  C.  o^  10  9  , 
[A.  N.  S.  P.  and  Oxford  Univ.  Cln.]. 

Tijuca,  Rio  de  .Janeiro,  Brazil,  IV,  9  to  11,  1913,  (M.  liurr),  1  9  ,  l.\.  X.  S.  P.]. 

Conocephalus  versicolor  (Redtenbaeher)  (PI.  XXII,  Hgs.  8  and  IS;  XXIII> 

2(3  and  27;  XXIV,  8.) 
1S91.     Xiphidiiim  versicolor  Redtenbaeher,  Verli.  i<.-k.  zool.-bot.  Ciescll,  \\  ien, 

xli,  [).  .507.     [Fonteboa,  Brazil.]     [Macropterous  d^.\. 
1898.     X[iplii<linm]   feslae  Gi^lio-Tos,   Boll.   Mus.   Zool.   .\nat .  eoini).   Univ. 

Torino,  xiii,  no.  311,  p.  92.     [San  .lose,  Guala(iuiza  and  Valleys  of  Santiago 

and  Zamora,  Ecuador.]     [Bracliypterous  series.]. 

With  the  present  knowledge  of  the  genus  it  is  perfectly  evident 
th{itfestae  is  an  absolute  synonym  of  the  present  species,  based  on 
bracliypterous  material;  from  three  of  the  four  localities  given 

TR.\N.S.  .A.M.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


s:  o 
■^  a 

—,  6 
a  > 

3 , 1-3 . 

3 

r> 

.2-.5.8 

10 

.8-12 

3.2-3 

3 

2 

.  (5-2 .  (J 

11 

.7-12 

3 

8-8 , 9 

282      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

for  festac,  Giglio-Tos  records  versicolor  as  well  and  suggests  the 
possibility  of  festae  being  but  a  variety  of  that  species. 

The  present  species  is  a  member  of  the  distii\ctive  South 
American  group  H  of  the  subgenus  Xiphidion,  remarkable  for 
the  brilliant  and  very  distinctive  coloration  of  the  species. 

The  male  sex  of  the  species  is  very  striking,  the  green  cephalic 
and  median  limbs,  wings  and  cerci  contrasting  brilliantly  with 
the  yellow  head,  lateral  lobes  of  the  pronotum,  caudal  femora 
(excepting  the  dark  genicular  areas)  and  abdomen,  which  latter 
furthermore  has  the  dorsal  abdominal  segments  strikingly  marked 
as  follows:  the  proximal  five  are  shining  black  dorsad  and  laterad, 
the  sixth  and  seventh  maculate  with  black  meso-dorsad,  while 
the  greater  part  of  the  eighth  and  all  of  the  ninth  and  tenth  are 
shining  black.  The  female  has  the  abdomen  similarly  but  much 
less  strongly  darkened. 

Size  rather  large,  form  graceful  with  limbs  decidedly  elongate. 
Vertex  not  strongly  but  distinctly  ascending,  narrow,  greatest 
width  one-half  that  of  proximal  antennal  joint,  slightly  over  two 
and  three-fourths  times  as  deep  as  wide,  sides  straight  and  very 
weakly  convergent.  Eyes  moderately  large  and  decidedly  pro- 
truding. Antennae  greenish  with  each  joint  annulate  at  the 
suture  with  brown,  in  material  before  us  62  mm.  in  length. 
Lateral  lobes  with  cephalic  margin  convex  to  the  sharply  rounded 
ventro-caudal  angle,  ventro-cephalic  angle  broadly  rounded 
but  evident,  caudal  margin  subsinuous,  almost  straight,  humeral 
sinus  absent,  convex  callosity  very  narrow.  Tegmina,  in  macrop- 
terous  and  brachypterous  material,  with  apex  sharply  rounded; 
male  tympanum  very  small  and  distinctly  though  not  strongly 
longitudinal.  Male  cerci  moderately  elongate  (2  to  2.2  mm.  in 
material  before  us),  very  slightly  but  noticeably  irregular  in 
outline,  basal  third  moderately  stout,  mesal  third  distinctly  and 
evenly  swollen,  this  swelling  more  decided,  however,  above  a 
rather  long  and  rather  slender  ventral  tooth  which  is  straight  to 
the  sharp  decurved  apex,  the  tooth  situated  proximad  of  the 
middle  and  directed  strongly  meso-proximad,  distal  portion  curved 
weakly  outward,  distinctly  but  regularly  flattened,  particularly 
on  the  inner  side,  with  margins  very  weakly  irregular  but  con- 
verging evenly  to  the  rather  shar])ly  rounded  ai)ex.  The  ccm-cus 
has  the  same  appearance  found  in  the  North  American  (\  ni'iiro- 
pleuroides,  suggesting  minor  irregularities  more  strongly  than  do 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  283 

the  normal  hard  and  rigid  appearing  cerci  of  the  other  species  of 
the  genus.  Subgenital  plate  truncate  l:)et\veen  the  short  (Usto- 
lateral  styles.  Ovipositor  elongate  (in  the  specimen  l)efore  us 
13  mm.),  nearly  straight.  The  caudal  femora  are  elongate 
(cT',  13.7-15.7;  9  ,  16.2  in  the  material  Ijefore  us)  and  armed  with 
(cf,  3  ami  4  and  4  and  ");  9,4  and  o,  in  our  material)  long, 
heavy  spines. 

Specimens  Examined:  3;  2  males  ancl  1  female. 

Caparo,  Trinidad,  VIII,  1913,  (S.  AI.  Klages),  2  d^,  [Hehard  Cln.],  (brach.). 
Contamano,  Rio  I'cayali,  Peru,  X  to  XII,  1012,  1  9,  [A.  X.  S.  P.],  (macr., 
dr.  alch.). 

Conocephalus  ochrotelus^^  new  species     (PI.  XXI,  fig.  7;  XXII,  9;  XXIII, 
28  and  29;  XXIV,  9.) 

Apparently  nearest  in  relationship  to  C.  truncatii.s''''  and  allied 
to  C  versicolor,  but  distinctive  in  coloration  and  several  other 
important  characters  given  below. 

Type:  cf,  Itatiba,  ?ao  Paulo,  Brazil.  April  10.  (J.  Lima.) 
[Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  Philadelphia,  Type  No.  5268.] 

Description  of  Type. — Size  medium,  form  moderatelj'  robust.  Coloration 
verj'  distinctive.  Head  with  dorsum  of  vertex  when  seen  from  lateral  aspect 
scarcely  ascending  (not  as  much  as  in  versicolor),  fastigium  of  vertex  narrow,  but 
about  two-thirds  as  wide  as  basal  antennal  joint,  two  and  one-fourth  times  as 
long  as  broad,  sides  straight  and  not  decidedly  convergent.  Eyes  moderately 
large,  moderately  protruding  (not  as  much  so  as  in  versicolor).  Lateral  lobes 
of  pronotum  with  cei)halic  margin  convex  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle,  ventro- 
cephalic  angle  very  broadly  rounded  but  distinct,  ventro-caudal  angle  sharply 
rounded  and  rectangulate,  humeral  sinus  absent,  convex  callosity  very  narrow. 
Tegmina  broad  and  truncate  with  very  broadly  rounded  apex,  covering  half 
the  distance  from  the  pronotum  to  the  apices  of  the  cerci,  veins  distinct,  vein- 
lets  subobsolete,  tympanum  large  and  distinctly  though  not  strongly  longi- 
tudinal (somewhat  more  nearly  transvei'se  than  in  versicolor);  wings  small 
aborted  pads  broadly  rounded  at  apex,  extending  half  the  distance  from  the 
tegminal  speculum  to  the  apices  of  the  tegmina.  Cerci  heavy  and  elongate, 
proximal  portion  stout  and  very  brief,  mesal  portion  very  ekmgate  and  much 
swollen,  protluced  weakly  interno-proximad  in  a  rounded  narrow  shelf,  in  the 
mesal  portion  of  which  is  situated  ventrad  a  rather  heavy  tooth  directed 
strongly  meso-i)roximad  with  its  sharp  apex  weakly  decurved,  distal  portion 
of  shaft  broad  and  rather  elongate,  decidedly  dei)resscd,  sides  subi):irallel  to 
apical  portion,   where  they  become  (>venly  convc^xo-convergent   to  the  \ery 

^^  From  d!Xpos=pale  antl  T€Xos=end,  in  alhision  to  the   pale  and  strongly 
contrasting  coloration  of  the  two  distal  dorsal  abdominal  segments. 
"^  See  page  280  for  comparison  with  this  species. 

TR.\NS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 


284      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERa) 

sharply  rounded  apex,  giving  the  contour  of  a  very  narrow  Gothic  arch. 
Subgenital  plate  short,  truncate  distad  between  the  short  disto-lateral  styles. 
Cephalic  and  median  limbs  very  slightly  shorter  and  heavier  than  in  versicolor y 
with  ventral  margins  of  tibiae  each  likewise  armed  with  six  heavy  spines 
(slightly  heavier  than  in  versicolor).  Caudal  femora  proportionately  shorter 
than  in  versicolor  with  proximal  decidedly  swollen  portion  similar,  ventro- 
external  margins  bearing  5  and  8  spines,  genicular  lobes  of  caudal  femora 
heavily  bispinose,  genicular  areas  weakly  darkened. 

The  measurements  of  the  type  are:  length  of  body  13.5, 
pronotum  3.6,  tegmhia  4.9  and  5.2,  caudal  femur  13.4,  cercus  2.3 
and  approximate  width  of  tegmen  if  flattened  out  3.3  mm. 

The  coloration  is  distinctive.  Head,  lateral  lol)es  of  pronotum, 
thorax,  limbs,  exposed  lateral  portions  of  dorsal  abdominal  seg- 
ments and  cerci  pale  bice  green.  Medio-dorsal  stripe  of  head 
and  pronotum  warm  sepia  shading  mesad  on  pronotum  to  verona 
brown,  rather  l)roadly  margined  laterad  with  cinnamon  buff. 
Eyes  and  tegmina  cinnamon,  humeral  trunk  of  tegmina  cinnamon 
bufT.  Concealed  proximal  portion  of  dorsum  of  alxlomen  tawny 
olive  paler  mesad  (cinnamon  buff)  and  showing  rather  Inroad 
lines  of  the  same  color  meso-laterad.  Exposed  portion  of  dorsum 
of  abdomen  with  sixth  segment  weakly,  and  seventh  and  eighth 
heavily  and  broadly  suffused  with  sepia,  the  marg;ins  of  these 
segments  marked  with  a  greenish  suffusion,  ninth  and  tenth 
segments,  subgenital  plate  and  ventral  abdominal  segments 
pinkish  cinnamon  contrasting  strongly  with  the  proximal  dorsal 
abdominal  segments  and  cerci,  tenth  abdominal  segment  with 
distal  margin  strongly  suffused  with  warm  sepia.  Genicular 
areas  of  caudal  femora  suffused  (but  not  strikingly  so)  with 
bistre. 

The  present  species  is  known  from  the  imiciue  type. 

Subgenus  Perissacanthus  *"  new  subgenus 
The  subgenus  includes  a  single  species  from  Paraguay. 
Type     of    Subgenus. — Conocephalus     strictoides      [Xiphidinm 
stridoides]  (( 'audell) . 

Subgeneric  Description. — Prostermun  bispinose.  Alale  sub- 
genital plate  as  in  th(^  subgenus  Xiphidion.  \rn\vii\  margins  of 
cephalic;  and  median  tibiae  armed  with  six  well  spaced  spines. 
Interno-dorsal  of  distal  spurs  of  caudal  tibiae  absent  so  that  their 

8"  From  7r6pt(To-6s  =  ()dd  (nunibci)  and  clk  ai>9  a  =\\\orn,  in  allusJDn  to  tli(>  five 
instead  of  six  distal  si)urs  of  the  caudal  tibiae. 


REHX    AND    HEBARD  285 

number  is  five,  instead  of  six  as  found  in  the  ^reat  majority  of 
the  species  of  the  genus.  Size  medium  for  the  genus,  form  very 
attenuate. 

Conocephalus  strictoides  (Caudell)  (PI.  XXI.  figs.  2  and  .");   XXII.  10  and 

19;  XXIII,  30  and  31. J 
1906.     Xiphidium  meridionale  Caudell   (not  of  Scudder,   187.5),   Proc.  U.  S. 

Xat.  Mus.,  XXX,  p.  242.     (In  part.)     [Sapucay,  Paraguay.]     [2  c^.] 
1906.     Xiphidium    slrictoideg  Caudell,   Proc.   U.  8.   Xat.  Mus.  .xxx,   p.  242. 

[Sapucay.  Paraguay.]     [3    9,1  juv.    ?  .] 

This  distinctive  species  shows  a  slight  amount  of  simihirity  to 
the  North  American  C.  spartinae  in  the  general  form  of  the  male 
cercus;  the  ovipositor  is  decidedly  longer  than  in  any  other 
American  species  excepting  C.  stn'ctus  and  C.  leptopterus,  all  of 
which  species  differing  greatly  in  most  important  respects. 

Caudell  unfortunatel}'  included  males  before  him  with  a  series 
of  brachypterous  C.  saUato7-,  recording  them  as  meridionale,  a 
synonym  of  saltator.  We  consequently  here  select  and  describe 
the  allotype. 

Allotype:  cf ;  Sapucay,  Paraguay.  January  29.  1901.  (W.  T. 
Foster.)     [United  States  National  Museum.] 

Description  nj  Allotype. — Very  siiniiar  to  type  excepting  in  sex  characters. 
Size  medium,  form  very  slender.  Head  with  vertex  strongly  produced,  when 
seen  from  lateral  aspect  not  ascending  above  plane  of  occiput;  fastigium  of 
vertex  narrow,  greatest  width  verj-  slightly  more  than  one-half  that  of  pro.xi- 
mal  antennal  joint,  narrowing  strongly  to  point  two-thirds  of  the  ilistance 
from  apex  to  facial  suture,  thence  subparallel  to  latter,  two  and  one-half  times 
as  long  as  broad.  Eyes  rather  small  for  the  South  American  species  of  the 
genus  (about  as  in  C.  brevipennis  and  C.  spartinae)  and  also  not  strongly  pro- 
truding. Lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  with  cephalic  margin  very  broadly  and 
evenly  convex  and  unusually  oblique  to  the  rather  sharply  rounded  ventro- 
caudal  angle  which  is  rectangulate,  caudal  margin  ahiiost  straight  but  with  a 
subobsolete  convexity  at  convex  callositj^  humeral  sinus  absent,  convex  callosity 
moderately  broad.  Tegmina  rather  narrow,  reaching  two-thirds  of  the  dis- 
tance to  the  apex  of  abdomen  with  apices  truncate  and  broadly  rounded,  veins 
distinct  but  very  delicate,  veinlets  exceedingly  delicate,  tympanum  very  small 
and  distinctly  longitudinal  (slightly  more  so  than  in  C.  versicolor),  with  stridu- 
lating  vein  decidedly  swollen  for  two-thirds  of  its  length;  wings  about  four- 
fifths  as  long  as  tegmina  with  broadly  rounded  apices  showing  a  tendency 
toward  an  aborted  condition.  Cerci  rather  slender  and  elongate,  brief  prox- 
imal portion  rather  stout,  very  elongate  mesal  portion  decidedly  and  evenl\- 
swollen  except  above  the  proximo-ventral  rather  slender  tooth,  which  it  over- 
hangs in  a   squared   projection    with    immediate   angle   rounded,   the   tooth 

TRANS.  AM.  ENT.  SOC.  XLL 


286      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 

directed  strongly  meso-proximad  with  sharp  apex  weakly  decurved,  internal 
margin  of  swollen  portion  straight,  external  margin  of  cercus  concave,  distal 
portion  strongly  depressed  and  directed  outward  with  margins  converging  to 
the  rather  broadly  rounded  apex.  Subgenital  plate  with  distal  margin  very 
w-eakly  concave  between  the  comparatively  long  disto-lateral  styles.  Ventral 
margins  of  the  caudal  femora  unarmed,  genicular  areas  not  darkened,  genicular 
lobes  normally  bispinose;  tarsi,  comparatively,  rather  short. 

Females  rather  similar  excepting  for  sex  characters  but  slightly  more  slender, 
with  caudal  margins  of  lateral  lobes  of  pronotum  straight.  Tegniina  not  as 
long  as  pronotum,  much  shorter  than  in  male,  rather  broadly  rounded  at  apex; 
wings  reaching  to  tips  of  tegmina,  rather  broadly  rounded  at  apices  and  dis- 
tinctly aborted.  Ovipositor  very  long  and  slender  and  very  weakly  curved, 
approximately  straight.  Subgenital  plate  shield-shaped,  mainly  flat,  briefly 
curving  upward  laterad  and  embracing  base  of  ovipositor,  brief  distal  margin 
of  flat  surface  transverse. 

MeasurcmctUs  (in  millimeters) 


O  0_g  Or;  'o'^  °— •  °  °  °''^ 

Sapucay,  ?■=  |§  fa  2|  |g  ^t  f-^  ^•S' 

Paraguay.  ^^  r-i  ^^  >  ^^  j-^h-) 

Alloiyve,&..  16  3.2  7.9  2.S  12.6  2.2  .6 

cf    16  3.1  7.6  2.8  12.9  2.2  .7 

9     1.5.5  3.3  3.2  ...  13.3  21.1 

The  type  series  and  males  in  the  United  States  National  Mu- 
seum examined  by  us,  and  an  additional  female  taken  by  the 
same  collector  at  the  same  locality  and  in  the  Hebard  Collection, 
these  specimens  taken  from  December  to  April  1900-1902,  two 
males,  four  females  and  one  immature  female,  are  the  only  speci- 
mens known  of  this  interestinp;  species. 

Subgenus  Aphauropus*'^  new  subgenus 
The  subgenus  includes  a  single  species  from  Tepic,  IMexico. 
Tyye  of  Subgenus. — Conocephalus  leptoptenis  new  species. 
Subgencric    Description. — Prosternum     bispinose.     Subgenital 
plate  of  male  unknowni.     Ventral  margins  of  cephalic  and  median 
tibiae  armed  with  seven  or  eight  well  spaced  spines.     Caudal 
tibiae  with  dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  of  distal  spurs  absent,  armed 
at  the  distal  extremities  with  a  single  (well-developed)  pair  of 
median  spurs  as  in  the  sul)g(Mms  Anarthro])i(s.     Tegmina  of  fe- 
male greatly  aV)()rted,  wings  missing.     Size  nuMlium  for  the  genus, 
form  robust. 

8'  Approximately,  if  ilattciicd  out. 

*2  From  ot^aupos  =  weak  and  7ro0s  =  foot,  in  allusion  to  absence  of  the  nor- 
mal dorsal  and  ventral  pairs  of  distal  spurs  of  the  caudal  tibiae. 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  287 

Conocephalus  leptopterus^  new  species  (PI.  XXI,  figs.  1  and  -1;  XXII,  11.) 
This  distinctive  species  would  suggest  C.  sirictus  in  the  robust 
form,  unarmed  ventral  margins  of  the  caudal  femora,  unispinose 
genicular  lobes  and  very  long  ovipositor,  l)ut  when  examined  is 
found  to  be  widely  separated  from  any  known  form  of  the  geims. 
The  insect  agrees  with  C.  snltai^s  in  having  the  caudal  tibiae 
armed  distad  with  but  a  single  pair  of  spurs,  but  in  the  present 
insect  the  prosternum  is  bispinose  and  the  cephalic  and  median 
tibiae  have  their  margins  armed  with  seven  or  eight  instead  of 
six  spines.     In  a  number  of  characters  the  insect  is  unique. 

Type:  9  ;  Tepic,  Tepic,  Mexico.  [Hebard  Collection,  Tvi)e 
No.  385.] 

Description  of  Type. — .Size  medium,  form  robust.  Dark  medio-dorsal  band 
of  head  and  pronotum  continued  solid  and  uninterrupted  on  abdomen  to  base 
of  ovipositor.  Head  with  vertex,  when  seen  from  lateral  aspect,  in  same  hori- 
zontal plane  as  occiput,  fastigium  of  vertex  narrow  but  about  two-thirds  as 
wide  as  proximal  antennal  joint,  nearly  two  ami  one-half  times  as  deep  as 
broad,  narrowing  evenly  three-fourths  of  the  distance  from  apex  to  facial 
suture,  then  subparallel,  this  whole  outline  almost  imperceptibly  concave. 
Eyes  medium  for  the  genus  (small  for  so  robust  an  insect),  not  strongly  pro- 
truding. Pronotum  unusually  long  anrl  of  exceptional  shape,  lateral  lobes 
broadly  rounded  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle  which  is  distinctly  obtuse-angulate, 
caudal  margin  straight,  very  weakly  subsinuate,  humeral  sinus  absent,  convex 
callosity  exceedingly  broad,  swollen  and  conspicuous;  the  cephahc  and  caudal 
margins  are  strongly  oblique  to  the  ventro-caudal  angle,  which  is  abnost  mesal 
in  position.  Tegmina  greatly  aborted,  small  rounded  i)ads  wholly  concealed 
by  pronotum;  wings  absent.  Ovipositor  very  long  and  slender  showing  a  very 
weak  upward  curvature,  approximately  straight.  Subgenital  plate  broadly 
shield-shaped,  mainly  flat,  briefly  curved  upward  laterad  and  embracing  the 
base  of  the  ovipositor,  distal  rather  broad  margin  of  flat  surface  transverse. 

The  measurements  of  the  type  are:  length  of  i)ody  13.5,  pro- 
notum 4.2,  caudal  femur  13.9,  ovipositor  30.1  mm. 
The  type  is  unique,  a  dried  alcoholic  individual. 

^3  From  Xe7rT6s  =  minute  and  7r7€pw=wing,  in  allusion  to  the  minute,  abor- 
ted and  wholly  concealed  tegmina  found  in  tlie  fcinale  sex  of  this  extraordi- 
nary species. 


TR.\NS.  AM.  EXT.  SOC,  XLI. 


288      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (ORTHOPTERA) 


EXPLANATION    OF    PLATES. 


Plate  XXI 


Fig.  1. — Conocephalus  leptopterus  new  species.  Tepic,  Mexico.  Female 
(type).     Lateral  outline.     (X3) 

Fig.  2. — Conocephalus  strictoides  (Caudell).  Sapucay,  Paraguay.  Male  {allo- 
type).    Lateral  outline  of  vertex.     (X25) 

Fig.  3. — Conocephalus  unicolor  (Bruner).  Corumba,  Brazil.  Female  (/o;jo/;/pe). 
Lateral  outline.     ( X  3) 

Fig.  4. — Conocephalus  leptopterus  new  species.  Tepic,  Mexico.  Female 
{type).     Distal  extremity  of  caudal  tibia,  internal  aspect.     (X  20) 

Fig.  5. — Conocephalus  strictoides  (Caudell).  Sapucay,  Paraguay.  Male  {allo- 
type).    Distal  extremity  of  caudal  tibia,  internal  aspect.     ( X  20) 

Fig.  6. — Conocephalus  iriodes  new  species.  Kaiteur,  British  Guiana.  Male 
{type).     Lateral  outline.     (X  3) 

Fig.  7. — Conocephalus  ochrotelus  new  species.  Itatiba,  Brazil.  Male  {type). 
Lateral  outline  ( X  3) 

Plate  XXII 

Outline  of  cephalic  view  of  fastigium.     (X  25) 
Fig.     1. — Conocephalus      Imujipes      (Redtenbacher).     Carcarafia,    Argentina. 

Male. 
Fig.    2. — Conocephalus  vUticollis  (Blanchard).     El  Olivar,  Colchagua,  Chile. 

Male. 
Fig.    3. — Conocephalus  ictus  (Scudder).     Otoyac,  Mexico.     Male. 
Fig.    4. — Conocephalus  insularis  (Morse).     Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba.     Male. 
Fig.    5. — Conocephalus  iriodes  new  species.     Kaiteur,  British  Guiana.     Male 

{type). 
Fig.    6. — Conocephalus    angnstifrons     (Redtenbacher).     Juan    Vinas,     Costa 

Rica.     Male. 
Fig.    7." — Conocephalus  truncalus  (Redtenbacher).     Petropolis,  Brazil.     Male. 
Fig.    8. — Conocephalus  versicolor  (Redtenbacher).     Caparo,  Trinidad.     Male. 
Fig.    9. — Conocephalus  ochrotelus  new  species.     Itatiba,  Brazil.     Male  {type). 
Fig.  10. — Conocephalus     strictoides     (Caudell).     Sapucay,     Paraguay.     Male 

{allotype) . 
Fig.  IL — Conocephalus    lcptnpter)is    new    species.     Tepic,     Mexico.     Female 

{type). 

Outline  of  lateral  lobe  of  pronotum.     (X  <3) 
Fig.  12. — Conocephalus     cinereus     (Thunberg).     Kingston,     .Jamaica.     Male 

(topotype). 
Fig.  13. — Co7wcephalus  ictus  {Hcudder).     Santa  Rosa,  Mexico.     Atypical  male. 
Fig.  14. — Conocephalus  insularis  (Morse).     Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba.     Male. 
Fig.  15. — Conocephalus  angnstifrons  (Redtenl)acher).     Juan  Vinas,  Costa  Rica. 

Male. 
Fig.  16. — Conocephalus    saltator     (Saussure).     Paramaribo,     Dutch     Guiana. 

Male  (topotype). 


REHN    AND    HEBARD  289 

Fig.  17. — Conocephalus  Iruncalus  (Redtenbacher).  Petropolis,  Brazil.  Male. 
Fig.  18. — Conocephalus  versicolor  (Redtenbacher).  C'aparo,  Trinidad.  Male. 
Fig.  19. — Conocephalus     slrictoides     (Caudell).     Sapucay,     Paraguay.     Male 

(allotype) . 
Fig.  20. — Conocephalus  ictus  (Scudder).     Otoyac,  Mexico.     Male. 

Outline  of  female  tegmen.     (X  3) 
Fig.  21. — Conocephalus  borelli  (Giglio-Tos).     Sapucay,  Paraguay. 
Fig.  22. — Conocephalus  truncatus  (Redtenbacher).     Petropolis,  Brazil. 

Outline  of  ovipositor.     ( X  2) 
Fig.  23. — Conocephalus  iriodes  new  species.     Kaiteur,  British  Guiana.     (/l/^>- 

typc.) 

Fig.  24. — Conocephalus  borelli  (C5iglio-Tos).     Sapiicay,  Paraguay. 

Plate  XXIII 

Dorsal  (first  numl)er)  and  lateral  (second  number)  outlines  of  male 

cercus.    (X  10) 

Figs.  1  and  2. — Conocephalus  longipes  (Redtenbacher).    Carcarana,  Argentina. 

.Figs.  8  and  4. — Conocephalus  vitticollis   (Blanchard).     El  Olivar,   Golchagua, 

Chile. 
Figs.  5  and  (i. — Conocephalus     cinereus      (Thunberg).      Kingston,      Jamaica. 

(Topotype.) 
Fig.  7. — Conocephalus  ictxis  (Scudder).     Santa  Rosa,  Mexico.     Atypical. 
Figs.    8  and    9. — Conocephalus  ictus  (Scudder).     Otoyac,  Mexico. 
Figs.  10  and  11. — Conocephalus  insularis  (Morse).     Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba. 
Figs.  12  and  13. — Conocephalus  iriodes  new  species.     Kaiteur,  British  Guiana. 

(Type.) 
Figs.  14  and  15. — Conocephalus    angustifrons    (Redtenbacher).     Juan    Vinas, 

Costa  Rica. 
Figs.  16  and  17. — Conocephalus    cquatorialis    (Giglio-Tos).     Bartica,     British 

Guiana. 
Figs.  18  and  19. — r'oNocep/ia/w«  .sa/ta/or  (Sau.ssure).     Caparo,  Trinidad.     More 

elongate  condition. 
Figs.  20  and  21. — Couocephalus     saltator     (Saussure).      Paramaribo,      Dutch 

Guiana.     (Topotype.)     Normal  condition. 
Figs.  22  and  23. — Conocephalus    saltator    (Saussure).     Tijuca,    Brazil.     More 

robust  condition. 
Figs.  24  and  25. — Conocephalus  truncatus  (Redtenbacher).     Petropolis,  Brazil. 
Figs.  26  and  27. — Conocephalus  versicolor  (Redtenbacher).     Caparo,  Trinidad. 
Figs.  28  and  29. — Conocephalus     ochrotelus     new     species.     Itatiba,     Brazil. 

(Type.) 
Figs.  30  and  31. — (Conocephalus    slrictoides     (C'audell).     Sapucay,     Paraguay. 

{Type.) 
Outline  of  male  subgenital  plate.     (X  5h) 
Figs.  32  and  33. — Conocephalus  longipes  (Redtenbacher).     Carcarana,  Argen- 
tina. 

TRANS.   .\M.   ENT.  SOC,  XLI. 
10 


290      STUDIES    IN    AMERICAN    TETTIGONIIDAE    (oRTHOPTERA) 


Plate  XXIV 

Stridulating  field  of  male  tegmen.     (X  10) 
Fig.  l.—Conoccphabis  longipes   (Redtenbaoher).     Carcarana,  Argentina. 
Fig.  2.—Conocepfmlus  vitticollis  (Blanchard).     El  Olivar,  Colchagua,  Chile. 
Fig.  3. — Conocephaliis  ictus  (Scudder).     Otoyac,  Mexico. 
Fig.  4. — Conocephaliis  insularis  (Morse).     Pinar  del  Rio,  Cuba. 
Fig.  5. — Conocephalus  iriodes  new  species.     Kaiteur,  British  Guiana.     (Type.) 
Fig.  6. — Conocephahis  angustifrons  (Redtenbacher).     Juan  Vinas,  Costa  Rica. 
Fig.  7. — Conocephalus  truncatus  (Redtenbacher).     Petropolis,  Brazil. 
Fig.  8. — Conocephalus  versicolor  (Redtenbacher).     Caparo,  Trinidad. 
Fig.  9. — Conocephalus  ochrotelus  new  species.     Itatiba,  Brazil.     (Type.) 


Trans.  Am.  Eiit.  8oc.,  \'ol.  XLI. 


PI.  XXI. 


REHN  AND  HEBARD-  AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XIJ. 


PI.  XXII 


10 


20 


21 


23 


24 


REHN  AND  HEBARD— AMERICAN  TETTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


PI.  X.XIII 


13 


12  M/    14 


20 


11 


22 


32 


25 


27 


29 


31  33 

RF.HN  AND  HEB.^RD     AMERICAN  TF.TTIGONIIDAE 


Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  XLI. 


I'l.  XXIV 


^^^  )A 


REHN  AND  HEBARD     AMERICAN  TETTIGONllDAE 


CONTENTS 


Miscellaneous  Aphid  Notes  chiefly  from  Oregon.     By  H.  F. 

Wilson 85 

(Issued  May  3,  1915) 

On  Some  Genera  of  the  Pimpline  Ichneumonidae.     By  J.  H. 

Merrill,  Ph.D 109 

(Issued  May  24,  1915) 

Studies  in  American  Tettigoniidae  (Orthoptera).  V.  A 
Synopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus 
found  in  North  America  north  of  Mexico.     By  James 

A.  G.  Rehn  and  Morgan  Hebard 155 

(Issued  June  19,  1915) 

Studies  in  American  Tettigoniidae  (Orthoptera).  VI.  A 
Sj'-nopsis  of  the  Species  of  the  Genus  Conocephalus 
found  in  America,  south  of  the  Southern  Border  of  the 
United  States.     By  James  A.  G.   Rehn  and  Morgan 

Hebard 225 

(Issued  July  14,  1915) 


VOLUME  XLI  NUMBER  3 

SEPTEMBER,  1915 


TRANSACTIONS 


OF  THE 


AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


1 

\ 


PUBLISHED  BY  THE  AMERICAN  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  AT  THE 
ACADEMY  OF  NATURAL  SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 
SUBSCRIPTION  PRICE  FOUR  DOLLARS  PER  VOLUME 


H.    C.    FALL  291 


A  REVISION   OF  THE  NORTH  AMERICAN   SPECIES   OF 
PACHYBRACHYS 

BY  H.  C.  FALL 

For  reasons,  which  to  the  initiated  are  obvious  and  sufficient, 
no  realh^  serious  attempt  at  a  comprehensive  treatment  of  our 
species  of  Pachyhrachys  has  been  made  since  the  appearance  of 
Suffrian's  paper  on  the  North  American  CryptocephaUni.  In 
1880,  Dr.  LeConte  essayed  to  give  a  table  for  the  separation  of 
the  more  easily  defined  species,  but  in  addition  to  the  twenty- 
nine  thus  treated,  he  was  compelled  to  append  a  list  of  at  least 
twenty  forms  which  were  too  indefinite  or  too  little  known  to 
permit  of  tabulation. 

Briefly  stated,  the  natural  conditions  which  have  discouraged 
any  attempt  at  a  systematic  treatment  of  our  species  of  this 
genus  are, — the  great  number  of  species  involved;  their  indefinite- 
ness,  due  to  the  lack  of  salient  diagnostic  characters,  and  the 
great  individual  variability,  more  especially  in  the  superficial 
characters  of  sculpture  and  markings,  upon  which  specific  dis- 
tinctions have  been  largely  based.  In  addition  to  these  inherent 
difficulties,  a  further  serious  obstacle  to  progress  has  been  the 
impossibility  of  recognizing — in  the  absence  of  types — a  consider- 
able number  of  the  Suffrian  species,  the  descriptions  of  which, 
though  lengthy,  are  of  little  use  for  purposes  of  identification. 
This  last  obstacle  has  been  in  part  overcome  by  the  opportunity 
of  examining  a  number  of  the  Suffrian  types  kindly  sent  to  Mr. 
Bowditch  and  to  the  writer  by  Dr.  Taschenberg  of  Halle,  through 
the  intercession  of  Dr.  Walt  her  Horn  of  Berlin.  The  natural 
difficulties  are  of  course  still  with  us,  and  their  complete  solution 
is  purely  a  question  of  time  and  experience — and  will  certainly 
require  a  large  measure  of  both.  The  writer  realizes — probaljly 
more  fully  than  any  one  else — the  shortcomings  and  incomplete- 
ness of  the  present  revision,  but  to  wait  the  solution  of  all  ques- 
tions of  relationship  and  synonymy  would  simply  mean  that  the 
results  of  an  already  protracted  study  wouM  never  be  published. 
It  is,  moreover,  undoubtedly  true  that  the  interest  of  students  and 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    Xl.I. 


292  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERA) 

collectors  will  be  stimulated  and  the  ends  aimed  at  be  more 
speedily  attained  by  placing  before  them  the  results  so  far  as 
reached. 

The  present  investigation  has  been  spread  over  some  six  or 
eight  years  and  has  been  prosecuted  more  or  less  continually 
during  the  last  three  or  four.  There  have  been,  however,  during 
this  time  many  longer  or  shorter  interruptions  of  active  work, 
and  because  of  this,  a  certain  irregularity,  or  lack  of  uniformity  of 
treatment  may  be  noticeable  to  the  critical  reader,  but  it  is 
hoped  that  the  usefulness  of  the  work  has  not  suffered  in  conse- 
quence. 

Owing  to  the  great  difficulty  experienced  in  identifying  many 
of  the  species  of  Suffrian  and  Jacoby  from  the  descriptions,  and 
inability  to  obtain  authentic  examples  for  study,  it  is  not  un- 
Hkely  that  a  few  of  the  forms  here  described  as  new  may  prove 
to  be  identical  with,  or  merely  variations  of,  certain  Mexican 
species;  it  is,  however,  thought  best  to  risk  this  small  amount  of 
synonymy  in  the  interest  of  completeness  of  treatment  of  the 
material  at  hand.  After  making  all  possible  assignments,  there 
remains  of  course  the  inevitable  residue  of  unplaceable  speci- 
mens. There  are  some  fifty  or  sixty  of  these — less  than  one  per 
cent  of  the  total  number  studied — nearly  all  of  them  females,  and 
many  unique.  Among  them  are  unquestionably  a  number  of 
undescribed  species,  but  we  must  await  further  examples,  espe- 
cially males,  before  they  can  be  properly  characterized. 

According  to  Bowditch,  eburifer  Suffr.  occurs  at  Brownsville, 
Texas,  and  he  has  doubtfully  recognized  rubronotatus  Jac.  from 
Iowa  and  Illinois.  The  doubt  in  the  latter  case  I  believe  to  be 
well  founded,  and  as  ehurifer  was  described  from  South  America 
there  is  more  than  a  chance  that  there  is  some  mistake  in  the 
identification;  at  all  events,  I  have  not  sufficient  information  to 
permit  my  including  either  of  these  doubtful  things  in  my  tables. 

.4  cknoivledgments 

As  usual  I  have  found  my  entomological  friends  and  corre- 
spondents generous  in  contri))uting  material  for  study,  and  it  is  a 
pleasure  to  here  acknowledge  this  assistance.  No  less  than 
seven  thousand  specimens  have  been  examined,  among  them 
almost  the  entire  material  of  the  National  Museum  Collection, 


H.    C.    FALL  293 

for  which  I  am  indebted  to  the  unfailing  courtesy  of  Dr.  Howard 
and  Messrs.  Schwarz  and  Barber;  that  of  the  American  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  Philadelphia,  including  the  Horn  Collection, 
through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Skinner;  and  also  that  of  the  Snow 
Collection  in  the  University  of  Kansas.  From  private  collec- 
tions I  have  received  substantial  aid — in  most  cases  their 
entire  material — from  Messrs.  Leng  and  Beyer  of  New  York, 
Mr.  Schaeffer  of  Brooklyn,  INIessrs.  Liebeck  and  the  Wenzels 
of  Philadelphia,  Professor  Wickham  of  Iowa  City,  ]\Ir.  Warren 
Knaus  of  McPherson,  Kansas,  Mr.  Chas.  Dury  of  Cincinnati, 
Mr.  C.  A.  Frost  of  South  Framingham,  Mass.,  Mr.  Loding 
of  Mobile,  Mr.  A.  B.  Wolcott  of  Chicago,  Dr.  Blaisdell  and 
Dr.  Van  Dyke  of  San  Francisco,  and  Dr.  Fenyes  of  Pasadena, 
Cal.  I  have  also  gone  over  carefully  the  collection  of  the 
late  Frederick  Blanchard  of  Tyngsboro,  ^Nlass.;  have  several 
times — thanks  to  IMr.  Henshaw's  courtesy — examined  the  Le- 
Conte  types  at  Cambridge,  Mass.,  and  am  indel^ted  to  Mr. 
Bowditch  not  only  for  the  privilege  of  studying  many  of  the 
tjpes  of  his  lately  described  species,  but  also  for  the  opportunity 
of  taking  a  look  at  a  number  of  the  Suffrian  types  sent  to  him  by 
Dr.  Taschenberg  of  Halle.  Since  then  I  have  myself  received 
from  Dr.  Taschenberg,  through  the  kind  offices  of  Dr.  Walther 
Horn  of  Berlin,  several  Suffrian  types,  which  have  enabled  me 
to  fix  the  identity  of  a  number  of  species  not  hitherto  known  or 
properly  interpreted  by  American  students.  Quite  recently,  in 
response  to  a  request  to  the  British  Museum,  kindly  seconded  by 
Mr.  Champion,  Mr.  C.  J.  Gahan  has  sent  me  for  study  represen- 
tatives of  about  a  dozen  Mexican  species,  including  several  of 
Jaeoby's  and  a  number  of  Suft'rian's  as  determined  by  Jacoby. 
The  consideration  so  kindly^  shown  by  ]\Ir.  Gahan  and  the  ^lu- 
soum  authorities  is  especially  appreciated,  coming  as  it  does  at  a 
time  when  the  working  force  of  the  Museum  is  much  reduced,  and 
the  hazards  of  transportation  considerably  enhanced  by  the 
existing  European  war.  Finally  I  am  under  especial  obligation 
to  Mr.  Schwarz  of  the  National  [Museum  and  my  neighbor.  Dr. 
Fenyes,  for  bibliographical  notes  or  the  loan  of  some  of  the  older 
papers  not  in  my  own  librarj-. 

TRANS.    AM.   ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


294  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERA) 

Origin  of  the  genus  Pachybrachys 

A  glance  at  the  literature  of  the  subject  shows  that  there 
exists  a  considerable  difference  of  opinion  as  to  whom  the  genus 
Pachybrachys  should  be  accredited.  American  students,  follow- 
ing without  question  the  lead  of  Dr.  LeConte,  seem  to  have  been 
unanimous  in  writing  Pachybrachys  Chevrolat.  Jacoby,  in  the 
Biologia,  gives  Suffrian  as  authority  but  adds  Chevrolat's  name 
in  brackets.  In  the  next  to  the  last  edition  of  the  European 
Catalog  by  Heyden,  Reitter  and  Weise,  it  is  written  Pachybrachys 
Suffrian,  while  the  last  edition  puts  it  Pachybrachis  Redten- 
bacher.    The  facts  seem  to  be  as  follows: 

1834.  The  name  Pachybrachis  Chevr.  first  appears  in  Dejean's 
Catalog.  No  description  of  the  genus  is  given,  but  the 
species  included  leave  no  doubt  as  to  its  significance. 

1836.  In  the  reprint  of  the  third  edition  of  the  Dejean  Catalog, 
numerous  species  of  Pachybrachis  Chevr.  are  listed,  including 
a  number  of  North  American  species  described  by  the 
older  authors  (Fabricius,  Olivier,  etc.). 

1837.  In  the  fourth  edition  of  Dejean's  Catalog,  the  species  of 
Pachybrachis  Chevr.  are  given  verbatim  as  in  the  preceding 
edition  without  additions. 

1847.  Dr.  E.  Suffrian,  in  a  Revision  of  the  European  species 
of  the  genus  Cryptocephalus  (Linnaea  Entom.,  Vol.  II), 
contends  that  Chevrolat's  division  of  the  genus  into  five 
so-called  genera,  are  mere  names,  but  incidentally  changes 
the  spelling  of  Pachybrachis  to  Pachybrachys  for  philological 
reasons. 

1848.  Dr.  E.  Suffrian,  in  concluding  the  Revision  of  the  Euro- 
pean species  of  Cryptocephalus  (Linn.  Ent.  Vol.  Ill),  gives 
on  pp.  111-113  a  lengthy  description  of  "Pachybrachys 
Chevrolat, "  without  any  reference  to  Dejean's  Catalog. 

1849.  L.  Redtenbacher  (Fauna  Austriaca,  1st  Edition,  p.  563) 
describes  the  genus  "Pachybrachys  Chevrolat." 

In  the  2d  edition  of  Fauna  Austriaca,  Redtenbacher  uses 
Pachybrachys  in  the  text,  and  Pachybrachis  in  the  index. 

In  the  3d  Edition,  with  fine  impartiality,  the  genus  a]ipears 
as  Pachybrachys  in  the  table  of  species,  but  Pachybrachis 
in  the  table  of  genera. 


H.    C.    FALL  295 

As  there  is  obviously  no  doubt  as  to  what  Chevrolat's  name  was 
intended  to  cover,  I  shall  cite  him  as  authority  for  the  genus,  and 
I  shall  spell  the  name  correctly.^  This  seems  to  me  the  common 
sense  of  the  matter,  and  the  conclusion  is  to  me  all  the  more 
satisfactory  since  it  coincides  with  the  views  of  Dr.  LeConte, 
and  recjuires  no  deviation  from  American  custom. 

Chronology 

Chronologically  our  species  have  been  described  as  follows: 

1798.  Fabricius — Suppl.  Ent.  Syst.,  p.  109.  Here  appears 
luridus,  the  first  of  our  species  to  receive  a  name.  A  com- 
mon species,  known  to  all  collectors. 

1801.  Fabricius — Syst.  Eleuth.,  II,  p.  49 — makes  known 
viduatus  from  "Carolina"  in  a  very  brief  description  of  ten 
words.  The  species  is  confined  to  the  Southeastern  states 
and  is  not  overly  common  in  collections.  Until  recently 
the  name  viduatus  has  been  commonly  and  erroneously 
applied  to  the  hivittatus  of  Say. 

1808.  Olivier — Entomologie,  VI,  p.  810,  820 — describes  femora- 
tus  and  puhescens.  The  former  is  one  of  the  numerous 
mottled  species,  and  the  description  is  insufficient  for  posi- 
tive identification.  I  have  followed  LeConte's  interpreta- 
tion, which  I  believe  to  be  correct.  Puhescens  is  a  well 
known  species  which  has  been  more  often  alluded  to  under 
Haldeman's  name  morosa. 

1824.  Say— Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  III.  pp.  436-440— 
describes  abdominalis,  hivittatus,  nigricornis  and  Jemoratus. 
The  last  named  is  a  synonym  of  luridus  Fab.  Hivittatus 
is  a  well  known  species  which  has  passed  as  viduatus  Fab. 
LeConte  seems  to  have  properly  identified  ahdominalis, 
but  both  this  and  nigricornis  have  remained  unknown  to 
most  American  entomologists. 

1824.  LeConte  (Major)— Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  I,  p.  173— 
describes  subfasciatus.     A  well  known  species. 

1824.  Germar— Ins.  Sp.,  p.  560— describes  picturatus.  Our 
interpretation  of  this  species  is  not  entirely  certain;  it  is  of 
rare  occurrence. 

i[It  is  the  author's  wish  that  the  cmend(><l  form  of  the  '^merk  name  be 
used,  but  it  is  done  contrary  to  the  judgment  and  practice  of  the  Publication 
Committee  of  the  Society.     Ed.] 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 

J 


296  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

1825.     Say — Amer,    Ent.,    II,    PI.   28 — othonus;    common,   and 

familiar  to  all  collectors. 
1838.     Randall — Boston  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.,  II,  p.  46 — describes 

marginaticollis.     A  synonym  of  othonus  Say. 

1840.  Newman — Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  IV,  p.  250 — describes  limba- 
tus.  This  name  is  preoccupied  by  Menetries  (1836)  for  a 
species  from  Asia  Minor;  discoideus  Bowditch  (1909)  replaces 
it. 

1841.  Newman — Entomologist,  p.  78 — describes  sparsiis  which 
has  been  declared  to  be  the  same  as  femoratus  Oliv. 

1843.  Mannerheim — Bull.  Mosc,  II,  p.  311 — describes  sig- 
iiatijrons.  The  first  species  from  the  Pacific  coast  to  receive 
a  name. 

1847.  Melsheimer— Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  Ill,  pp.  170- 
172 — describes  in  the  following  order — m-nigrum,  atomarius, 
trinotatus,  aesculi,  pectoralis,  hepaticus,  tridens,  flavicornis. 
Of  these,  aesculi  and  flavicornis  are  slight  varieties  of  luridus 
and  tridens  respectively.  The  others  are  all  more  or  less 
common  in  the  North  Atlantic  Coast  region,  though  atoma- 
rius and  pectoralis  are  usually  wrongly  identified  in  collec- 
tions. 

1849.  Haldeman — Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  2d  Series,  I,  pp. 
257-263 — describes  punctatus  (^hepaticus  Melsh.),  morosus 
(  =  pubescens  Oliv.),  carhonarius,  infaustus  (  =  atomarius 
Melsh.),  sohrinus  and  mollis  {  =  tridens  Melsh.). 

1853.  Suffrian — Linn.  Ent.,  VII — describes  a  large  number  of 
species  from  the  United  States,  Mexico  and  the  West  Indies. 
Many  of  these  have  remained  unknown  to  American  stu- 
dents, but  the  recent  loan  to  Mr.  Bowditch  and  myself  of 
certain  types  from  the  Suffrian  collection  has  enabled  us  to 
clear  up  much  of  this  uncertainty.  I  give  below  in  the  order 
of  their  description  the  species  occurring  (so  far  as  known) 
in  our  fauna,  with  some  notes  as  to  our  present  knowledge 
of  them. 
haematodes.     Described  from  Mexico,  but  known  to  us  from 

the  states  along  the  Mexican  border. 
pulvinatus.     Identified  with  certainty  from  a  type  sent  by 

Dr.  Taschenberg  of  Halle. 
varicolor.     Determined  by  comparison  with  specimens  sent 


H.    C.    FALL  297 

me  from  the  British  Museum  Collection,  identified  by 
Jacoby  who  had  seen  Suffrian's  type.  Renidens  Lee. 
and  laevicollis  Bowd.  are  not  distinct  from  these  Jacobyan 
specimens. 

dilatatus.  Confused  with  siibfasciatiis  in  all  American  col- 
lections. A  type  recently  sent  me  by  Dr.  Taschenberg 
enables  me  to  fix  the  species  with  certainty;  it  is  thus 
far  very  rare  in  collections. 

bajulus.  Identified  from  specimens  sent  me  by  Mr.  Cahan 
from  the  British  Museum  Collection  and  determined  by 
Jacoby  from  Suffrian's  type. 

charaderisticus.     Recently  identified  from  Suffrian  type. 

oculatus.  A  type  sent  to  Bowditch  seems  not  to  be  separable 
from  sobjinus  Hald. 

spumarius.  A  male  type  from  the  Suffrian  Collection  was 
sent  to  Bowditch,  and  lately  a  female  type  to  me.  An 
interval  of  six  years  has  dulled  my  remembrance  of  the 
former  and  I  do  not  feel  sure  that  the  two  are  identical. 
I  am  Inising  the  species  on  the  female  type  but  I  feel  that 
there  is  still  some  uncertainty  here. 

wipurus.     Identity  established  from  type. 

melanostictus.     Identity  established  from  type. 

peccans.     Identity  established  from  type. 

xanthias.     Identity  established  from  type. 

obsoletus.  Of  this  we  have  seen  no  type,  and  my  interpre- 
tation is  open  to  doubt.  As  I  have  identified  it,  this  is 
the  species  which  Haldeman  erroneously  took  for  the 
tridens  of  Melsheimer. 

conformis.  Identity  not  established  with  certainty.  I 
have  accepted  as  this  species  an  example  so  labeled  in  the 
LeConte  Collection. 

umhraculatus.  Specimens  from  our  Mexican  Ijorder  states 
are  identical  with  Mexican  examples  in  the  National 
Museum  Collection  so  labeled  ))y  Schwarz.  Others  from 
the  British  Museum  identified  as  umbracidatus  by  Jacoby 
appear  to  be  a  nearly  immaculate  form  of  the  same  thing. 

litigiosus.     Well  known  for  many  years,  though  the  name 

has  been  somewhat  promiscuously  applied  in  collections. 

1858.     Suffrian— Linn.   Ent.   XU,   pp.  401,  404,  406— describes 

the  following: 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


298  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

luctuosus.     Identity  established  with  reasonable  certainty 

from  type. 
albescens.     A  type  from  the  Suffrian  Collection  shows  this 

to  be  the  same  as  hivittatus  Say. 
pallidipennis.     Identity  established  from  type. 
1858.     LeConte — Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Soc.  Phila.,  p.  84 — describes 

livens  and  caelatus. 
1861.     LeConte — Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  p.  357 — describes 
analis. 

1873.  Crotch— Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  p.  32— describes 
xanti. 

1874.  Crotch— Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  V,  pp.  78-79— describes 
donneri  and  circumcinctus.  Crotch's  types  are  in  the  Le- 
Conte Collection. 

1880.  LeConte— Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc,  VIII,  p.  205-209— 
makes  the  first  attempt  at  a  tabulation  of  our  species. 
Only  29  are  thus  treated,  the  remaining  20  or  more  being 
listed  at  the  end  as  too  indefinite  for  tabulation.  The  fol- 
lowing new  species  are  made  known: 

striatus  {  =  pallidipemiis  Suffr.),  virgatus,  dubiosus,  cruentus, 
lustrans,  renidens  {  =  umbraculatus  Suffr.),  subvittatus, 
iurhidus  and  hrevicollis. 

1880.  Jacoby — Biologia  Centr.-Amer.,  Coleoptera,  VI,  Part  I, 
p.  72 — describes  laticolUs  from  Mexico.  Of  this  species,  first 
recognized  by  Bowditch  from  Brownsville,  Tex.,  I  have  seen 
typical  examples,  sent  me  by  Mr.  Gahan. 

1889.  Jacoby — Biol.  Centr.-Amer.,  Coleop.,  Part  VI,  Suppl., 
pp.  136  to  151 — describes  from  Mexico — thoracicus,  marmo- 
ratus,  immaculatus,  and  sonorensis.  Thoracicus  is  at  once 
recognizable  from  Jacoby 's  figure;  the  other  identifications 
are  due  to  Bowditch. 

1909.  Bowditch— Canadian  Entomologist,  XLI,  pp.  237-244, 
285-292,  312-324— describes  a  large  number  of  North 
American  and  a  few  Mexican  species.  The  following  are 
those  from  our  territory,  listed  in  order  of  description: 

brunneus  jacohyi  minor 

wickhami  mellitus  lodingi 

discoideus  coloradensis  marginipennis 

marginatus  densus  punctatus 


H.    C.    FALL 

arizonensis 

nuhilus 

texanus 

signatus 

longus 

pusilliis 

sanrita 

proximus 

rotundicollis 

snowi 

truncatus 

atomus 

crassus 

nero 

C07lfuSUS 

cylindricus 

sevier 

varians 

tumidus 

laevis 

croftus 
laevicoUis 

299 


Of  these  I  have  seen  types,  cotypes  or  topotypes  of  all 
except  discoideus,  which  is  represented  solely  l)y  tho  unique 
type  in  the  Snow  Collection.  From  the  description  I  am 
quite  positive  it  is  only  a  slight  variant  of  what  we  have 
long  known  as  Uruhatus  Newm.,  but  as  Xewman's  name  is 
preoccupied  by  Menetries  (1836),  discoideus  becomes  the 
name  of  the  species.  Sevier  also  seems  to  be  not  distinct 
from  curolinensis;  atottuis  is  in  my  opinion  a  form  of  atoma- 
rius;  rotundicollis  I  believe  to  be  the  true  abdominalis  of 
Say;  and  laevicoUis  is  nearly  typical  renidens  Lee.  which  in 
turn  is  not  separable  from  the  older  varicolor  of  Suffrian. 

1910.  Bowditch— Can.  Ent.,  XLII,  pp.  53-56— describes  notatus, 
carolinensis  and  shasta.  Of  these  the  unique  type  of  notatus 
is  in  the  Snow  Collection  and  the  species  is  unknown  to  me. 
Shasta  is  a  maculate  form  of  punctatus  Bowd. 

1910.  Blatchley— Coleoptera  of  Indiana  pp.  1127.  1130— de- 
scribes elegans  and  sticticus.  The  former  name  is  preoccu- 
pied by  Graells— Mem.  Acad.  Madrid,  1851,  p.  153— and  the 
species  has  been  renamed  praeclarus  by  Weise  ( Wien.  Ent. 
Zeit.,  1913,  p.  219).  Sticticus,  I  am  convinced,  is  the  same 
as  sobrinus  Hald. 

Generic  Affinities 

The  only  genera  of  the  Cryptocephalini  with  which  Pachybra- 
chys  might  by  any  possibility  be  confused  are  Crypiocephalus  and 
Griburius.^  Of  these,  Cryptocephalus  is  separable  with  certainty 
by  a  number  of  structural  differences;  Pachybrachys  and  Gribu- 
riiis  are,  however,  very  closely  allied,  and  while  the  latter,  by 
its  comparatively  large  size,  very  robust  body  and  regular  series 

2  The  use  of  the  name  Scolochrus  Suffr.  in  place  of  the  older  Grihurius  Hald. 
by  European  author-s  is  entirely  unwarranted. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


300  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

of  elytral  punctures  possesses  quite  a  distinct  facies,  there  are 
really  scarcely  any  constant  taxonomic  characters  by  which  they 
maj^  be  separated.  The  prosternal  character  given  in  the  Le- 
Conte  &  Horn  Classification  is  not  constant,  and  that  given  by 
Suffrian — ''prosternum  sulcate"  in  Pachybrachys  and  "feebly 
longitudinally  tumid  at  middle  in  Grihurius"  is  open  to  the  same 
criticism.  In  the  rather  slender  material  in  Grihnrius  in  my  own 
collection,  including  five  native  species,  I  note  that  the  tibiae  are 
completelj'-  unarmed  at  tip  in  the  males  of  all  species,  and  in 
both  sexes  of  some.  Whether  or  not  this  holds  true  in  the  numer- 
ous Mexican  species  I  know  not,  but  the  character  may  be  useful 
in  our  own  fauna  at  least.  The  following  table  presents  the 
characters  observed  for  separating  the  three  genera  in  question. 

Prothorax  not  margined  at  base,  the  edge  finely  crenulate;  anterior  margin  of 
prosternum  prominent  at  middle,  the  intercoxal  process  impresso-emarginate 
at  tip  with  more  or  less  sharply  prominent  angles;  front  thighs  not  incrassate, 
tibiae  without  terminal  spurs.  Cryptocephalus 

Prothorax  margined  at  base,  the  edge  not  crenulate ;  anterior  margin  of  proster- 
num sinuate  at  middle,  intercoxal  process  not  emarginate  at  tip ;  front  thighs 
incrassate  (except  hepaticus  group). 

Prosternum  often  flat  or  feebly  tumid  along  the  median  line,  intercoxal 
process  longer,  cordate  pointed,  the  angle  narrowly  rounded;  all  tibiae 
unarmed  in   the    c?-  Griburius 

Prosternum  sulcate,  intercoxal  process  less  produced,  the  apex  more  ob- 
tusely but  more  sharply  angulate;  middle  tibiae  with  terminal  spur  in  both 
sexes  (except  hepaticus  group).  Pachybrachys 

Review  of  Structural  Characters  Useful  in  Taxonomy 

In  order  to  avoid  a  considerable  amount  of  circumlocution  and 
useless  repetition  in  the  systematic  part  of  the  work,  it  will  be 
profitable  before  proceeding  to  the  tables  and  specific  descrip- 
tions to  pass  in  review  the  various  parts  of  the  body,  pointing  out 
those  characters  which  are  of  value  in  the  separation  of  species, 
as  well  as  those  which  from  their  universality  or  individual 
variability  are  of  little  use  in  this  respect,  and  may  therefore  in 
great  part  be  omitted  from  the  descriptions. 

General  form. — The  form  of  body  throughout  the  genus  does 
not  vary  greatly  and  may  be  dcs('ril)ed  as  short,  compact,  sub- 
cylindrical.  The  ratio  of  length  to  width  averages  about  100  to 
56,  varying,  according  to  measurements  made,  from  100  to  48 
in  a  particularly  slender  male  of  sobrinus,  to  100  to  63  in  an 


H.    C.    FALL  301 

especially  robust  xanti.  Unless  the  form  is  either  exceptionallj' 
elongate  or  robust,  no  mention  will  be  made  of  it  in  the  descrip- 
tions. 

Head. — The  head  is  relatively  larger  and  less  deeply  inserted 
in  the  prothorax  than  in  Cryptocephalus,  always  visible  from 
above,  varying  in  width  from  slightly  more  than  half  that  of  the 
prothorax  to  very  nearly  that  of  the  latter,  the  extremes  being 
represented  in  but  very  few  species.  In  a  large  majority  of 
species  the  eyes  are  not  appreciably  more  prominent  than  the 
anterior  thoracic  angles,  or  in  other  words,  a  line  continuing 
the  side  margins  of  the  prothorax  at  the  front  angles  would  pass 
tangent  to  the  eyes  or  very  nearly  so.  In  a  small  number  of 
species  the  eyes  are  distinctly  more  prominent  and  would  be  in- 
tersected by  the  produced  side  margins  of  the  prothorax.  These 
differences  are  covered  in  the  descriptions  by  such  expressions  as 
"head  not  wider  than  the  thoracic  apex,"  or  "eyes  more  promi- 
nent than  the  thoracic  angles."  The  front  is  nearly  flat  or  broadly 
feebly  convex  in  all  species,  the  median  line  more  or  less  impressed, 
especially  toward  the  vertex.  The  punctuation  is  uniform 
throughout  in  a  few  species,  but  as  a  rule  is  denser  on  the  vertex, 
in  and  adjacent  to  the  median  line,  and  about  the  base  of  the 
antennae.  As  the  punctures  are  nearly  always  of  some  shade  of 
brown  or  blackish,  it  follows  naturally  that  the  more  densely  punc- 
tate areas  are  darker  in  color,  and  in  fact  determine  the  position 
of  what  are  called  in  the  descriptions  the  standard  markings. 
As  a  corollary  of  this  proposition  it  follows  that  the  uniformly 
punctate  head  is  unicolorous,  but  it  should  be  remarked  that  the 
converse  of  this  is  not  necessarily  true. 

Ocular  lines. — In  all  species  there  is  a  more  or  less  distinct 
impressed  line  around  and  contiguous  to  the  upper  margin  of  the 
eye.  This  impressed  line,  in  the  majority  of  species,  continues 
strictly  marginal  around  the  upper  lobe  of  the  eye  and  ])ccomes 
gradually  evanescent  in  the  emargination;  but  in  many  species 
the  groove  around  the  upper  margin  diverges  more  or  less  from 
the  eye  and  is  continued  on  the  front  between  the  upper  lobes  as 
an  impressed  line  of  punctures  gradually  disappearing  inferiorly. 
These  two  conditions  are  indicated  in  the  descriptions  l)y  the 
expressions  "front  with  (or  without)  ocular  lines,"  or  more 
briefly  "ocular  lines  present" — "or  wanting."     This  character, 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


302  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

though  seemingly  trivial,  is  unusually  constant,  seldom  difficult 
to  interpret,  and  of  great  value  in  the  tabulation  of  the  species. 

Eyes. — The  eyes  vary  greatly  specificallj^  in  size  and  degree  of 
approximation  and  are  therefore  of  very  great  aid  in  classification. 
In  order  to  make  full  use  of  them,  however,  it  is  necessary  to 
express  their  distance  asunder  more  exactly  than  by  the  terms 
"near"  or  "remote"  as  hitherto,  and  I  have  for  this  purpose 
chosen  as  a  standard  of  comparison  either  the  length  of  the  basal 
joint  of  the  antennae,  or  the  vertical  width  of  the  upper  lobe  of 
the  eye.  In  the  greater  number  of  species  the  eyes  in  the  male 
are  separated  by  a  distance  from  one  to  two  times  the  length  of 
the  basal  antennal  joint.  If  the  distance  be  less  than  the  length 
of  the  basal  joint  the  eyes  may  properly  be  called  near,  and  if 
greater  than  twice  the  length  of  this  joint  they  may  be  called 
remote;  these  terms,  however,  are  not  much  used  in  the  following 
descriptions.  It  should  be  remembered  that  since  the  width  of 
the  front  between  the  eyes  is  measured  in  terms  of  the  length  of 
the  basal  antennal  joint  of  the  insect  itself,  and  since  the  length 
of  this  joint  is  often  somewhat  greater  in  the  male  than  in  the 
female,  the  results  cannot  be  directly  compared. 

Antennae. — These  organs  are  remarkably  uniform  in  structure, 
and  aside  from  some  variation  in  length  and  thickness  offer  very 
little  in  the  way  of  specific  differences.  In  the  aberrant  mic- 
rops  the  antennae  are  sensibly  thickened  externally,  but  in  all 
other  species  they  are  virtually  filiform.  The  first  joint  is 
always  stouter,  more  or  less  broadly  oval;  the  second  somewhat 
similar  in  form  but  much  smaller;  third  more  slender  and  longer 
than  the  second,  gradually  wider  apically;  the  next  two  or  three 
similar  but  increasing  in  length,  the  outer  five  or  six  subequal  in 
length,  the  tenth  usually  visibly  shorter;  the  eleventh  appendicu- 
late.  In  hepaticus  and  microps  these  organs  are  scarcely  half 
as  long  as  the  body  in  the  male,  while  in  males  of  Ivridus,  trinota- 
tus,  nuhilus  and  several  others  they  are  nearly  or  quite  as  long 
as  the  body.  In  the  great  majority  of  species  the  antennae  are 
about  three-fourths  the  length  of  the  body  in  the  male,  the 
length — with  very  few  exceptions — being  somewhat  shorter  in 
the  female.  In  the  descriptions  following,  the  length  in  terms  of 
the  body  is  usually  given,  and  frequently  the  length  of  the  tenth 
joint  in  terms  of  the  width,  this  ratio  being  a  fair  index  of  the 


H.    C.    FALL  303 

degree  of  slenderness  of  the  organ.     Other  details  would  be  of 
little  use  and  largely  a  matter  of  repetition. 

Prothorax. — The  form  of  the  prothorax  varies  somewhat  but 
is  not  of  much  use  in  the  separation  of  species.  It  is  more  or 
less  wider  than  long  in  all  species,  and  is  nearly  always  distinctly 
widened  posteriorly,  but  in  a  few  species,  e.  g.,  quadratus,  the 
base  is  scarcely  wider  than  the  apex.  There  is  a  definite  basic 
color  scheme  which  will  be  alluded  to  below,  and  it  may  be  said 
here  as  of  the  head,  that  the  darker  areas  arc  more  closely  punc- 
tate. The  density  and  coarseness  of  punctuation  naturally 
varies  consideraljly  in  so  large  a  genus,  but  in  only  one  respect 
have  I  found  it  signally  useful  in  tabulating  the  species.  In  a 
large  majority  of  species  the  punctuation  becomes  distinctly 
sparser  or  almost  disappears  along  the  side  margins,  ))ut  in  quite 
a  number  of  forms  the  surface  is  nearly  equally  densely  punctured 
to  the  extreme  margins. 

Elytra. — The  only  important  characters  drawn  from  tlie  elytra 
aside  from  the  markings  are  those  of  punctuation.  In  the  most 
completely  striate  forms,  of  which  pdUidipennis  is  the  best 
example,  there  are  a  sutural,  marginal  and  eight  discal  striae  on 
each  elytron.  The  sutural  stria  diverges  oljliquely  from  the 
suture  anteriorly  and  within  it  in  the  scutellar  region  arc  one  or 
two  short  lines  of  punctures  which  are,  however,  in  most  species 
quite  irregular  or  completely  confused.  In  the  following  descrip- 
tions the  discal  striae  only  are  nundDcred,  that  next  to  the  sutural 
being  called  the  first,  and  the  one  next  within  the  marginal  the 
eighth  or  submarginal  stria.  From  the  completely  striate  paUidi- 
pennis  to  the  entirely  confusedly  punctate  microps  there  is  every 
intermediate  stage  of  regularity  or  irregularity  of  strial  develop- 
ment. In  the  vast  majority  of  species  the  striae  are,  in  part  at 
least,  more  or  less  obvious,  the  eighth  being  most  persistent,  while 
fragments  at  least  of  some  of  the  others  are  visible  on  the  decliv- 
ity. The  first  discal  stiia  diverges  from  the  suture  anteriorly 
as  does  the  sutural  one,  and  both  arc  often  lost  in  the  confused 
punctuation  of  what  I  have  called  the  baso-sutural  region  or 
triangle.  In  very  many  species  the  first  stria  suffers  either  a 
gradual  or  an  abrupt  displacement  toward  the  suture,  at  or  al)Out 
the  middle  of  the  elytra,  enclosing  between  it  and  th(>  second 
stria  at  this  point  a  small  area  which  Mr.  Bowditch  has  called  the 

TKAXS.    AM.    KN'T.    SOC,    XLI. 


304  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

shield.  This  area  is  usually  a  little  elevated,  often  quite  small, 
and  in  many  species  suboljsolete  or  completely  wanting.  In 
the  great  bulk  of  more  or  less  obviously  striate  species,  striae 
three,  four,  seven  and  eight  are  most  likely  to  be  well  developed 
or  entire,  while  five  and  six  are  very  often  broken  or  confused  at 
and  in  front  of  the  middle,  remaining  distinct  in  their  posterior 
half.  In  most  species  there  is  a  sinuation,  displacement  or 
confusion  of  the  punctures  of  the  eighth  stria  just  behind  the 
humerus,  which  I  have  spoken  of  in  the  descriptions  as  the  sub- 
basal  interruption  of  the  eighth  stria.  A  character  of  some  value 
exists  in  the  punctuation  of  the  marginal  interspace,  this  being 
virtually  free  from  punctures  in  numerous  species,  while  in  many 
others  it  is  variablj^  punctate. 

Body  beneath. — No  characters  of  any  moment  have  been  drawn 
from  the  under  body,  the  structure,  sculpture  and  vestiture  being 
sensibly  uniform  throughout. 

Legs. — The  front  thighs  are  distinctly  incrassate  in  all  species 
except  the  aberrant  hepaticus  and  niicrops,  in  which,  moreover, 
the  tibiae  are  entirely  without  apical  spurs.  In  all  our  other 
species  the  middle  tibiae  are  armed  with  a  slender  apical  spur. 
The  front  tibiae  are  armed  with  a  somewhat  thicker  and  shorter 
spur  except  in  a  very  few  species — m-nigrum,  trinotatus  and 
pidvinatus — in  which  it  appears  to  be  wanting.  The  hind  tibiae 
are  unarmed  except  in  three  of  the  pubescent  species — viz., 
pubescens,  haematodes  and  integratus.  The  front  claws  are  in 
many  species  obviously  larger  than  those  of  the  middle  and  hind 
feet.  This  is  especially  noticeable  in  the  males,  but  is  in  these 
species  also  detectable  in  the  females.  In  many  others  there  is 
scarcely  any  difference  in  the  size  of  the  claws,  though  careful 
comparison  will  almost  always  show  the  front  ones  to  be  a  trifle 
larger. 

Vestiture.- — Some  fourteen  species  have  the  upper  as  well  as  the 
under  surface  distinctly  pubescent,  and  these  are  naturally 
tabulated  together  as  a  group.  Of  the  remaining  species,  one 
only — fortis — shows  any  appreciable  signs  of  pubescence  above. 

Color  and  Markings. — The  typical  Pachybrachys  is  of  some  shade 
of  yellow,  with  markings  of  black  or  brown,  which — following 
Bowditch — I  have  called  the  standard  spots.  These  are  as 
follows:     On  the  head,  a  vertex  spot — usually  transverse — an 


H.    C.    FALL  305 

elongate  frontal  spot,  often  connected  with  the  one  on  the  vertex 
and  usually  forked  inferiorly,  a  branch  extending  on  either  side 
to  the  antennal  fovea,  the  branches  not  infrequently  interrupted, 
leaving  an  isolated  antennal  spot.  In  a  reduction  of  the  markings 
the  antennal  spots  first  disappear,  then  the  frontal  one,  and  finally 
the  vertex  spot,  which  is  rarely  entirely  lacking.  On  the  other 
hand  all  spots  may  become  larger  and  by  suffusion  the  entire 
surface  becomes  dark,  the  entire  obliteration  of  the  pale  color 
from  the  head  being,  however,  of  rare  occurrence.  On  the  pro- 
thorax  there  are  three  standard  spots  extending  forward  from 
the  base  a  variable  distance,  the  middle  one  divided  anteriorly  and 
joining  the  lateral  ones,  forming  an  M-shaped  mark,  which  in 
descriptions  is  briefly  called  the  M.  Here  bj'  reduction  the  spots 
become  smaller  and  disconnected,  finally  disappearing  at  the 
base;  or  on  the  other  hand  they  may  become  nuicli  heavier, 
leaving  only  two  basal  spots,  a  narrow  median  anterior  line,  the 
outer  margin — wider  at  the  front  angles — and  the  anterior  mar- 
gin, pale;  or  they  may  be  irregularly  developed  and  suffused,  and 
finally  the  whole  surface  becomes  black.  On  the  elytra  the  stand- 
ard spots  are  six  in  number;  an  outer  marginal  or  submarginal 
series  of  three,  and  a  corresponding  discal  series  of  like  number. 
Not  rarely  the  spots  are  all  more  or  less  completely  isolated  or 
individually  distinct;  in  a  few  species  the  spots  of  each  series  are 
longitudinally  confluent  into  more  or  less  regular  vittae,  but  in  a 
far  greater  number  they  are  more  or  less  unequally  developed 
and  irregularly  confluent  both  longitudinally  and  transversely, 
giving  rise  to  a  mottled  appearance  difficult  to  describe,  and  often 
so  variable  within  specific  limits  that  it  can  only  be  characterized 
as  one  of  the  broadly  typical  varieties  of  the  standard  markings. 

Pygidium. — Blackish  with  a  small  marginal  pale  spot  each 
side  and  two  obliquely  oval  apical  spots  of  variable  size,  often 
confluent  with  each  other  and  with  the  small  lateral  spots.  By 
a  reduction  of  the  pale  spots  the  surface  may  become  entirely 
black,  or  by  their  extension  the  black  area  is  reduced  to  a  basal 
band  produced  backward  a  little  at  its  extremities  and  having 
a  median  cusp-like  prominence,  and  in  a  few  species  the  surface 
becomes  entirely  pale. 

Body  heloiv. — Blackish  or  brownish,  usually  with  the  epimera, 
sides  of  the  abdomen  and  last  ventral  segment  paler. 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


306  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

Appendages. — The  antennae  are  rarely  entirely  yellow  or 
entirely  black;  typically  they  are  pale  basally  with  the  first  two 
joints  more  or  less  blackish  on  the  upper  side,  and  the  outer  four 
to  six  joints  more  or  less  dusky  or  blackish.  Legs  yellow  with  the 
tarsi  dusky,  tibiae  with  a  dark  apical  or  subapical  cloud,  the 
femora  with  a  median  dark  spot  or  ring.  By  reduction  the  legs 
may  become  entirely  pale,  while  by  an  extension  of  the  dark 
marks  they  become  black  with  the  extremities  of  the  femora  and 
bases  of  the  tibiae  narrowl}^  pale — and  more  rarely  entirely 
black. 

Sexual  characters. — In  common  with  most  Coleoptera  the  males 
are,  on  the  average,  smaller  and  less  robust  than  the  females. 
The  abdomen  in  the  male  is  flat  or  more  or  less  concave  in  pro- 
file, the  last  ventral  fiat  or  broadly  feebly  impressed;  in  the 
female  the  abdomen  is  convex  beneath,  the  last  segment  with  a 
deep  rounded  fovea.  With  few  exceptions  the  antennae  are 
obviously  longer  in  the  male;  the  basal  joint  is  also  often  some- 
what larger  in  this  sex,  but  these  organs  are  not  otherwise  modi- 
fied sexually  in  our  species.^  The  terminal  joint  of  the  maxillary 
palpi  is  in  many  species  more  widely  truncate  at  apex  in  the  male; 
the  front  tibiae  are  modified  at  apex  in  two  species,  the  front 
tarsi  are  sometimes  visibly  broader,  while  the  front  claws  are 
slightly  to  c^uite  strongly  enlarged  in  numerous  species  in  this 
sex.  In  the  female  the  terminal  joint  of  the  maxillary  palpi  is 
pointed  with  the  tip  narrowly  truncate  as  a  rule,  and  the  front 
claws  are  usually  just  visibly  larger  than  those  of  the  four  posterior 
feet.  The  hind  thighs  are  in  general  more  elongate  in  the  males 
according  to  Jacob^y,  but  I  am  inclined  to  believe  this  is  more 
apparent  than  real,  the  thighs  seeming  to  be  shorter  in  the  female 
because  of  the  greater  length  of  the  ventral  surface  in  this  sex. 
As  a  result,  they  attain  the  last  segment  in  the  female,  while  they 
reach  the  abdominal  apex  in  the  male.  There  is  obvious  a 
general  tendency  to  a  broader,  more  suffused  maculation  in  the 
female,  as  well  as  a  denser  more  confused  punctuation. 

The  tabulation  of  the  grcuit  number  of  species  involved  in  this 
revision,  even  in  the  imperfect  way  in  which  it  has  been  accom- 
plished, has  proven  a  very  difficult  task.     Just  as  was  found  to  l)e 

'The  tcniiinal  joint  is  somewliat  dilated  in  the  male  of  laticolUs. 


H.    C.    FALL  307 

the  case  in  a  recent  review  of  our  species  of  Diplotaxis,  so  in 
Pachyhrachys  there  seem  to  be  ahnost  no  characters  which  afford 
the  means  of  divichng  the  genus  into  natural  groups.  As  in 
Diplotaxis,  so  here,  a  small  number  of  species — less  than  one- 
tenth  of  the  whole  number — are  separable  with  certainty  by- 
reason  of  the  pubescent  upper  surface.  Two  other  species — 
hepaficus  and  microps — are  differentiated  by  good  characters, 
but  the  great  mass  of  species  seems  incapable  of  further  reduction 
in  this  manner.  In  this  great  complex  of  species  I  have  been 
forced  to  adopt  color  as  a  basis  for  primary  grouping,  and  this 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that  color — in  its  smaller  details — 
is  the  most  variable  of  all  the  characters  used.  In  the  l)roader 
sense,  however,  it  is  quite  serviceable,  and  it  is  usuall}-  possible 
for  even  the  inexperienced  student  to  decide  whether  his  speci- 
men should  be  looked  for  among  the  black,  the  yellow,  the  vitiate 
or  the  maculate  species.  The  great  difficulty  comes  of  course  in 
the  last  named  group,  for  here  the  variation  may  be  so  great  that 
individuals  of  the  same  species  may  be  referred  to  either  the 
black,  variegated  or  yellow  groups.  This  difficulty  has  been  in 
large  measure  overcome  by  tabulating  in  more  than  one  group 
those  species  known  to  be  except ionably  variable.  It  has 
manifestly  not  been  possible  to  provide  for  all  contingencies  of 
this  sort,  and  it  would  therefore  be  well  if  the  student  doss  not 
find  his  species  in  the  group  in  which  it  would  appear  to  belong 
to  try  the  next  most  probable  group  before  giving  up  the  search. 

In  the  reading  of  the  specific  descriptions  which  follow,  it 
must  be  remembered  that  there  are  no  fixed  characters;  every- 
thing wdthout  exception  is  subject  to  individual  variation.  The 
study  is  really  a  most  difficult  one  and  the  student  nuist  not 
expect  to  be  able  at  all  times  to  identify  uniques,  expecially  if 
they  be  females.  Even  with  a  good  series  and  considerable  ex- 
perience the  problem  will  often  be  difficult  enough. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  short  diagnosis  before  the  more  detailed 
descriptions  will  prove  of  service  by  enabling  the  student  to 
very  quickly  decide  upon  the  possibility,  or  at  least  probability, 
of  that  particular  species  being  the  one  in  hantl.  The  average 
length  given  in  the  short  diagnosis  is  in  general  that  of  either  a 
large  male  or  a  small  female,  and  of  course  will  serve  only  as  a 
general  guide,  the  actual  known  limits  of  size  being  given  at  the 

TRAXS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


308  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERa) 

end  of  the  detailed  description.     Unless  otherwise  stated,  all  types 
are  in  the  author's  collection. 

Table  of  Groups 
Front  thighs  not  at  all  stouter;  tibiae  completely  unarmed;  eyes 

very  small  and  remote Group  F 

Front  thighs  always  thickened;  middle  tibiae  always,  and  front 
tibiae  except  very  rarely,  with  terminal  spur;  eyes  large  and 
less  remote. 

Upper  surface  distinctly  pubescent Group  A 

Upper  surface  glabrous  or  virtually  so. 

Species  wholly  or  in  great  part  yellow  or  testaceous,  the 
legs  never  entirely  black;  thoracic  M  not  sharply  defined 
(except  palUdipennis)  though  often  faintly  or  vaguely 
indicated  by  diffuse  brownish  clouds;  punctures  usually 
of  some  shade  of  brown;  elytra  with  rare  exceptions  with- 
out dorsal  cloud  or  traces  of  standard  spots.  .  .  .Group  B 
Species  yellow  or  testaceous  with  black  or  brown  markings 
representing  the  standard  spots,  the  markings  varying 
greatly  in  development,  both  by  reduction  and  extension, 
and  often  irregularly  confluent  or  confusedly  mottled. 

Group  C 

Species  having  the  elytra  more  or  less  distinctly  vittate. 

Group  D 

Species  wholly  or  in  great  part  black,  the  pale  areas  gener- 
ally few  and  small,  but  in  a  few  species  more  extensive 
and  definitely  arranged Group  E 

Table   of  Species 

Group  A 
Pubescent  species 
The  group  character  possessed  by  all  the  species  here  included, 
is  so  definite  as  to  need  no  elucidation.  In  only  one  species 
(fortis)  of  the  following  groups  have  I  observed  any  appreciable 
pubescence  on  the  upper  surface,  and  there  it  is  so  sparse  and 
inconspicuous  as  to  easily  escape  notice. 

1.  Hind  tibiae  without  terminal  spin- 2 

Hind  tibiae  with  slender  terminal  .spur. 

Elytral  punctuation  completely  confused,  ej^es  widely  distant. 


H.    C.    FALL  309 

Sides  of  prothorax  less  rounded,  pubescence  shorter  and  less  con- 
spicuous, color  entirely  black 1.  pubescens 

Sides  of  prothorax  more  rounded  posteriorly,  pubescence  longer  and 
more  conspicuous,  color  black,  frequently  with  diffuse  rufous  mark- 
ings  2.  haematodes 

Elyt.ral  punctuation  in  part  serially  arranged;  color  yellowish  with  broad 
diffuse  brown  or  fuscous  markings;  eyes  ahnost  in  contact  in  the  a^. 

o.  integratus 

2.  Eyes  contiguous  in  cf •").  vigilans 

Eyes  not  in  contact. 

Pubescence  unusually  dense,  obscuring  or  nearly  concealing  t  he  sculpture 
of  the  head  or  prothorax  or  both. 

Head  not  much  narrower  than  the  prothorax;  black,  cl\H:i  with 

fulvous  markings ti.  wickhami 

Head  much  narrower  than  the  prothorax;  black,  ])r()thorax  red  in 

posterior  thiixl  or  fourth 7.  thoracicus 

Pubescence  much  sparser,  not  conceahng  the  scidjjture 3 

3.  Prothorax  without  trace  of  median  smooth  line 4 

Prothorax  with  narrow-  entire  or  subentire  smooth  median  line. 

Prothorax  with  sides  more  rounded,  not  or  scarcely  wider  at  base  than 
at  basal  third. 

Black,  side  margins  of  prothorax  and  humeral  and  apical  margins 
of  elytra  yellow,  the  disk  also  frequently  with  pale  markings;  more 

rarely  in  great  part  pale S.  analis 

Rufo-testaceous  with  faint  rufous  or  livid  clouds,  which  are  rarely 
more  pronounced;  eyes  as  a  rule  less  widely  separated .  .9.  desertus 
Prothorax  conical,  widest  at  base,  sides  less  rounded. 

Rufo-testaceous,  the  prothoracic  M  faintly  indicated  by  brownish 
shades,  interstitial  punctures  of  the  elj-tra  coarser  and  n.ore  muiier- 

ous;  form  stouter  as  a  rule 10.  xanti 

Fulvo-testaceous,  prothoracic  M  black  and  sharply  outlined,  rarely 
fainter;  elytra  either  entirely  yellow  or  with  blackish  markings 
which  vary  much  in  extent  and  intensity,  interstitial  punctures  finer 
and  less  numerous;  form  a  little  less  robust  as  a  rule. 

11.  marmoratus 

4.  Surface  pohshed  throughout;  rufo-testaceous,  elytra  with  subsutural  and 

marginal  black  stripes,  which  are  connected  narrowly  along  the  base  and 

more  broadlj-  along  the  declivity ■!•  connesrus 

Surface  alutaceous  and  more  or  less  strongly  opaque. 

Testaceous,  with  faint  diffuse  darker  shades,  the  latter  sometimes  more 
pronounced  and  occasionally  involving  the  entire  disk  of  both  thorax 
and  elji^ra  except  a  narrow  pale  external  margin;  eyes  in  the  d^  sepa- 
rated by  about  I5  times  the  length  of  the  basal  antennal  joint. 

14.  brunneus 

Black,  side  margin  of  jirothorax  and  occasionally  of  the  elytra,  csix'cially 

at  the  humeri,  pale,  disk  rarely  feebly  and  obscvu-ely  varied  with  i)ale; 

eyes  in  the  cf   separated  by  much  more  than  twice  the  lengtii  of  the 

TRANS.    AM.    ENT.    SOC,    XLI. 


310  AMERICAN    PACHYBRACHYS    (cOLEOPTERA) 

basal  antennal  joint,  their  distance  asunder  nearly  equalling  the  verti- 
cal length  of  the  eye 12.  donneri 

Color  similar  to  donneri,  except  that  the  discal  pale  markings  are  more 
conspicuous;  eyes  in  the  cf  separated  by  twice  the  length  of  the  basal 
antennal  joint,  the  distance  obviously  less  than  the  vertical  length  of  the 
eye;  prothoracic  punctuation  finer 13.  uteanus 

Group  B 
(Starred  species  (*)  are  tabulated  in  more  than  one  group.) 
This  group  includes  those  species  which  are — so  far  as  our 
experience  goes — normally  almost  entirely  yellow  or  testaceous, 
at  least  so  far  as  the  elytra  are  concerned.  In  diversus  and 
petronius  the  elytra  are  sometimes  more  or  less  suffused  with 
brown  along  the  suture,  but  seemingly  always  without  lateral